Camp Belknap (1) |
Camp Benavides |
Camp Boveda |
Brazos Island Depot
Fort Brazos Santiago (1) | Fort Brazos Santiago (2) | Post at Brazos Santiago | Fort Brown (2)
Brownsville Barracks | Camp Bugle | Camp Burwell | Camp Casa Blanca | Fort Casa Blanca
Camp Chacón | Fort Clark (1) | Camp Crawford (2) | Post at Davis' Landing | Camp Del Rio
Camp Dolores | Camp Drum | Fort Duncan (1) | Camp El Pico | Camp near Eagle Pass (1)
Camp at Eagle Pass (2) | Post at Eagle Pass | Camp Edinburg | Post at Edinburg | Fort Ewell
Camp Hamilton (2) | Camp Harney | Camp Hidalgo | Camp Independence (2)
Camp Jackson (3) | Cantonment Jackson (1) | Camp at King's Ranch | Camp at Kingman
Camp Kingsville | Fort Kirby | Camp La Peña | Camp La Retama | Laredo Presidio
Station at Las Laxas | Camp Lipantitlán | Fort Lipantitlán | Fort Llando | Camp Lopeño
Fort Lopeño | Camp at Los Ceritos | Camp at Los Lajos | Los Ojuelos Blockhouse
Fort McIntosh (1) | Fort McIntosh (2) | Fort Mercer | Camp Merrill | Fort Merrill
Camp Mitchie | Fort Montgomery | Camp Nueces (2) | Camp on the Nueces River (4)
Old Stone Fort (2) | Camp Palo Alto | Camp Palo Blanco | Fort Pandes | Camp Pendencia
Camp Phelps | Post at Point Isabel | Fort Polk | Port Isabel Res. | Camp Rabb (2)
Fort Ramirez | Post at Rancho de Laxas | Camp at Rancho San Ygnacio
Camp at Rancho Salemna | Camp at Redmand's Ranch | Camp Ricketts | Fort Riley
Ringgold Barracks | Camp Ringgold | Fort Ringgold | Camp on the Rio Grande (1)
Rio Grande Station | Post at Roma | Camp Rosario | Post of San Diego | Camp San Felipe
Post of San Felipe | Post at Santa Maria | San Patricio Fort | Camp San Ygnacio (1)
Camp San Ygnacio (2) | Camp at Salineno | Camp Salintas | Camp at Salt Lake | Camp Sáuz
Camp Shafter (1) | Fort Taylor | Fort Texas | Fort Treviño | Camp Trinidad | Camp Witherall
East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3
North Central Texas - page 4 | Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9
TEXAS HISTORIC SITES ATLAS
TEXAS FRONTIER FORTS
FORT WIKI - TEXAS
Camp Independence (2)
(1841), Nueces County ?
An encampment of Texan marauders and bandits led by James Ownby, of the so-called "San Patricio Rangers", located somewhere "west of the Nueces". They were not sanctioned by the Texas Army or the Republic.
San Patricio Fort
(1841), San Patricio
A settlers' fort of some kind may have been built here in 1841 to protect the town from bandits and Mexican incursions.
Fort Lipantitlán (State Historical Park) ?
(1831 - 1836, 1842), near San Patricio
A Mexican stockaded adobe fort located on the west bank of the Nueces River three miles west of town. Built to prevent new American settlers from arriving in Texas. It was captured by Texan forces in November 1835, but not held immediately thereafter. Abandoned and destroyed by Mexican troops in May 1836.
Texas Army troops established Camp Lipantitlán nearby in June 1842. Mexican troops unsuccessfully attacked in July 1842.
A Spanish presidio was reportedly located here as early as 1734, but was long gone before 1825.
Camp Casa Blanca
(1849, 1852), near Sandia
A Federal supply post on the south side of the Nueces River at the old townsite of Casa Blanca, about 25 miles northwest of Corpus Christi. Regarrisoned in 1852 by Dragoons from Fort Merrill and renamed Camp Merrill.
Fort Casa Blanca
(1862 - 1865), near Sandia
A CSA fortified smuggling camp used by blockade runners coming upriver from Nueces Bay. It was never challenged by the Union.
