Coastal Texas II

Camp Alta Vista | Fort Aransas (a) | Fort Aransas (b) | Fort Aransazu | Camp Barranca | Camp Bowie (1)
Cavallo Pass Station | Camp Chambers (1) | Camp Coleto | Copano Depot
Camp Corpus Christi | Post of Corpus Christi | Corpus Christi Supply Depot
Cox's Point Depot | Coxe's Point Depot | Camp Crockett (1) | Fort Debray | Fort Defiance
Dimitt's Landing Supply Depot | Fort Esperanza | Camp Everitt | Fort Goliad
Camp on the Guadalupe River | Camp Independence (1) | Camp Irwin | Camp Johnson
Kinney's Fort | Kinney's Rancho | Camp La Baca | Presidio de La Bahía | Camp Lavaca
Fort Lavaca | Lavaca Station | Camp Lee | Linnville Supply Depot | Camp Henry McCulloch
Camp Marcy | Fort Marcy | Mustang Island Fort | Camp Nueces (1) | Old Station | Camp Pitt
Camp Placedo | Port Aransas Res. | Military Station at Port Lavaca | Camp Powderhorn
Camp Preston | Refugio Presidio | St. Joseph's Island Depot | Fort St. Louis
Presidio de Santa Maria del Loreto de la Bahía | Camp Scurry | Camp Semmes | Fort Shell Bank
Camp Stanley (1) | Victoria Blockhouse | Camp Victoria | Fort Washington | Camp Williams

East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas I - page 2 | North Central Texas - page 4
Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6 | Southern Texas - page 7
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9

TEXAS HISTORIC SITES ATLAS

FORT WIKI - TEXAS

Last Update: 29/NOVEMBER/2015
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2015 American Forts Network

Camp Independence (1)
(1836 - 1837), near Edna
A Texas Army post located on the east side of the Lavaca River about 3.4 miles south of town (marker at site). Abandoned for Camp Preston.

Camp Crockett (1)
(1837), near Edna
Temporary headquarters of the Texas Army, located somewhere on the Navidad River southeast of town, probably between the site of Camp Bowie (1) and present-day TX 111. Abandoned for Camp Chambers (1).

Camp Bowie (1)
(1837), near Texana
A temporary Texas Army camp located on the east side of the Navidad River at Red Bluff, one mile below town, 8.1 miles southeast of Edna. Abandoned for Camp Crockett (1). The site is now probably under the waters of Lake Texana.

Camp Preston
(1837), near Lolita
A Texas Army post located on the east side of the Navidad River, about two or three miles from the Lavaca River, just west or northwest of town. Abandoned for Camp Bowie (1).

Dimitt's Landing Supply Depot
(1836 - 1837), near Lolita
A temporary Texas Army supply post located at Philip Dimitt's trading house on the west side of the Lavaca River, about two or three miles southwest of town.

Camp Johnson
(1836), near Vanderbilt
A Texas Army camp located on the west side of the Lavaca River about five miles below Dimitt's Landing, about four miles south-southeast of town, near the upper end of the Venado Lakes. Abandoned for Camp Independence (1).
(NOTE: not to be confused with Camp Johnston (1839) located in Smith County, or Fort Johnston (1) (1840) located in Grayson County.)

Lavaca Station
(1825 - 1827), near Vanderbilt
A receiving point for settlers bound for DeWitt's Colony in Gonzales, located on the Lavaca River about six miles inland from the mouth. Also known as Old Station. They were in violation of Mexican law when they settled here within ten leagues of the coast. A supply warehouse was allowed to be built, but the settlement was ordered to be abandoned by the Mexican authorities. It was not fortified.

Camp Chambers (1)
(1837), near Inez
A Texas Army encampment on the west bank of Arenosa Creek about three miles southeast of town.

