Allen's Ranch Fort |
Camp Belknap (2)(3) |
Fort Belknap |
Bird's Fort |
Camp Bois d'Arc | Camp Bosque | Camp Bowie (2) | Fort Bragg | Bragg's Ranch Fort
Post at Brazos Agency | Camp Breckenridge | Camp Buffalo Springs | Camp Cabell
Camp Caldwell (1) | Camp Caldwell (3) | Camp Carlos | Cedar Springs Post | Camp Chisum
Fort Clark (2) | Coffee's Fort | Coffee's Station | Camp Collier | Camp Colorado (2)
Connor's Station | Convair Plant Defenses | Camp Cureton | Dallas Encampment
Fort Davis (2) | Fort DeKalb | Camp Dick | Fort Fisher | Fort Fitzhugh | Fort Gates
Fort Graham | Green's Ranch Fort | Camp Henderson | Fort Inglish | Fort Jacksboro
Camp Jackson (2) | Fort Johnson | M. Johnson's Station | Fort Johnston (1) | Camp Jordan
Camp Journey | Camp Kenney | King's Fort | Kingsboro Fort | Kitchen's Fort
Camp on Leon River | Lyday's Fort | Lynch's Ranch Fort | Camp MacArthur | Fort Murrah
Camp Neil | Fort Newport | Nolan's Camp | Camp Nowlin | Owls Head Fort | Camp Pecan (1)
Camp Pecan (2) | Fort Picketville | Fort Preston | Preston Supply Depot | Camp Red River
Post at Red River Station | Fort Richardson | Camp Rusk (3) | Fort Rusk | Camp Salmon
J. Shelton's Fort (1) | J. Shelton's Fort (2) | Camp Sherman (2) | Camp Sherman (4)
Camp Shirley | Fort Shirley | Fort Smith (2) | Fort Spunky | Stone Ranch Fort
Camp Taliaferro | Fort Teodoro | Camp Thornton | Camp Van Camp (1) | Camp Waco
Camp Warren | Warren's Fort | Camp Wichita | Camp Wilcox | Camp Wolters | Fort Wolters
Camp Worth | Fort Worth
East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3
Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6 | Southern Texas - page 7
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9
TEXAS HISTORIC SITES ATLAS
TEXAS FRONTIER FORTS
LEN KUBIAK'S TEXAS HISTORY
FORT WIKI - TEXAS
A Texas Ranger camp located on the land of Claiborne Chisum, on the west side of town, west of present-day 15th Street.
Camp Rusk (3)
(1861), Ben Franklin
A CSA training camp located one mile west of town on the south bank of the North Sulphur River. Marker (1967) at site on Treadmill Lake.
Jesse Shelton's Fort (1)
(1837 - 1840 ?), near Roxton
A settlers' fort probably located on the north bank of the North Sulphur River, just west of the modern railroad bridge. Texas Rangers were posted here in 1838 - 1839, and may have renamed the fort as Fort Rusk. Shelton moved further west sometime after 1840.
Jesse Shelton's Fort (2)
(1840 ? - unknown), near Honey Grove
A settlers' fort. Exact location undetermined.
Isaac Lyday's Fort
(1836 - 1843), near Dial
A settlers' stockaded fort built for protection from Indians. Located on the north bank of the North Sulphur River north of Pecan Gap, 0.75 mile east and 0.5 mile north of the old Lyday's Crossing, in the extreme southwest corner of Lamar County, just east of Dial in Fannin County. Texas Rangers were posted here in 1838 - 1839, and the fort was then (most-likely) known as Fort DeKalb.
(Fort Inglish Village)
(1837 - 1843), Bonham
Replica (1976) of a stockaded settlers' two-story blockhouse and three restored period log cabins. Served as a defense against Indians. Built by settler Bailey Inglish. Texas Rangers were posted here in 1838. The town developed in the 1840's. Located on West Sam Rayburn Drive (TX 56) at Chinner Street. The original site, with a state marker, is now on the grounds of the Bonham V.A. Center, north of East 9th Street and east of Lynn Street. The Inglish Family Cemetery was located at East 6th and Lynn Streets. See also Handbook of Texas Online
Camp Bois d'Arc
(1839), near Bonham
A Texas Ranger camp located on Bois d'Arc Creek, probably somewhere near Fort Inglish. Exact location undetermined.
(1839), near Mulberry
A Texas Ranger camp probably located on the land of Capt. N.T. Journey in the Mulberry Bend of the Red River, north of the mouth of Caney Creek.
