Western South Dakota

Arikara Post (1) | Arikara Post (2) | Fort Bartlett | Fort Bennett (1) | Fort Bennett (2)
Black Hills Posts | Fort Buckingham | Camp Burt | Fort Cedar (2)
Cherry Creek Post | Camp Cheyenne | Post at Cheyenne River Agency | Fort Choteau
Fort Pierre Choteau | Camp Collier | Fort Collins | Camp Crook (1) | Camp Crook (2)
Camp Crook (3) | Camp Crook (4) | Custer Stockade | Fort Defiance (2)
Forks of Cheyenne Post | French House | Fort Galpin | Galpin's Camp | Fort George
Gordon Stockade | Post at Grand River Agency | Camp Harney | Hollywood Post
Fort LaFramboise (1) | Fort LaFramboise (2) | Little Cheyenne Post | Fort Manuel (1)
Fort Meade | Moreau River Post | Camp at Mouth of Red Canyon | Oglala Post
Oncpapa Post | Papin House | Fort Pierre (1) | Fort Pierre (2) | New Fort Pierre | Fort Primeau
Camp Rains | Camp Rapid | Rapid City Blockhouse | Rapid City Stockade | Rapid Creek Post
Camp Reynolds | Post at Rosebud Agency | Camp Ruhlen | Sarpy's Post | Spanish Post
Spearfish Stockade | Camp Stanton | Camp Sturgis | Camp Success | Fort Sully (1)
Fort Sully (2) | Tabeau's Post | Fort Tecumseh | Camp Terry | Fort Teton (1)
Fort Teton (2) | Teton Post | Fort Union | Valle's Post | Camp Warren (1)
Camp Warren (2) | Camp Whittelsey

Eastern South Dakota - page 1



Last Update: 31/JANUARY/2009
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2009 American Forts Network

Fort Manuel (Lisa) (1)
(1812 - 1813), near Kenel
A St. Louis Missouri Fur Co. trading post. Also known as Arikara Post (1). Sakakawea (or Sacagawea) died here in December 1812. Her monument is near Mobridge. The post was abandoned after attacks by Indians and the deaths of 15 of the traders, then was burned. Lisa then moved the post downstream to the "Big Bend" (near Lower Brule). Actual site is now underwater. A reconstruction was built in the 1930's by the C.C.C., but was later found to be in the inundation zone of the new Oahe Reservoir. A new reconstruction was built in 2000.

Arikara Post (2)
(1830's), near Kenel
The American Fur Co. had a trading post in the vicinity of the Arikara villages.

Pierre Antoine Tabeau's Post
(1803 ? - 1804), near Mobridge
An independent fur trading post located about 10 miles north of town in Campbell County. The site is now underwater. Lewis and Clark stopped here in 1804. Tabeau abandoned the post not long thereafter.

Post at Grand River Indian Agency
(1870 - 1875), near Wakpala
A Federal post at the Missouri and Grand Rivers. Periodic flooding forced the transfer of the Indian Agency and the garrison to Fort Yates in North Dakota. The site is now underwater.

Spanish Trading Post
(1794 or 1795), near Mobridge
A Spanish-flagged post is shown on a 1795 Spanish map, near the mouth of the Grand River at the Arikara Indian villages. It could indicate the presence of St. Louis trader Jean Baptiste Truteau's camp in the spring of 1795, or the presence of St. Louis trader Jacques D'Eglise's camp in the fall of 1794.

Moreau River Post
(1830 - 1856 ?), Dewey County
An American Fur Co. trading post, an outpost of Fort Tecumseh, located just north of the mouth of the Moreau River. Frederick Laboue operated the post in 1830, which may have also been known as Oncpapa Post. Charles Galpin operated the post in 1854.

Fort Bennett (2)
(1870 - 1891), near Mission Ridge
A Federal semi-stockaded post once located across the Missouri River and seven miles upriver from the Fort Sully (2) site, near Agency Creek. It was originally Post at Cheyenne (River) Indian Agency until 1878. The post was moved three times due to river flooding, each site within 300 yards of each other. Some foundational remnants are visible during periods of low water in the Oahe Reservoir.