Fort St. Louis
(Fort St. Louis / LaSalle Archaeological Projects)
(1685 - 1687), near La Salle
A French settlement for 180 colonists under the leadership of René Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, located on the west side of Garcitas Creek, about five miles inland from Lavaca Bay. A temporary stockade had been erected at the mouth of the creek during the first month, but the settlement was not fortified. Only several crude huts were erected, and one structure built from salvaged timber from one of La Salle's wrecked ships. About two years after La Salle was killed on an inland expedition, Karankawa Indians destroyed the settlement and killed all but two of the 20 or so remaining settlers, who then later found their way to Arkansas Post on the Mississippi River. The Spanish found the "fort" in ruins in 1689, and burned what was left. The Spanish later established the first Presidio La Bahía about three miles downriver in 1721 (see below). Both sites were excavated in the 1950's. See also Handbook of Texas Online
The 1687 La Belle Shipwreck from TexasBeyondHistory.net

Camp Lavaca
(1836), near La Salle
A Texas Army encampment on Lavaca Bay, west of the Lavaca River and east of Garcitas Cove. Usually spelled in period documents as "La Baca". Abandoned for Camp Johnson.

Linnville Supply Depot
(1836 - 1840), near Port Lavaca
A Texas Army supply depot at Linn's Landing during various encampments in present-day Victoria and Jackson Counties. The settlement was destroyed by Comanche Indians in August 1840. Located on the western shore of Lavaca Bay, site is marked by a state marker 3.5 miles northwest of town.

Military Station at Port Lavaca
(1848 - 1849), Port Lavaca
A Federal post and supply depot.

Fort Lavaca
(1862 - 1863), Port Lavaca
A CSA nine-gun battery on a bluff overlooking the bay. The guns were removed in 1863 to Fort Esperanza. The Union occupied the town from December 1863 until June 1864.

Cox's Point Depot
(1836 - 1837), Point Comfort
A Texas Army supply depot and troop landing. Ocean-going vessels landed here to transfer the supplies onto lighter riverine vessels to the various inland camps along the Navidad and Lavaca Rivers and Arenosa Creek. Sometimes spelled as Coxe's.

Camp Lee
(1861 - 1864), near Indianola
A briefly occupied Union mobilization point originally called Camp Powderhorn, located on Powderhorn Bayou. Troops gathered here in February - March 1861 from the surrendered inland posts to be shipped out back to the northern states. Renamed and periodically occupied by the CSA after hostilities broke out. The Union occupied Indianola briefly in October 1862, and then from December 1863 to June 1864.

Cavallo Pass Station
(1837), Matagorda Island
A Texas Army one-gun shore battery with 18 men was established here in April 1837 at the former mouth of the old Pass Cavallo (now shoaled over), near the present-day lighthouse.

Fort Esperanza ? ?
(1862 - 1865), near Saluria, Matagorda Island
A Confederate nine-gun work (aka Fort Debray) built by slave labor in early 1862 at the site of an old Spanish fort (?), directly across the bay from Port O'Connor. Briefly abandoned in October 1862 as the Union fleet advanced into Matagorda Bay and took Indianola. The fort was captured by Union forces in November 1863. Re-occupied by the CSA in June 1864 and held until the end of the war. The eastern walls of the fort eroded away in an 1868 storm. The rest was gone by 1878. Some outer rifle pits may still remain.

A CSA one-gun battery was also located just across McHenry Bayou from the town.

Located two miles south near the lighthouse at the former entrance to Pass Cavallo (now closed) was Fort Washington (1836, 1846), originally a Texan Army earthwork defense and later a temporary American post during the Mexican-American War. Rebuilt as a seven-gun battery by the CSA in 1861 but later abandoned as it was considered a poor defensive position against the Union fleet.

Camp Irwin
(1846), near Placedo
A Federal post and supply depot on Placedo Creek about 12 miles from Port Lavaca. Also known as Camp Placedo.