Abel Warren's Fort
(1836 - 1837, 1838 - 1843 ?), near Anthony
A civilian stockaded trading post on the Red River at Brushy Creek, about one mile south of the mouth of Choctaw Creek, in the extreme northwest corner of Fannin County, just east of Ambrose in Grayson County. Warren left for Arkansas in 1837, but the post was continued by area settlers under Daniel Montague. Rebuilt, or a new stockade was constructed, in 1838. Texas Army troops were posted here at Camp Warren in 1839 - 1840. Possibly also known as John Kitchen's Fort after 1841.
During the Civil War the town, then known as Fort Warren, supplied Confederate Indian refugees and troops serving in Indian Territory (Oklahoma), Louisiana and Arkansas. The old town disappeared after 1876.
(1841), near Whitewright
A Texas Army camp located six miles north of Pilot Grove, about one or two miles west of town.
Camp Sherman (4)
A temporary CSA cavalry encampment at the courthouse village.
Camp Caldwell (1)
(1839), near Denison ?
A Texas Ranger camp. Exact location undetermined, possibly on the land of James Caldwell.
Col. Holland Coffee's Fort
(1837 - 1846), Preston
A fortified trading post built by Coffee and Silas Colville. Supplied nearby Texas Army posts and troop detachments operating in the general area. Known as Coffee's Station after 1839. Coffee died in 1846, and the post was then abandoned. Actual site is now under Lake Texoma. A marker is located at the Preston Bend Cemetery. Col. Coffee's original restored two-story log house "Glen Eden" still exists in town.
Texas Rangers were present at or near Coffee's Station in 1840 - 1841 while building Fort Johnston (1) nearby, but there is no historical evidence that a so-called "Fort Preston" ever existed here. There was no separate post by that name while Coffee's Station still existed.
Preston Supply Depot
(1851 - 1853), Preston
A U.S. Army supply depot on the Red River. This post (it was never considered a "fort") was never known as "Fort Preston", as supposed by some later historians. Site now under Lake Texoma.
Fort Johnston (1)
(1840 - 1846), near Fink
A Texas Army post located opposite the mouth of the Washita River near Little Mineral Creek, about four miles north of Pottsboro, near the former townsite of Georgetown. Monument (1936) at site. Also spelled Johnson in some historical sources.
(NOTE: not to be confused with Camp Johnston (1839) located in Smith County, or Camp Johnson (1836) located in Jackson County.)
(1847 - 1850), near Gainesville
The first white settlement in Cooke County, located about three miles southeast of town. A stockaded set of blockhouses built by the Texas Rangers under William Fitzhugh. The settlement was still in use as a Texas Ranger post in 1860, later a CSA mustering post in 1861.
(1750 - 1840), Spanish Fort
A fortified village built by the Taovaya Indians, with an oval stockade and dry moat, as a defense against other Plains tribes. Scene of the first major defeat of Spanish troops by Indians in Texas in 1759. The Indian fort was later briefly occupied by the Spanish in 1762 when the Louisiana Territory was ceded by France. Spanish troops returned in 1778 after peace with the Caddos to retrieve some lost cannon. At that time this area was known as San Teodoro by the Spanish, when the fort was so named. The Taovaya Indians abandoned the site by 1840. The Indian ruins and trade artifacts were discovered in 1859 by white settlers who were ignorant of the actual history here, hence the name of the town.
Camp Red River
(1859), near Belcherville ?
A Federal encampment, probably located at or near Red River Station.
Post at Red River Station
(1862 - 1864), near Belcherville
A CSA Frontier Regiment post. Located on Salt Creek two miles south of the Red River. The settlement was first established in 1860.
Camp Jackson (2)
(1861), near Byars
A CSA (Texas Mounted Rifles) camp near the mouth of the Wichita River.
(1868 - 1873, intermittent), Buffalo Springs
A Federal cavalry encampment and way station. Originally here was Camp Buffalo Springs (1867), which was abandoned due to water shortages. The troops then returned to Jacksboro to build Fort Richardson.
(1859), near Archer City
A temporary Federal post on or near the Little Wichita River to provide escort for Indians to and from the Brazos Indian Agency.
(1841), near Mabelle
An encampment of the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, located somewhere on the Wichita River in present-day Baylor County.
(1862 - 1864), near Antelope
A CSA Frontier Regiment post. Located on the West Fork Trinity River west of town. A memorial (1963) was placed at the Archer County courthouse in Archer City.