Fort Sully (2)
(Fort Sully Game Refuge)
(1866 - 1894), Sully County
The garrison of Fort Sully (1) was moved in 1866 to a new location about 20 miles below the mouth of the Cheyenne River, now within the present-day Fort Sully Game Refuge. A stone monument was placed at the site in 1929, but was relocated to the Sully County Courthouse in Onida in 1962. The post was originally stockaded, but soon expanded beyond. The actual fort site was inundated by Lake Oahe in 1968. The dam was built beginning in 1948. The former post hospital still existed into the 1980's, repurposed as a granary on a private ranch in the Okobojo Creek valley (no longer standing).

Fort Cedar (2)
(1856), Sully County
An Army post located 28 miles north of Pierre on the east bank of the Missouri River.

Fort (Charles) Primeau
(c. 1860), near Fort Pierre
A temporary trading post operated by the La Barge, Harkness and Co. during the late 1850's or early 1860's. Located one mile north of the Oahe Dam in Stanley County, the site is now underwater.

Fort (Frank) LaFramboise (2)
(1862 - 1863), near Fort Pierre
A short-lived trading post operated by the La Barge, Harkness and Co. in competition with Fort Pierre (2). The site is on the western side of the Oahe Dam.

Fort Galpin
(1857 - 1859), Fort Pierre
An American Fur Co. 125-foot square stockaded post three miles above Fort Pierre (1). Replaced by Fort Pierre (2).

Charles Galpin previously had a temporary trading camp (Galpin's Camp) located 14 miles northwest of here near Chantier Creek, used in the winters of 1855-56 and 1856-57 after Fort Pierre (1) was sold to the U.S. Army.

Fort Pierre (2)
(1859 - 1863), Fort Pierre
An American Fur Co. trading post that replaced Fort Galpin, located one-half mile below the latter fort. Also called New Fort Pierre. Site is not marked. In 1863 the post was moved to Farm Island next to the Army's Fort Sully (1).

Fort Pierre (1)
(Fort Chouteau Park)
(1831 - 1857), Fort Pierre
A Bernard Pratt and Co. stockaded fur trade post located on the west side of the Missouri River about three miles above the mouth of the Bad (Teton) River, originally called Fort Pierre Chouteau or simply Fort Chouteau, and built to replace Fort Tecumseh. It was renamed in 1833. The Army purchased the fort in 1855 and renamed it Fort Bennett (1). It was soon abandoned, and some materials were salvaged for the construction of Fort Randall. This was the state's first permanent white settlement. A stone monument was erected in 1930, and the park was later developed around it, located north of town on Fort Chouteau Road, off of SD 1806. Artifacts from the fort are on display at the South Dakota Cultural Heritage Center at 900 Governors Drive in Pierre.

Fort (Joseph) LaFramboise (1)
(1817 - 1820, 1822 - 1832), Fort Pierre
A fortified trading post at the mouth of the Bad (Teton) River, also known as Fort Teton (1) or French House. After it was abandoned in 1820 due to constant flooding, the Columbia Fur Co. rebuilt the post nearby in 1822 and renamed it Fort Tecumseh. It was sold to the American Fur Co. in 1827 and discontinued when Fort Pierre (1) took over operations. Site is on US 83 about 300 yards south of the junction with US 14.

The Sublette and Campbell Co. built a post or trading house (name ?) adjacent to (south of) the Fort Tecumseh site in 1833 to compete with Fort Pierre (1). It was sold to the American Fur Company in 1834 and closed.

Fort Teton (2)
(1828 - 1830), Fort Pierre
A trading post operated by Pierre D. Papin and Co., also known as Papin House or Teton Post, located south of Fort Pierre (1). Taken over by the American Fur Co. in 1830 and moved to Fort Tecumseh.