Victoria Blockhouse
(1824 - 1836), Victoria
A Mexican settlers' blockhouse built to protect against Indian raids. The town was founded and settled by Martín de León and 41 predominately Mexican families in 1824. The settlement was abandoned in 1836, resettled in 1838.
See also De León's Colony from Handbook of Texas Online

Camp Victoria
(1836 - 1837), Victoria
A Texas Army camp located about three miles north of present-day downtown on Spring Creek.

Camp on the Guadalupe River
(1848 - 1849), Victoria
A Federal encampment located one mile south of present-day downtown.

Camp Pitt
(1848), near Victoria
No data.

Camp Henry McCulloch
(1861 - 1862), near Victoria
A CSA "camp of instruction" located four miles north of town at "Nuner's Mott". The Victoria Male Academy was used as the camp hospital.

Camp Stanley (1) ?
(unknown dates), near Victoria
Located four miles north of town.

Camp Coleto
(1836), near Raisin
A Texas Army encampment on Coleto Creek about two miles southwest of town.

Presidio de La Bahía
(1749 - 1842), Goliad
Name variations include Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Loreto de la Bahía de Espíritu Santos, Presidio de Santa Maria del Loreto de la Bahía, and Presidio de Nuestra Señora de la Bahía del Espíritu Santo. Originally located on Garcitas Creek near Port Lavaca in 1721 (wooden stockade), it was moved in 1726 to Mission Valley on the Guadalupe River (wooden stockade with a few stone structures). It was moved again in 1749 to its present site on the south bank of the San Antonio River to protect Mission de Nuestra Señora del Espíritu Santo de Zuñiga (1749, almost all stone structures), now restored and located in Goliad State Park (admission fee). Also part of Goliad State Park are the preserved ruins of Mission de Nuestra Señora del Rosario (1749 - 1807). Spanish troops from here participated in actions against the British in West Florida during 1779 - 1781. In 1812 the presidio was held by rebel forces under Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara (Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition). The original name of the town, La Bahía, was changed in 1829. The presidio was completely restored in the 1960's, and is said to be the finest example of a complete Spanish presidio in Texas. A museum with thousands of artifacts is in the restored Officers' quarters. Admission fee. See also Handbook of Texas Online

Texan forces later took over the presidio in October 1835 and named it Fort Goliad. In February 1836 it was strengthened and renamed Fort Defiance. This was the scene in March 1836 of the "Goliad Massacre", in which 342 Texans were executed by the Mexican Army. Texas Army troops returned in June 1836 to bury the dead, and renamed the presidio back to Fort Goliad.

Refugio Presidio ?
(1807 - 1836, 1867 ?), Refugio
A Spanish presidio was located here, later occupied by Mexican troops. It protected the nearby Mission de Nuestra Señora del Refugio (1795 - 1830), which was originally located at Goff Bayou / Mission Lake, near Long Mott, Calhoun County, in 1793. Federal U.S. Army troops may have occupied the old compound in 1867 during Reconstruction.

Copano Depot
(1836), Copano Landing
A temporary Texas Army supply depot and troop landing, located on Power's Point (El Cópano) on the north shore of Copano Bay, east of Mission Bay. The town of Copano was later laid out in the 1840's, but no longer exists.

Fort Aransazu
(unknown - 1836), near Fulton
A Spanish and Mexican fort or shore battery was once reported to have been located here at Live Oak Point. It was abandoned by 1836. Anglo-American settlers founded Aransas City here in 1838. The Texas Republic planned a seacoast battery here in 1840, but it was never built.

St. Joseph's Island Depot
(1845 - 1846), San José Island
An American supply depot and troop landing established by Colonel Zachary Taylor in anticipation of the Mexican-American War. It was abandoned shortly after Fort Marcy was established. Located on the southern end of the island at the north side of Aransas Pass.

Camp Semmes
(1846 - 1847, 1862 - 1865), Mustang Island
Originally located on the north end of the island in 1846 was the American Mustang Island Fort. Rebuilt and renamed as a CSA gun battery in 1862, also known as Fort Aransas (a). It was located near the Aransas Pass Lighthouse (1855), which was shelled by Union ships in November 1863. The actual site of the fort probably no longer exists, contrary to a local marker on "Bunker Hill", because the channel shifted south in 1875.

