Camp Adams |
The Alamo |
Camp at the Alamo |
Camp Almus |
Camp Bell |
Camp Boggy | Camp Buchanan | Camp Bullis | Military Station at Castroville
Camp near Cibolo Creek | Camp Edward Clark (1) | Camp Edward Clark (2)
Camp Conception | Camp Cook (2) | Camp Cooke (2) | Camp Crockett (2) | Camp Davant
DeWitt's Fort | Camp Dix | Camp Florilla | Camp Funston | Camp Gardenier | Gonzales Fort
Post Gonzales (1,2) | Gonzales Station | Camp Guadalupe Mountain | Camp Guadalupe Peak
Hondo Creek Station | Camp Hope | Camp Houston | Fort Sam Houston (5) | Camp Howard
Fort Inge | Camp near Fort Inge | Camp Ives | Camp on Johnson's Run | La Villita Battery
Camp Lawson | Camp Leon | Leon Springs Res. | Camp Leona | Fort Lincoln | Camp Lyon
Camp Milam | Camp Montel | Camp Morse | Camp Mosby | Camp Murphree
Camp Normoyle | Camp Nueces (3) | Mission Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción
Camp Olmos | Powder House Hill Fort | Camp Prairie Lea | Camp Prisontown
Camp Rio Frio | Camp Rocky | Camp Rusk (1) | Camp Sabinal | San Antonio Arsenal (1)
San Antonio Arsenal (2) | San Antonio Barracks | San Antonio Ordnance Depot
San Antonio Quartermaster Depot | Fort San Antonio (2) | Post San Antonio (1)
Post of San Antonio (3) | Presidio de San Antonio de Béjar | El Fortin Santa Cruz del Cíbolo
Mission de San Francisco de la Espada | Mission de San José y San Miguel de Aguayo
Camp San Marcos | Post San Marcos | Presidio de San Marcos de Neve | Camp Salado
Camp Seco Creek | Camp Seguin | Camp Sherman (1) | Sophia's Fort | Sophienburg
Camp Stanley (2) | Camp Strong | Camp Stuart | Camp Travis (1) | Camp Travis (3)
Camp on Turkey Creek | Camp Uphazy | Camp Verde (1) | Camp Verde (2)
Camp Vigilance | Fort Waul | Camp Wilson (2) | Camp Wise | Camp Wood (1)
Camp Wood (2) | Zink's Fort | Zinkenburg
East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3
North Central Texas - page 4 | Central Texas - page 5 | Southern Texas - page 7
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9
TEXAS HISTORIC SITES ATLAS
TEXAS FRONTIER FORTS
LEN KUBIAK'S TEXAS HISTORY
FORT WIKI - TEXAS
El Fortin Santa Cruz del Cíbolo
(1772 - 1782), Karnes County
A Spanish 20-man stockaded fort located on (Arroyo del) Cibolo Creek about halfway between San Antonio and Goliad. Possibly located at Panna Maria.
(1837), near Floresville ?
A Texas Army camp located 32 miles below San Antonio, presumably on the San Antonio River.
(1849), Wilson County
Located somewhere on the San Antonio River.
(1837), near Stockdale
A Texas Army camp located on Cibolo Creek at the "Rocky Ford" crossing, then known as "El Paso del Nogal", a few miles south-southwest of town.
(1827 - 1836 ?), Gonzales
A settlers' log fort that provided protection against Indians, part of the DeWitt Colony. It may have also been known as Green DeWitt's Fort. A reconstructed log palisade was once located at the corner of Water and St. Louis Streets, where a state marker was erected in 1966. The town was first settled in 1825, but was abandoned and burned in 1836 during the "Runaway Scrape". It was resettled in the 1838. See also DeWitt's Colony from Handbook of Texas Online
A Texas Army post established after the town was resettled. Also known as Post Gonzales (1).
Post Gonzales (2) (1842 - 1843) was established by the Quartermaster of the Texas Rangers in 1842 after San Antonio was captured by the Mexican Army. Militia volunteers were located at Camp Rocky (1842) near the town.
(1863 - 1865), Gonzales
A stone blockhouse with earthworks built on Waldrip Hill to defend the Guadalupe River from Union gunboats. The fort was never completely finished and was abandoned before the end of the war. It was not named until after the war. The blockhouse was dismantled after the war for its stones. Earthworks still remain north of town near US 90A and US 183. Site is owned by the city, adjacent to the Gonzales Pioneer Village Living History Center.
Camp Prairie Lea
(1861), Prairie Lea
A CSA camp of instruction for local recruits.