(State Historical Park)
(1865 - 1878), Jacksboro
A Federal cavalry post on Lost Creek, originally called Fort Jacksboro until 1867. Briefly abandoned in 1867 when the garrison was sent to Camp Buffalo Springs and Fort Belknap. The most northerly of all Federal forts built in the state after the Civil War to stop Indian raids into the settled areas. Used as an Indian school for a short time after it was abandoned. Maintained by the town until it became a state park in 1968. There are six original stone buildings, and a reconstructed (1936) Officers' quarters which now serves as the visitor center. Other original buildings may still exist elsewhere in town, including a stable on the other side of the railroad. The Texas National Guard now uses a portion of the original reservation. See also Red River Historian.com || Texas Escapes Magazine
(1851 - 1859, 1861, 1864 - 1867/1875), near Newcastle
Originally called Camp Belknap (2), located on the north bank of the Salt (Red) Fork Brazos River. The post was renamed and then moved two miles downriver in 1851, about three miles south of the present-day town. This was a stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail Route. Abandoned for Camp Cooper in early 1859 for lack of water. Located closer to town was Camp Van Camp (1) (summer 1859) (1936 monument at site). The CSA Texas Mounted Rifles briefly occupied the fort in 1861. During the Civil War, Camp Belknap (3) (1862 - 1864) was nearby and used by Texas Rangers and the CSA Frontier Regiment to continue providing protection from Indians. The Rangers moved to Fort Belknap from 1864 to 1867, when regular Army troops took over. The fort was discontinued as a permanent post in 1867, again for lack of water, but was still used sporadically as a campsite until around 1875. There is one original building and six replicas, and a museum. See also Handbook of Texas Online || Red River Historian.com || GhostTowns.com
Post at Brazos Indian Agency
(1859), near Graham
Federal troops from Fort Belknap fortified the Brazos Indian Agency with a stockade during trouble with white settlers. Located three miles east of town.
(1862 - 1864), near Breckenridge
A CSA Frontier Regiment post on Gonzales Creek six miles above its confluence with Hubbard Creek.
(1874 - 1875), Stephens County
A Texas Ranger patrol post located at the head of Gonzales Creek in the southern part of the county.
Pioneer Settler Forts
(1862 - 1867), Eastland, Stephens, Shackelford, Young, Clay Counties
Several private homes or blockhouses along the frontier where settlers "forted up" to protect themselves during the Civil War from renegades and hostile Indians. These included:
C.C. Blair's Fort (1860 - 1865), in Eastland County west of Desdemona. A stockaded 12-cabin complex.
Fort Davis (2) (1864 - 1867), in Stephens County on the north side of the Clear Fork Brazos River south of Woodson, about 15 miles below Camp Cooper. A stockaded complex of 20 log houses. A stone house, built previous to the war, still exists as a hunting lodge.
Owls Head Fort, in Stephens County on the north side of the Clear Fork Brazos River somewhere near the mouth of Hubbard Creek.
Stone Ranch Fort (built 1856), in Throckmorton County on the south side of the Clear Fork Brazos River east of Walnut Creek.
Fort Clark (2), on the Young-Stephens County line on the north side of the Clear Fork Brazos River near Eliasville.
George Bragg's Ranch Fort (aka Fort Bragg), in Young County on the south bank of Elm Creek east of Elbert. Attacked by Indians in October 1864.
Fort Murrah, in Young County on the north side of the Brazos River south of Megargel.
Other "forts" were probably also located at Picketville (aka Fort Picketville) in Stephens County, and Mugginsville in Shackleford County.
Other nearby "forts" were located at the Lynch and Green Ranches in Shackelford County, Allen's Ranch in Eastland County, and one at Buffalo Springs in Clay County.
(1860's), near De Leon
A private family "fort" used on occasion by Texas Rangers as a campsite. Also known as "Fort" Shirley. A lone chimney still exists on the northeastern bank of Flat Creek, north of town east of TX 16. According to tradition one family is said to have moved from Blair's Fort to Fort Shirley.
(thanks to James Hammond for providing info)
(1862 - 1864), near Scranton
A CSA Frontier Regiment encampment located near Sloan's Ranch on a branch of Hubbard Creek, on the Callahan-Eastland county line.
Camp Pecan (2)
(1862 - 1864), Callahan County
A CSA Frontier Regiment post on the Pecan Bayou, on the road between Camp Cooper and Camp Colorado.