(1850 - 1855), near George West
A Federal infantry post located on the south or west bank of the Nueces River at the crossing of the San Antonio - Corpus Christi Road, a few miles below town. Served as protection for settlers from Indians. No remains, site on private property.
Camp Trinidad ?
(unknown dates), Lake Trinidad
(unknown - 1813), Live Oak County
A fortified adobe ranchhouse built by the Ramirez family. The family left the area in 1813.
Post of San Diego
(1879), San Diego
An Army subpost.
(1851), near Agua Dulce
Located at the "Charco Grande" of Agua Dulce Creek.
Camp Jackson (3)
(1861 - 1864), near Kingsville
A CSA encampment on the King Ranch, also called Camp at King's Ranch, protecting the Confederacy's "back door" through the Union's coastal blockade, and portal to Mexico via the "Cotton Road".
The Santa Gertrudis Commissary (built 1858, enlarged 1868, 1909) on the King Ranch was also fortified during the war. It now serves as the Wildlife Management Headquarters of King Ranch.
(1915 - unknown), Kingsville
A Federal infantry post at the Kingsville Fairgrounds as a base of operations to protect local ranches and the railroad during the Mexican border troubles.
(1846, 1863), near Riviera
An American encampment on Los Olmos Creek two miles east of town, established by Colonel Zachary Taylor during the Mexican-American War. Occupied again in 1863 by Union forces intercepting Confederate wagon trains bound for Mexico.
Camp at Salt Lake
(1854), Willacy County (?)
Located somewhere north or northwest of Fort Brown (2).
(Port Isabel Lighthouse State Historical Park)
(1846 - 1850), Port Isabel
An American fort and supply depot in support of Fort Brown (2) during the Mexican-American War. It was a six-sided fort with two sides open to the shore. Also known as Post at Point Isabel. The lighthouse was built on the site in 1852. Of interest here is the Port Isabel Historical Museum.
Post at Brazos Santiago
(1830 ? - 1846, 1849 - 1861 intermittent, 1861 - 1865, 1867), Brazos Santiago Island
Originally here on the north end of the island, facing Port Isabel, was Fort Brazos Santiago (1), a Mexican customs house and military outpost at the entrance to Brazos Santiago Pass. Abandoned when the U.S. Army under General Zachary Taylor marched south to the Rio Grande in March 1846. In 1849 it then became Brazos Island Depot, a U.S. Army supply depot and encampment protecting the inlet to Port Isabel and Fort Polk. The compound was composed of eight buildings, manned by three civilians and a rotated three-man guard troop detachment. The marine transfer station (deep draft to shallow draft) for Forts Polk and Brown was also located here on Brazos Santiago Island. Taken over by CSA forces in February 1861, they then built Fort Brazos Santiago (2), a shore battery, after the war started. The post was re-used by the Union from November 1863 until July 1864 while Brownsville was occupied. Re-occupied by the CSA until recaptured by the Union again in 1865 before the war ended. The site was destroyed by a hurricane in 1867, and subsequent dredging operations and jetty building have changed the shape of the island. A state marker is located on South Padre Island in Isla Blanca Park.
(1861), Boca Chica
Federal troops from various posts in southern Texas gathered here in February-March 1861 at the mouth of the Rio Grande to be shipped back out to the northern states just prior to the outbreak of the Civil War.
¤¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of PORT ISABEL
¤¤ Port Isabel Military Reservation
(1942 - 1944), South Padre and Brazos Islands
A two-gun 155mm battery was proposed to be located here, but was never emplaced. A few 37mm AMTB/AA guns may have been located here instead, providing at least minimal protection. This defense was never officially activated as such by the U.S. Southern Defense Command.
(info provided by Bill Gaines of the CDSG)
Camp Palo Alto
(Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site)
(1847), near Los Fresnos
Scene of battle in May 1846.
Camp Belknap (1)
(1846), near Brownsville
Located on the Rio Grande about 15 miles east of Fort Brown (2). Marker at site.