Fort Sully (1)
(Farm Island State Recreation Area)
(1863 - 1866), near Pierre
A Federal stockaded fort previously named Fort Bartlett until 1864. The original site is at the park's visitor center (Lewis and Clark Family Center) (admission fee), marked by a small stone monument. A state marker is located on SD 34 south of the park. The garrison was moved in 1866 to a new location 25 miles northwest of Pierre near Lake Oahe, due to unhealthful conditions (see Fort Sully (2) above).

The American Fur Company's Fort Pierre (2) (see above) was also relocated here in 1863.

Fort George
(1842 - 1845), near Canning
A stockaded fur trade post with two blockhouses, operated by the Fox, Livingston and Co., aka the Union Fur Co.. Located 20 miles below Fort Pierre (1). Indians hired by rival traders burned the post down.

Post at Rosebud Indian Agency
(1878 - 1891), Rosebud
The Spotted Tail Indian Agency was relocated here from Nebraska and renamed. Brulé Sioux Chief Spotted Tail was killed here by another Indian in 1881, and is buried in the post cemetery. Rifle pits (1890) still remain on Soldier Hill.

Hollywood Post
(1830 - unknown), Haakon County ?
An American Fur Co. trading post, a subpost of Fort Tecumseh, located on the Teton (Bad) River, about two days' journey from Fort Tecumseh. Exact location undetermined.

Cherry Creek Post
(1829 - 1866), Cherry Creek
An American Fur Co. trading post, a subpost of Fort Tecumseh, located five miles upstream from town. It was burned down by Indians.

Forks of Cheyenne Post
(1828 - 1843), near Elm Springs
An American Fur Co. trading post at or near the Forks of the Cheyenne River, east of town. The exact site is unknown.

Camp Cheyenne
(1890 - 1891), near Elm Springs
Located at the Forks of the Cheyenne River. This was the Army's base of operations during the Sioux Ghost Dance Uprising.

Thomas L. Sarpy's Post
(1830 - 1832, 1890), Creston (Link)
An American Fur Co. trading post, also known as Rapid Creek Post and Oglala Post, at the mouth of Rapid Creek on the Cheyenne River. In 1832 part of the post was destroyed in an accident involving a candle and a barrel of gunpowder, also killing Sarpy. The 6th Cavalry occupied the site during the Sioux Ghost Dance Uprising in 1890. Located about 10 miles east of Farmingdale along SD 44, the general location is marked by a roadside concrete dinosaur.
(additional info provided by Watson Parker of the Council on America's Military Past)

Jon Valle's Post
(1803, 1804), Black Hills area
A wintering post located somewhere in the Black Hills region. Valle was here when Lewis and Clark passed through the area in 1804 on their way west.

Fort Buckingham
(1890 - 1892), near Hermosa
A civilian fort located northeast of town near Rocky Knob. It was built during the Ghost Dance uprisings.

Nearby was the Army's Camp Stanton, built during the same time period. Both sites still remain.
(info provided by Watson Parker of the Council on America's Military Past)

Camp Rapid
(1925 - present), Rapid City
The current headquarters post of the SD National Guard, located north of town on US 14. Originally a summer training camp, it was Federalized in 1941 for WWII training. Used by the Army Air Corps from 1942 - 1943 until returned to state control.