Camp Colorado (2)
(1856 - 1865, 1869), near Coleman
A Federal post originally built on Mulewater Creek, six miles north of the Colorado River, near Rockwood or Trickham. It was then moved 22 miles north in 1857 to Jim Ned Creek, about nine miles northeast of Coleman. Abandoned in 1861 and then occupied intermittently by Confederate forces until the end of the war. A 1936 reproduction of the adobe post headquarters is located in Coleman City Park. One original building (Guardhouse) still remains at the original site on Jim Ned Creek, which was later incorporated into a larger private residence (Sackett Ranch). A stone wall also still remains, as well as the old Post Cemetery nearby. Located on FM 2302 off of TX 206. See also Handbook of Texas Online
Camp Pecan (1)
(1850 - 1856), near Brownwood
A Federal encampment on the Pecan Bayou.
(1862 - 1864), Brookesmith
A CSA Frontier Regiment encampment. Located at Vaughn's Springs on Clear Creek.
Camp Sherman (2)
(1839 ?), near Mullin
A Texas Ranger post located on the east bank of Pecan Bayou.
(1839), near Goldthwaite
A Texas Army post located on the Pecan Bayou near its junction with the Colorado River, about nine or ten miles west of town.
(1849 - 1852), Fort Gates
A Federal post built for defense against Indians, it was a stockaded fort with 18 wood-frame buildings, that also later served as the county seat in 1854. Originally named Camp on Leon River. Located on the north bank of the Leon River, about five miles above Coryell Creek. One of the single-story barracks was octagonal with a fireplace in each side. Only the post cemetery and rock foundation ruins remain at the site (private property), near the 1936 state monument on Old Fort Gates Road. See also Handbook of Texas Online
(1841), McLennan County
A Texan Santa Fe Expedition camp located on Childress Creek, about one and one-half miles from the Brazos River, near the McLennan - Hill County line.
Camp Caldwell (3)
(1841), near Speegleville
An encampment of the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, located on the South Bosque River (now Waco Lake) about two miles south of town.
A temporary Texas Ranger post on the west bank of the Brazos River, at a former Waco Indian village site. Abandoned due to its poor location for defense. Actual site may have been at or near the present-day small park near the springs below the Bridge Street bridge. Reconstructed in 1968 as the Colonel Homer Garrison Museum. Became a part of the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum in 1976. The town was first settled by whites in 1849.
A Federal encampment.
(1917 - 1919), Waco
A Federalized National Guard mobilization center and training camp for the 32nd Division, later becoming an infantry replacement center and demobilization center. After it closed, the lumber was sent to the border stations. A marker is located in a northwest neighborhood.
(1861), near Waco
A CSA "camp of instruction" for area recruits. Site located seven miles from town on the Bosque River.
(1848, 1860), Navarro County
An Army troop detachment was posted here on Richland Creek.
(Fort Graham Preservation Society)
(Fort Graham Chapter, Texas Society D.A.R.)
(1849 - 1853), near Whitney
A Federal Dragoon post, originally named Camp Thornton. Located on the east bank of the Brazos River at Little Bear Creek. A stone barracks was reconstructed on site in 1936, although most buildings apparently were built of logs with shingle siding. Lake Whitney was created in 1953, and the fort site was then maintained by the Army Corps of Engineers from 1953 - 1982. The lake was increased in the 1970's and the fort site was to become inundated. The stone barracks replica was removed from the original site in 1983 by the Hill County Historical Society and placed at a new higher site at Old Fort Park, maintained by the county. The Army took over the county's lease in 2002 and closed the museum. It is now abandoned. Also nearby are ruins of Towash Village, an early Texan settlement. An Anadarko Indian village (José Maria) was also here at the time of the fort. See also Handbook of Texas Online || Lake Whitney Chamber of Commerce
Fort Smith (2)
(1846 - 1847), Itasca
A Texas Ranger post built for protection from Indians, located on the headwaters of Richland Creek. Monument (1936) at site. The Iverson School was later built on the site.
Philip Nolan's Camp
(1800 - 1801), Blum
Philip Nolan led a party of 28 armed men from Natchez, Mississippi, in November 1800 into Spanish East Texas to capture wild horses to sell to the Spanish authorities back in New Orleans, and/or to southern planters back in the states. A crude log fortification and stables/corrals were constructed at a site near the Brazos River. Spanish troops finally captured the group (only 18 remaining by then) at the fort in March 1801, killing Nolan and sending the others to San Antonio as prisoners, eventually to Chihuahua, Mexico, in November 1807. The exact location is unknown, but a state marker (1936) was placed at the TX 174 bridge over the Nolan River.
(1854 - unknown), Cleburne
A Texas Ranger post. The town was named in 1867.