Fort Shell Bank
(1862 - 1864), Shellbank Island
A CSA earthwork battery. Also known as Fort Aransas (b).


¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of CORPUS CHRISTI
Temporary Harbor Defense of Aransas Pass - FORT WIKI

¤ Port Aransas Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), Port Aransas, Mustang Island
A two-gun 155mm battery on Panama mounts was located south of the south jetty, which had replaced a temporary field-positioned 105mm howitzer battery. Still extant on the grounds of the University of Texas - Marine Science Institute, adjacent to Magee Beach County Park.
(some additional info provided by Bill Gaines of the CDSG)


Henry Kinney's Fort
(1839 - 1845 ?, 1862), Corpus Christi
A strongly fortified stockaded trading post, also called Kinney's Rancho, built by Kinney and William Aubrey. Site located at 401 North Broadway Street. Garrisoned by 30 men and mounted several cannon in 1844. The town was already settled when U.S. troops first arrived in 1845. The Confederate forces in this area briefly used the old fort in 1862, armed with three old guns.

Camp Nueces (1)
(1842), Corpus Christi
A Texan Army of the Southwest post located on Nueces Bay, somewhere west of Kinney's Fort.

Nearby were also Camp Everitt and Camp Williams, both 1842. Camp Williams may have been a later name for Camp Everitt, or a separate camp altogether. Camp Nueces (1) may have been an unofficial name for one or both of these camps.

Post of Corpus Christi
(1845 - 1846, 1849, 1852 - 1865, 1869 - 1870), Corpus Christi
Camp Marcy was originally established in July 1845 as the first Federal troops arrived from St. Joseph's Island Depot. Troops were encamped all along the western shore of Corpus Christi Bay and the southern shore of Nueces Bay. Marker located in Artesian Park at 800 North Chaparral Street. Fort Marcy was built by General Zachary Taylor's forces in early 1846. Earthwork (sand and shell) shore batteries were first built in 1846 along the bay near the present-day Visitors Center (1201 North Shoreline Blvd.). The town was minimally garrisoned after Taylor's main army left for the Rio Grande frontier in March 1846. Federal Dragoons later occupied the city in 1849. The earthwork batteries were later repaired and reused by the Confederates in 1862, which were then armed with the three old guns transferred from Kinney's Fort, plus three additional guns found elsewhere. The city was garrisoned during Reconstruction (1869 - 1870).

The Corpus Christi Quartermaster Supply Depot (1849 - 1857), built nearby, also served as the garrison post headquarters after 1852, then possibly re-using the Fort Marcy name.

Camp Corpus Christi (1850 - 1852) was established in rented quarters within the civilian town, and Regular Army troops were encamped here again in 1880 - 1881, and again in 1913 - 1918 during the border crisis with Mexico (see also Camp Scurry below).

The site of the original Corpus Christi Lighthouse was at Buffalo and Upper North Broadway Streets. It was used as a powder magazine during the Civil War and was later dismantled in 1878.

Camp Scurry
(1916 - 1919), Corpus Christi FORT WIKI
A Texas National Guard Infantry mobilization camp established during the border crisis with Mexico. The 200-acre site was located in the area bounded by Buford, Santa Fe, Louisiana, and Ocean Drive. It was initially but briefly named Camp Alta Vista. After it was ordered closed in 1917, the camp was later used in 1918 by the U.S. Army for training field artillery and engineer units for WWI service.

Camp Barranca
(1860), near Calallen
Located near the mouth of the Nueces River.


NOTE: The use of the Texas flag for settler forts before 1836 indicates those settlers of Anglo-American origin, even though Texas did not exist as a separate nation until 1836.

East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas I - page 2 | North Central Texas - page 4
Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6 | Southern Texas - page 7
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9

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