Fort Meade (Veterans Administration)
(Fort Meade Museum)
(Regional Training Institute - South Dakota Army National Guard)
(Fort Meade Recreation Area - BLM)
(1878 - 1944), Fort Meade
Built to defend the gold-mining camps of the Black Hills against the Lakota, and to restore peace, if necessary, on the Indian reservations to the east. Originally called Camp Ruhlen and located on the western side of Bear Butte. Later moved to its present location and renamed Camp Sturgis, then renamed again later that same year (1878). A marker for Camp Sturgis is located on SD 79 about five miles northeast of Fort Meade. This was the primary military post for actions in the "Ghost Dance War" of 1890 which culminated in the Wounded Knee Massacre. Retained by the Army because of its location on the railroad and with good routes to reservations when most forts in South Dakota were closed in the 1890's. Used for training and as a POW camp in WWII. The Veterans Administration aquired the site in 1944 to use as a hospital, and a large permanent, modern hospital was built north of the main part of the post, preserving the historic portions of the post, including construction from the WWI and WWII era. Virtually all of the 1880's Officers' quarters and barracks remain in their original setting. The lone survivor of the Battle of Little Bighorn, a horse named Commanche, was retired here. The Old Fort Meade Museum is located in the former Post Headquarters building (admission fee). In the 1980's, the South Dakota Army National Guard established its leadership institute, the South Dakota Military Academy, on the old post (now the Regional Training Institute). At the south end of the original military reservation (managed by the BLM) is located the Black Hills National Cemetery, just off I-90; the old post cemetery, now closed for burials, is the Fort Meade National Cemetery.
(information provided by Nathan A. Barton, CE, PE, DEE, member of South Dakota State Historical Society and Council on America's Military Past)

Black Hills Posts
(1857 - 1859, 1874 - 1877, intermittent), various locations
Several temporary fortifications and camps were located throughout the Black Hills area through the years. Exploratory camps Camp Warren (1) (1857) was located southeast of Newcastle, WY, near the present-day LAK Ranch. Camp Warren (2) (1857) was located north of Rapid City on Box Elder Creek. Camp Reynolds (1859) was located near Sturgis on Bear Butte Creek near Bear Butte State Park.

During the Gold Rush of 1874-75, the civilian Gordon Stockade (aka Fort Defiance (2)) was located near Custer. The miners, led by John Gordon, were holed up against the Indians and the Federal Army. The U.S. Army was sent to remove the miners, and established Camp Success (1875) on French Creek near Blue Bell. They captured the miners and their stockade, and renamed it Camp Harney or Fort Union. A modern replica of the fort is now on site, maintained by Custer State Park. Camp Collins (1875 - 1876) was also later built at Custer by the Army. The Log Cabin Museum in Way City Park on Main Street in Custer is said to have been the Army's headquarters at Camp Collins.

The 1875 Black Hills Scientific Expedition built Camp Burt on Spring Creek, Camp Terry north of Custer Peak, as well as several camps in Wyoming (see also).

During troubles with the Indians in 1876, the towns of Rapid City, Spearfish, and Custer were enclosed by stockades. The Rapid City Blockhouse was also built at this time and was located at the present intersection of 5th and Rapid Streets. It was two-storys and 30 feet square. The 1876 Crook Expedition built several camps in the region. Camp Crook (1) was located near Whitewood (Crook), Camp Crook (2) was located at Pactola Lake, Camp Crook (3) was located on French Creek at Custer, and Camp Crook (4) was located at Point-of-Rocks near Pringle.
(info provided by Watson Parker of the Council on America's Military Past)

Camp Collier
(1876 - 1877), near Edgemont
Also known as Camp at the Mouth of Red Canyon. A Federal palisaded 125-foot square post with two blockhouses, located at the mouth of Red Canyon at the Cheyenne River to protect the stage line. Abandoned, all supplies and equipment were transferred to Camp Hat Creek in Wyoming. Trace remains can still be found on private property, about five miles north of town.
(info provided by Watson Parker of the Council on America's Military Past)

Camp Rains
(1874, 1877 - 1879), Shannon County
An Army encampment near the Spotted Tail Indian Agency, originally located three miles west of the mouth of Beaver Creek. The Indian Agency was moved in 1879 to Rosebud (see above).

NEED MORE INFO: In 1890-92 a chain of military posts was located between Rapid City and Oelrichs during the Indian Ghost Dance uprisings (the Pine Ridge Campaign), names and locations undetermined at this time.
Camp Whittelsey (1867) at Larren's Fork (location ?). American Fur Co. Little Cheyenne Post (1830 ?) near the mouth of the Little Cheyenne River (location ?).
Towns: Camp Crook, Harding County.

Eastern South Dakota - page 1

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