Camp Edward Clark (2)
(1861 - 1862), near Staples
A CSA "camp of instruction" located on the south bank of the San Marcos River about seven miles from San Marcos.
Presidio de San Marcos de Neve
(1755 - 1757, 1808 - 1812), near San Marcos
A Spanish presidio was temporarily located at San Marcos Springs after relocating from San Xavier de Gigedo (Rockdale). It was then moved to San Sabá.
A second presidio was later located on the San Marcos River at the crossing of the Old San Antonio Road, about four miles below the city. Nearly flooded out in 1808 soon after it was established, it was abandoned in 1812 due to increased Indian hostility in the area. Archaeological excavations have recently been conducted at the site.
Post San Marcos
(1840 - 1841), San Marcos
A Texas Army fort located at San Marcos Springs at the head of the San Marcos River. Camp San Marcos (1840 - 1841) was the initial campsite, but remained along with the fort until the post was withdrawn. Marker at Aquarena Springs Park behind the visitor center.
New Braunfels Forts
(1845 - 1847), New Braunfels
German settlers built two log blockhouses, Zinkenburg (aka Nicolaus Zink's Fort) at Zink Street and Castell Ave., and Sophienburg (aka Princess Sophia's Fort) at Academy and Hill Streets, as defense against Indian attacks. Sophia's Fort replaced Zink's Fort (which was then abandoned) but was never completely finished, and it was destroyed by a storm in 1886. The Sophienburg Museum (admission fee) is on the site of Sophia's Fort. A log church was built in 1850 on the site of Zink's Fort, presently the site of the Sts. Peter and Paul Catholic Church.
A militia camp located at Flore's Ranch on the west side of the Guadalupe River opposite the town. The town was originally founded as Walnut Springs in 1838.
Camp near Cibolo Creek
(1850), Guadalupe County
Located somewhere west or southwest of Seguin.
Presidio de San Antonio de Béjar (Béxar)
and The Alamo
(1718 - 1879), San Antonio
The presidio was built to protect Mission de San Antonio de Valero (originally San Antonio de Padua in 1716) from Indians. In 1722 it was moved two miles downstream, directly across from the mission, at what is now the Military Plaza (Plaza de las Armas) in the present-day downtown area. The presidio was never walled or stockaded for defense, although several plans were proposed. The presidio compound passed into private ownership in 1804. Only the Spanish Governor's Palace (built 1749) still survives intact from the colonial period. It was actually only the residence of the presidio's commanding officer. It was restored in 1930, and is now a museum operated by the city. See also Spanish Governor's Palace from Handbook of Texas Online || Béxar Genealogy
The mission was secularized in 1793 and later garrisoned in 1803 by Mexican troops. The soldiers came from the pueblo of San José y Santiago del Alamo in Coahuila State, Mexico. What became "The Alamo", as we know it today, was the former chapel of the mission (built 1755). By the 1830's the entire complex was referred to as such, as the Alamo had by then became the principal unit of walled-defense for this area, replacing the former presidio for all intents and purposes. The Alamo was captured by Texan forces in December 1835, but in March 1836 the Mexican Army (5000 troops) defeated and killed all 189 Texan defenders holed up in the Alamo during a 13-day battle (with 1500 Mexican deaths). Mexican earthwork artillery siege batteries were emplaced at La Villita (at present-day South Alamo and East Nueva Streets, site excavated in 1985), another on present-day Commerce Street near Navarro Street (Potrero area), one on Presa Street, and another on Soledad Street. The town returned to Texan control in June 1836, establishing Post Béxar at the abandoned Alamo (renamed Post San Antonio (1) in 1839). The Mexican Army returned briefly in September 1842. The U.S. Army arrived in 1845 establishing Camp at the Alamo. The Alamo compound was named Fort San Antonio (2) in 1846 and was still in use during the 1850's. It then later served mainly as the San Antonio Quartermaster Supply Depot until it was moved to Fort Sam Houston (5) in 1879. Confederate forces occupied the post for the duration of the Civil War.
The site of Camp Crockett (2) (1846) is also located in the city, but its location is disputed. A marker is located at the San Pedro Park Library, but some evidence suggests that Brackenridge Park (San Antonio Zoo) may be the actual location (at San Antonio Springs). San Pedro Springs at San Pedro Park was the site of U.S. Army encampments during the Mexican and Civil Wars. See also San Antonio Missions NHP (NPS).
Also somewhere in the area were Camp Uphazy (1854) and Camp Buchanan (1855) (both locations undetermined).