Fort Brown (2)
(History of Texas Southmost College)
(1846 - 1906, 1913 - 1946), Brownsville
An American earthen star-shaped fort originally named Fort Texas and then Fort Taylor. The construction of this fort in March 1846 by General Zachary Taylor helped precipitate the onset of the Mexican-American War. Renamed later in 1846 for Major Jacob Brown who died defending it during a Mexican attack (May 1846). Brownsville Barracks was built in 1848 one-quarter mile from the original fort. Briefly abandoned in 1859 for Fort Duncan (1). Occupied by the Confederates in February 1861, regained by the Union in November 1863, recaptured by the CSA again in July 1864 and held until May 1865. Reoccupied by Union forces after the war ended to keep watch on French actions in Mexico. A new post with brick barracks was built in 1867 adjacent to the original site, but were destroyed by a hurricane that same year. It was rebuilt again in 1869. The fort was abandoned in 1906 after several incidents with the local citizens. Regarrisoned in 1913 during border troubles with Mexico. Many of the original 1870's era buildings are still in use today by Texas Southmost College (since 1948, formerly Brownsville Junior College). The so-called "Quartermaster's Fence", built in 1850, was torn down in 1950 during widening of International Blvd.. Remnants of two original earthen bastions (probably reworked by Confederates in 1862) are still extant on the Fort Brown Memorial Golf Course, off of Riverside Blvd.. Public access to the golf course may be restricted at times by the U.S. Border Patrol. See also Handbook of Texas Online
Located about one and one-half miles upstream on the Rio Grande was Union Fort Montgomery (1864), a three-gun series of interconnected redoubts.
Fort McIntosh (2)
(1868 - 1869), Brownsville
Located one mile from Fort Brown (2).
Camp Hamilton (2)
(1853), near Brownsville
Located in the vicinity of Fort Brown (2).
(1849), near Brownsville
Located two miles above Fort Brown (2).
Post at Santa Maria
(1878 - 1880), Santa Maria
(1853, 1860, 1879 - 1880), Edinburg
Also known as Post at Edinburg.
(1852, 1853, 1865), near Edinburg
Located ten miles north of town.
(unknown date), Hidalgo
(1852), near La Grulla
Located about 20 miles below Fort Ringgold.
(Friends of Fort Ringgold)
(1848 - 1906, 1913 - 1917, 1941 - 1944), Rio Grande City
First known as Post at Davis' Landing, then Camp Ringgold until 1849, then as Ringgold Barracks until 1878. Briefly abandoned for Camp Hudson near Juno in 1859. Abandoned in February 1861 to the Confederates. Held by the Union from 1863 to 1864, and not reoccupied again by Union forces until after the war ended in 1865. Rebuilt in 1869 near the original site. New frame and brick structures replaced the original adobe structures by 1886. Many of these buildings still exist on the east side of town on US 83. A portion of the reservation is presently used by the Rio Grande City Consolidated Independent School District (since 1949) for the elementary and middle school campuses. The so-called Robert E. Lee House (1856) has been restored. See also 1918 Photo Collection from TexasEscapes.com
Located just downriver was Confederate Camp Benavides (1860's), a temporary cavalry encampment.
Post at Roma
Camp at Rancho Salemna
(1854), Starr County ?
Located near Fort Ringgold (?).
(1854, 1856), Salineno
(1821 - unknown), Old Lopeño
An adobe-walled combination home, fort, and chapel built by Mexican settler Benito Ramirez. The home remained standing until it and the old town were inundated by the Falcon Reservoir in 1953. See also Falcon Reservoir: Ghosts of Spanish Ranchos from TexasBeyondHistory.net
(1856), Old Lopeño
A Federal infantry camp that lasted 12 days during the "Cortina War", located adjacent to Fort Lopeño.
Station at Las Laxas
(1850), Zapata County
Located about 50 miles above Fort Ringgold.
Post at Rancho de Laxas
(1854), Zapata County ?
Camp at Redmand's Ranch
(1853), near Chihuahua Farm
Located about 63 miles northwest of Fort Ringgold.
(1853), near Zapata
Located near old Bellville, opposite (Old) Guerrero, Mexico.