(1847 - 1860 ?), near Nemo
A Torrey and Brothers Company trading post operated by Charles Barnard, located north of town (on Squaw Creek ?) at what was once called Barnardsville. Federal troops may have been posted here at one time, which was known for its occasional lawlessness. The last remaining structure attributed to the original post was torn down in March 2012. See also Torrey Trading Houses from Handbook of Texas Online
Hood County Genealogical Society
(Lake Mineral Wells State Park)
(1925 - 1946, 1951 - 1975), near Mineral Wells
Initially a Texas National Guard summer training site on 7500 acres, it was Federalized in 1940 as an infantry replacement center. Re-opened in 1951 as the Wolters Air Force Base to train Aviation Engineers. Became the U.S. Army's primary helicopter training base in 1956. Renamed Fort Wolters in 1963. NIKE missiles were emplaced here 1960 - 1968 (DF-70). The Army transferred helicopter training to Fort Ruckman, Alabama in 1973. After closing, part of the reservation became Lake Mineral Wells State Park (opened 1981), and the main cantonment area became the Mineral Wells Education Center of Weatherford College. See also Handbook of Texas Online || Fort Wolters Tour - Then and Now from Fort Wolters Chapter, VHPA
Military Yearbook Project by Richard Morgan
(1849 - 1853), Fort Worth
A Federal Dragoon post originally called Camp Worth. Site moved to higher ground in 1849 due to flooding. Built to protect settlers from Indian attacks. It was abandoned for Fort Belknap as the frontier moved west. Settlers used the abandoned fort to establish the town. The site of the fort is at Houston and Belknap Streets. A plaque is on the Criminal Courts Building.
Camp Bowie (2)
(1917 - 1919), Fort Worth
A Federalized National Guard mobilization center and training camp for the 36th Division, later becoming an infantry replacement center and a demobilization center. Site located three miles north of the city in the Arlington Heights area.
(NOTE: not to be confused with Camp Bowie (3) (1940 - 1946/present) located in Brownwood.)
(1917 - 1919), Fort Worth
A WWI Army aviation camp associated with Carruthers Army Air Field in Benbrook.
Convair Plant AAA Defenses
(1954 - 1957), Fort Worth
The Army emplaced several 75mm Skysweeper AA gun batteries around the General Dynamics-Convair Plant No. 4 (now Lockheed-Martin) (DF-60) as part of the continental air defense gun site program during the early days of the Cold War. Located adjacent to Carswell Air Force Base, the factory produced B-58 Hustler bombers at that time. See also Planes of the Past.com
Capt. Jonathan Bird's Fort
(1841 - 1842), Arlington
Texas Rangers were briefly located here on the West Fork Trinity River at a stockaded blockhouse with three crude cabins. A treaty was signed here in September 1843 between nine Indian tribes and the Republic of Texas demarkating a line between the Indians and the white settlers. The blockhouse probably continued in use for settler defense several years afterwards. The town of Birdsville was settled in 1842. Located south of Euless. Marker located seven miles south of the actual site, on South Main Street at the Silver Lake Gun Club.
Middleton Johnson's Station
(1845 - unknown), Arlington
A civilian trading post at "Mary Le Bone Springs" (aka Marrow Bone Springs) located just south of the city.
Cedar Springs Post
A planned Texas Army fort on the military road from Fort Johnston (1) on the Red River. The fort was never completed. Site located about three miles northwest of the present-day downtown, in the vicinity of Maple Park on Maple Ave.. Related markers are located in Marsalis Park (adjacent to the Dallas Zoo), about five miles south of the site.
(1861 - 1862), Dallas
A large complex of several Confederate campsites at the present-day Texas State Fairgrounds, each camp named for the company commanders.
Camp W.L. Cabell
A Spanish-American War muster-out camp for the Texas Volunteer Infantry. Located at the old fairgrounds north of the current Fair Park, west of Elm and North Peak Streets.
Camp John Dick
(1918 - 1919), Dallas
A WWI Army aviation camp associated with Love Army Air Field (1914), located at the state fairgrounds.
(1858), unknown location
Located somewhere on the East Fork Trinity River.
William P. King's Fort
(1840 - 1843 ?), Kaufman
A settlers' stockaded fort with four cabins, located on a hilltop overlooking King's home. The town was first settled by four families led by Dr. King. Garrisoned by only 10 or 12 men, it withheld an Indian attack in July 1841. King died in 1841 visiting his home state of Mississippi, and the fort continued on for only a few years longer. Also known as Kingsboro Fort. The original name of the town was Kingsboro until 1852.
NOTE: The use of the Texas flag for settler forts before 1836 indicates those settlers of Anglo-American origin, even though Texas did not exist as a separate nation until 1836.East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3
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