Camp Rusk (1)
(1837), San Antonio
A Texas Ranger camp. Location undetermined.
Camp Sherman (1)
(1837), San Antonio
A Texas Army camp. Location undetermined.
Camp Bell (1)
(1839), San Antonio
A Texas Army camp. Location undetermined.
Camp Edward Clark (1)
(1861), San Antonio
A temporary CSA encampment located on the Alamo Plaza.
Mission de San Francisco de la Espada
(1731 - 1824), San Antonio
Ruins of a fortified Spanish mission compound (walled with a tower bastion) located at 10040 Espada Road, at the southern limit of the city on the San Antonio River. The restored mission church is still used today.
Other Spanish missions in the area are Nuestra Señora de la Purísima de Concepción de Acuña (1731 - 1824) at 807 Mission Road; San Francisco Xavier de Náxara (1722 - 1726) site adjacent to Mission Concepción; San José y San Miguel de Aguayo (1720 - 1824) (with a fortified defensive stone wall and tower bastions (1769)) at 6701 San Jose Drive; and San Juan Capistrano (1731 - 1824) at 9101 Graf Road.
Mission Concepción Parish || Mission San José Church || Mission San Juan Parish
See also San Antonio Missions National Historical Park (NPS) || Handbook of Texas Online
Various units of Texas Rangers, local militia, and some Texas Army units encamped at each of the four extant missions from time to time, between 1839 to 1842. Camp Travis (1) (1837) was possibly located at or near Mission San José.
(1846, 1849), San Antonio
Federal Dragoon troops were posted at Mission Concepción, which was also used as a supply depot in 1849.
Camp Milam (1837) was established here by the Texas Army. Camp Hope (1842) was established on the San Antonio River, probably here, by the Texas Army of the Southwest.
San Antonio Arsenal (1)
(1858 - 1931/1949), San Antonio
A Federal arsenal that originally provided arms and ammunition to troop units guarding the outlying settlements. It was not yet completed when taken over by state forces in February 1861. Rebuilt after the war. The Arsenal was moved to Camp Stanley (2) in 1931, and later became a unit of the San Antonio Ordnance Depot (see Camp Stanley (2) listed below). The original complex continued to be used for Federal government offices after the Army finally closed the site in 1949. The site was sold in 1972, now corporate headquarters of the H-E-B Company, and adjacent city parkland. Three buidings are owned by the city, including the former Post Commander's House, now the Senior Citizens Center. Located on the San Antonio River south of Durango Blvd.. See also The United States Arsenal - Then and Now from King William Association
Camp Wood (2)
(1898), San Antonio
A Spanish-American War assembly camp for Army volunteer cavalry troops (the Rough Riders), located at Riverside Park (100 McDonald Street), adjacent to the state fairgrounds. The tent camp was on the present-day golf course. The parade ground was near the San José Mission. The fairgrounds hosted the San Antonio International Fair and Exposition from 1888 to 1904, and several buildings were used as military barracks in May 1898. After three weeks, the troops departed for Tampa, FL.
Camp Mosby (1898 - 1899) was located at the old Jockey Club Grounds (horse track) along River Ave.. The Jockey Club building was replaced by the Brackenridge Park golf clubhouse in 1923.
Powder House Hill Fort ?
(San Antonio City Cemeteries)
(1807 - 1835 ?, 1863 - 1865), San Antonio
A CSA earthwork built at or near the old Spanish garita (guard/lookout post) on Powder House Hill on the south side of present-day East Commerce Street, now the Historic City Cemetery Number Two, between South Palmetto Ave. and South Piedmont Ave., about one and one-half miles or so southeast of the Alamo compound. The Spanish powder house (18-foot square, one story) and adjacent watchtower (21-foot square, three story or 30 feet high) were built between 1807 - 1810. There are no remains. The first new city cemetery was established nearby in 1853 to replace the original Spanish/Mexican cemetery in town (Milam Park).
See also Alamo Studies Forum
Camp Cooke (2)
(1840), San Antonio
A Texas Army camp located at San Antonio Springs, just north of present-day Brackenridge Park near Olmos Park.
(1845), San Antonio
A Texas Ranger camp on Olmos Creek in the Olmos Park area. The Rangers were brought under U.S. Army control in August 1845. The post was misspelled as Camp Almus in official U.S. Army reports.
(1846, 1860's), San Antonio
Originally established by William Prescott and the TX Volunteers (Adams Rifles). Located on Salado Creek about five miles from downtown, near Salado Junction. This site was used by both sides during the Civil War.