(1851 - 1852, 1857), near Zapata
A Federal artillery camp located south of town, opposite the Salado River, seven miles from (Old) Guerrero, Mexico. Camp Bugle was built by the Dragoons concurrently on the same site. The site is now under the waters of the Falcon Reservoir.
Camp San Ygnacio (2)
(1842), near San Ygnacio
A Texan Army of the Southwest post on or near the Arroyo Burro east of town.
(1835 - 1880's), San Ygnacio
A combination home/fort built by Mexican settler Jesús Treviño to protect the townspeople from Indian raids. The sandstone walls, eight feet high and two and one-half feet thick, are still in good shape. Also referred to as the Old Stone Fort (2). Son-in-law Don Blas Maria Uribe expanded the compound in 1851. The town was first settled in 1830. See also History of San Ygnacio by Angelina Castillo
Falcon Reservoir: Ghosts of Spanish Ranchos from TexasBeyondHistory.net
Camp at Rancho San Ygnacio
(unknown dates), near San Ygnacio (?)
Los Ojuelos Blockhouse
(1857 - 1860's), near Mirando City
A blockhouse was built to protect the settlers and the spring from Indian attacks. Site on private property, two and one-half miles south of town. Texas Rangers established a camp here in 1850.
Camp La Retama
(1842), near Laredo
A Texan Army of the Southwest post on or near Dolores Creek, south of town near the angle of the Webb-Zapata County line. Retama Creek, for which it was probably named for by General Alexander Somervell, is too far east to have been the actual location of the camp, according to a modern source.
(1775 - 1846), Laredo
A Spanish presidio was located here to protect the settlers against Apache raids. The town was originally founded in 1755. American troops camped here in March 1846, taking control of the region for the United States.
Of interest in town is the Republic of the Rio Grande Museum (admission fee) at 1000 Zaragoza Street on San Agustin Plaza, commemorating the short-lived (283 days) and unsuccessful breakaway Mexican "Republic of the Rio Grande" (1840), of which Laredo was the capital.
A Texan Army of the Southwest post on Chacón Creek, just east of present-day downtown. The troops attacked the town while they were here.
Fort McIntosh (1)
(Laredo Community College - History of Fort McIntosh)
(1849 - 1946), Laredo
A Federal infantry post first called Camp Crawford (2) until 1850. Abandoned to the Confederates from February 1861 until May 1865. Re-occupied by Federal troops in October 1865. Originally a star-shaped earthwork before the war, rebuilt as a permanent post with wood-frame buildings in 1868, one-half mile below the original site. Brick buildings were constructed by the end of the century. Became an important border post during the Mexican Revolution and both world wars. Some of the later buildings still remain, currently in use by Laredo Community College (since 1947), including the guardhouse, chapel, warehouse, and commissary. Traces of the old earthwork fort still remain. Of interest in town is the Nuevo Santander Museum Complex on Washington Street.
(1859), near Laredo
Located near Fort McIntosh (1).
Camp San Ygnacio (1)
(1842), near Laredo
A Texan Army of the Southwest post on the Lower San Antonio - Laredo Road, on San Ygnacio Creek about 12 miles northeast of town.
(1854), near Laredo
Located northwest of town along the Rio Grande.
Camp at Los Ceritos
(1855), near Laredo ?
Camp El Pico
(1855), Webb County
Located about 15 miles northwest of Laredo.
(1852 - 1854, 1859, 1864), near Encinal
A Federal Dragoon adobe fort on the south bank of the Nueces River, about 25 miles southeast of Cotulla, at the river crossing of the San Antonio - Laredo Road. Moved to higher ground in 1854 before being abandoned. Confederates occupied the site in 1864 as a supply depot. The abandoned buildings later became the start of the town of La Salle, which was the county seat until 1882. No remains except for trace mounds and slight excavations. Site is marked on private property.
Camp Nueces (2)
(1842), near Cotulla
A Texan Army of the Southwest post on the south bank of the Nueces River at the Lower San Antonio - Laredo Road crossing, in the southeast corner of La Salle County.
(1842), near Cotulla
A Texan Army of the Southwest post on the north bank of the Nueces River near Sauz Creek, near the Lower San Antonio - Laredo Road crossing, in the southeast corner of La Salle County.
Camp La Peña
(1854), near Carrizo Springs
Located about 43 miles southeast of Fort Duncan (1).
(1859), near Carrizo Springs
Located about 35 miles east-southeast of Fort Duncan (1).
Camp Shafter (1)
(1873), near Carrizo Springs
A Federal cavalry post located about 26 miles southeast of Fort Duncan (1) on Comanche Creek.
Fort Duncan (1)
(Fort Duncan Museum)
(1846, 1849 - 1865, 1868 - 1883, 1886 - 1927, 1942 - 1945), Eagle Pass
A Federal infantry post originally named Camp near Eagle Pass (1) or Camp on the Rio Grande (1) until 1850 when permanent quarters were built. Camp Burwell was established nearby in 1855. Briefly abandoned in 1859. Abandoned by Federal troops in 1861. The CSA Frontier Regiment established Rio Grande Station here in April 1862. Attacked by Mexican bandits in June 1864. The last official surrender of Confederate troops in the West occurred here in July 1865. Re-occupied by Federal troops in 1868. Abandoned in 1883 because the government could not make a deal to purchase the land.
A Federal cavalry post was established nearby in 1886 called Camp at Eagle Pass (2) or Post at Eagle Pass, as a subpost of Fort Clark (1) to protect the border. The original Fort Duncan site was then rebuilt and regarrisoned in 1894 after government purchase. The first military cross-country flight made a stop here in 1911. After closing again in 1927, the post was maintained as a city park until 1942. During World War II, the country club (former barracks) became the Officers' Club for the nearby Eagle Pass Army Air Force Advanced Flying School. Seven original (1890's) buildings still remain from the old fort. The old Post Headquarters building is now a museum (admission fee) operated by the city.
Camp Rabb (2)
(1862 - 1864), near Eagle Pass
A Texas Ranger / CSA Frontier Regiment post located northeast of town at the Elm Creek crossing of the Eagle Pass - San Antonio Road.
Cantonment Jackson (1)
Located northeast of Fort Duncan (1).
Fort Clark (1)
(Friends of the Fort Clark Historic District)
(1852 - 1862, 1866 - 1946), Brackettville
A Federal infantry post originally named Fort Riley, located at the head of Las Moras Creek. Renamed in 1852. Soldiers of the day dreaded being posted here. Permanent quarters were not built until 1857. The post was used by Confederate troops from March 1861 until August 1862, then totally abandoned until re-garrisoned by Federal cavalry in 1866. The guardhouse was built in the 1870's and was used as the Military Police headquarters. A new stockade was reconstructed in 1942. Most of the reservation is now a private resort/retirement complex called Fort Clark Springs, developed in 1971. The Old Guardhouse Museum is operated by the Fort Clark Historical Society. See also Handbook of Texas Online
Fort Clark and the Rio Grande Frontier from TexasBeyondHistory.net
Of interest nearby is Alamo Village, the 1959 movie set location of the John Wayne film "The Alamo". Admission fee.
Camp Del Rio
(1857 - 1891), near Del Rio
An intermittent camp site on San Felipe Creek, not regularly garrisoned until 1876. Used by the Confederates during the Civil War. Federal cavalry established Post of San Felipe, or Camp San Felipe, in 1876 for border protection, as a subpost of Fort Clark (1). Renamed in 1881.
(1914 - 1922), near Del Rio
A U.S. Army border patrol post at San Felipe Springs. Possibly at or near the site of Camp Del Rio.
NEED MORE INFO: Undetermined locations: Camp on the Nueces River (4) (1879); Camp Palo Blanco (1855) possibly Palo Blanco in Zavala County or Palo Blanco Creek in Maverick County - OR - Palo Blanco in Willacy County or Palo Blanco Creek in Brooks County; Camp at Kingman (1885); Camp at Los Lajos (1856); Camp Rosario (1860); Camp Salintas (1855); Fort Mercer (1850-53, 55, 65).
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"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com