(1842), San Antonio
A Texas militia camp on Salado Creek during the Battle of Salado Creek (September 1842). Site located about six miles northeast of downtown, at Salado Park within the present-day reservation boundary of Fort Sam Houston.
Fort Sam Houston (5) (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1876 - present), San Antonio
This is the Army garrison post that moved from the environs of the Alamo and Military Plaza. Located on Government Hill and originally called San Antonio Barracks. The San Antonio Quartermaster Depot was relocated here in 1879 from the Alamo complex (see above). In 1885 the post became known as Post of San Antonio (3) after the construction of several new barracks and Officers' quarters to accommodate twelve cavalry companies. Renamed in 1890. Permanent quarters were built beginning in 1891. Later became the headquarters post of the U.S. Fourth Army. Camp Wilson (2) (1916 - 1917) was established as a "camp of instruction" in the northern area of the post. The proposed name Camp Cecil Lyon was overruled by the War Department. The main post is now the headquarters of the U.S. Fifth and Sixth Armies, and the U.S. Army Medical Command and Army Medical School. Located on the main post is the Fort Sam Houston Museum in the historic Quadrangle, and the Fort Sam Houston Medical Museum at Stanley and Wurzbach Roads.
See also AMEDD Medical Museum Foundation
Camp John Wise (1918 - 1919) was an Army Balloon School located on leased land four miles north of downtown.
Camp Travis (3) (1917 - 1922) was established to the northeast of the main post, also absorbing Camp Wilson (2), as a National Army cantonment and training area for the 90th Division, and was later a demobilization center. All buildings were later removed, and the land was absorbed into the main reservation. A marker for Camp Travis (3) is on site.
Camp Cushing was established during WWII in a small area east of the Southern Pacific railyards, south of the tracks. (thanks to Robert Thaler for providing correct location)
Camp Normoyle (1917 - 1944) was located across the railroad from Kelly Air Field (1917 - present). It was an Army vocational school in 1920. It became the Quartermaster Ordnance and Engine-Replacement Depot for Kelly Field in WWII.
Camp Bullis (State Military Reservation)
(1917 - present), near Leon Springs
The southern component of the present Leon Springs Military Reservation (established in 1908, expanded in 1917), it was originally a target range and maneuver ground for the Regular Army and Texas National Guard. It became a subpost of Fort Sam Houston (5) in 1922. A cantonment area was constructed in 1930. Became an infantry training area and Selective Service reception area by 1940. Still in use by the state guard, Army Reserve, and Federal and civil law enforcement personnel.
The northern and original component of the reservation is Camp Stanley (2) (1917 - present), originally an infantry training camp, briefly named Camp Funston before it was renamed to avoid confusion with Camp Funston in Kansas. Troop training ceased here when it became the site of the San Antonio Arsenal (2) in 1931, and was consolidated with the San Antonio Ordnance Depot in 1947 to become an ammunition storage subdepot for the Red River Arsenal.
Nearby was Camp Samuel Morse (1917 - 1918), an Army Signal Corps training camp.
(1842), San Antonio
A Texas Army of the Southwest camp located at the Leon Creek crossing of the old road to the Presidio del Rio Grande (Guerrero, Coahuila State), about seven miles southwest of downtown San Antonio, near Heafer.
Camp Cook (2)
(1842), near Von Ormy
A Texas Army of the Southwest assembly camp located at the Medina River crossing of the old road to the Presidio del Rio Grande (Guerrero, Coahuila State), about 13 miles southwest of San Antonio.
(1842), near Von Ormy
A Texas Army of the Southwest assembly camp located on the Medina River about one or two miles downstream from Camp Cook (2).
Military Station at Castroville
(Landmark Inn State Historic Site)
A Federal post. Of interest here is the Landmark Inn at 402 East Florence Street, which was built in 1849.
Hondo Creek Station
(1840), near Biry
A Texas Army outpost located at the Hondo Creek crossing of the old road to the Presidio del Rio Grande (Guerrero, Coahuila State).
(1849 - 1852), near D'Hanis
A Federal infantry post located on the west bank of Seco Creek, one mile northwest of town. Abandoned when the frontier moved further west. Texas Rangers camped at this site in 1848, and returned for a short time after the Federals left. One stone Officers' Quarters still remains on site, no public access allowed (private property). Monument (1936) also at site. See also Texas Escapes.com
Nearby, or the same site, was Camp Seco Creek (1849).
(1862 - 1864), near Tarpley
A CSA Frontier Regiment / Texas Ranger post located at the head of Seco Creek. A marker is located at the Bandera County courthouse in Bandera.
Camp Davant ?
(unknown dates), near Bandera Pass
Camp Verde (1)
(1856 - 1861, 1866 - 1869), Camp Verde
One of the locations for the U.S. Army's "Camel Corps." Abandoned by Federal troops in 1861. The CSA Frontier Regiment established a new Camp Verde (2) in 1862 about three miles from the original post. The Confederates withdrew in 1864. The old post was re-occupied by Federal troops in 1866. A fire in 1910 destroyed most of the then abandoned buildings. The former Officers' Quarters is all that remains on site and is now part of Nowland Ranch. It is not open to the public. A monument (1936) is on site. A barracks was relocated and restored in town as a private residence. See also GhostTowns.com
(1862 - 1864), near Camp Verde
A CSA stockaded POW camp located on a bluff overlooking Verde Creek, about two miles downstream from Camp Verde (1).
(1859 - 1861), near Camp Verde
A Federal cavalry outpost of Camp Verde, located on Turtle Creek about four miles north of Camp Verde (1). Abandoned by the Federals in 1861, and then used by the Confederates intermittently during the Civil War.
Camp Wood (1)
(1857, 1861 - 1867 ?, intermittent), Camp Wood
A Federal cavalry post established near the sites of the old Spanish Mission de San Lorenzo de la Santa Cruz del Cañon (1762 - 1771), and Mission de Nuestra Señora de la Purísima de Concepción Candelaria del Cañon (1762 - 1771). Abandoned at the outbreak of the Civil War. Texas Rangers camped here during the war until a few years after the war.
Camp Guadalupe Mountain
(1855, 1858, 1879 - 1880), near Concan
Known as Camp Guadalupe Peak in 1855.
Camp Sabinal ?
A temporary Federal cavalry post on the west bank of the Sabinal River one mile west of town. Texas Rangers probably used the site afterward intermittently through the Civil War.
(1862 - 1864), near Knippa
A CSA Frontier Regiment / Texas Ranger post at the "Black Waterhole" on the Frio River, seven miles east of Uvalde. Provided protection from Indians and bandits.
Camp on Johnson's Run
(1858), Uvalde County
Located about 40 miles east of Fort Clark (1).
Camp on Turkey Creek
(1854), near Uvalde ?
Located about 42 miles northeast of Fort Duncan (1).
(1854), near Uvalde
A temporary Army camp located about 40 miles southeast of Fort Clark (1). In use from May to July 1854.
(1849 - 1861, 1866 - 1869, intermittent), near Uvalde
A Federal infantry post located two miles south of town on the east bank of the Leona River, four miles above "Woll's Crossing". Originally named Camp Leona. Provided border protection from Indians and Mexican bandits. Intermittently garrisoned between 1855 and 1861. Federal troops withdrew in 1861, and re-occupied it from 1866 to 1869. Texas Rangers afterward camped at the site intermittently up to 1884. Stone foundation ruins still remain. Became a county park in 1961.
Located one-half mile southeast of the fort was Camp near Fort Inge (1853), used for the Mexican Border Commission party.
Camp E.B. Strong
(1855), near Uvalde
A Federal encampment on the Nueces River at "Woll's Crossing", at or near present-day US 90.
(thanks to Charles Lokey for providing location)
Camp Nueces (3)
(1862 - 1864), near La Pryor
A CSA Frontier Regiment / Texas Ranger post at the San Antonio - Eagle Pass Road crossing of the Nueces River (present-day US 57).
(1859), near Derby
Located on the south bank of the Frio River, south of town, along the Old (or Lower) Presidio Road, about halfway between Fort Inge and Fort Merrill.
(thanks to Joey Arnett for providing location)
(1842), near Poteet
A Texas Army of the Southwest camp located on the north bank of the Atascosa River, opposite the rancho of José Antonio Navarro.
(1842), near Jourdantown
A Texas Army of the Southwest camp located between the Atascosa River and La Parita Creek. So named because the horses and mules became trapped in the quicksand-like bogs.
Camp Rio Frio
(1842), near Tilden
A Texas Army of the Southwest camp located at the Frio River crossing of the Lower San Antonio - Laredo Road.
NEED MORE INFO: Undetermined locations: Camp Stuart (date ?).
NOTE: The use of the Texas flag for settler forts before 1836 indicates those settlers of Anglo-American origin, even though Texas did not exist as a separate nation until 1836.
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com