Camp Albert |
Camp Baker |
Camp Barrell Springs |
Camp Bierne |
Brite's Ranch Fort | Camp Burbank | Camp Cass | Castolon Barracks | Castolon Depot
Fort Cíbolo | Relay Station at Fort Cíbolo | El Fortin del Cíbolo | Fort Ciénega
El Fortin de la Ciénaga | Camp Concordia | Fort Davis (1) | Camp on Dias e Ocho Creek
Camp at Eagle Mountain | Camp at Eagle Springs
Fort El Morita | Post of El Paso | Camp at Escondido | Camp at Faver's Ranch
Camp at Franklin | Camp at Frazier's Ranch | Camp Glenn Springs | Fort Hancock
Camp Holland | Fort Holland | Camp Holmes | Camp Independence Spring | Camp La Moras
Camp La Noria | Fort Lajitas | Camp Lancaster | Fort Lancaster | Camp Langtry (1)
Camp Langtry (2) | Fort Leaton | Camp near Limpia Creek | Camp on Live Oak Creek
Camp Marfa | Camp Melbourne | Camp Melvin | Camp Meyers | Fort Meyers
Camp at Meyers Spring | Fort Moritas | El Fortin de la Morita | Camp near Mountain Peak
Camp at Neville Springs | Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pilar y Gloriosa San José
Camp at Ojo Caliente | Post Opposite El Paso del Norte | Camp at Pecan Springs
Camp at the Pecos Crossing | Camp Pecos River (1) | Camp on the Pecos River (3)
Post Pecos River (2) | Camp Peña Colorado | Camp Perdido | Pine Springs Camp (1)
Camp Pope | Pope's Camp | Camp at Pope's Well | Camp Presidio (2) | Camp near Presidio (1)
Fort Quitman | Camp Rainbow Cliffs | Camp Relief | Camp Rice | Camp on the Rio Grande (2)
Fort D.A. Russell | Camp Santa Elena | Presidio de San Eleazario | Post of San Elizario
Camp at Presidio de San Elizario | Camp Santa Helena | El Fortin de San José
Camp at Seven Springs | Camp Shafter (2) | Camp at Smith's Ranch | Camp Stockton
Fort Stockton | Camp Van Camp (2) | Camp Willow Springs
East Texas - page 1 | Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3
North Central Texas - page 4 | Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6
Southern Texas - page 7 | West Texas - page 8
TEXAS HISTORIC SITES ATLAS
FORT WIKI - TEXAS
Camp on the Pecos River (3)
(1878 - 1880), near Langtry
Located at the mouth of the Pecos River.
Camp Langtry (1)
An Army camp to protect the railroad construction crews. Site located on a slight rise to the northeast of the center of town.
Camp Langtry (2)
(1914 - 1917), Langtry
A U.S. Army border patrol post. Undetermined location, possibly (?) the same site as the 1885 camp site.
(1873 - 1885, intermittent), near Dryden
An intermittent outpost of Fort Clark (1) for black Seminole Indian scouts, known as the "Black Watch", located in Meyers Canyon near Meyers Spring. Known as Fort Meyers in one 1878 reference. Mainly a tent camp site, it later consisted of fifteen one-room adobe huts. A settlers' stone house (1884) was also built nearby. The scouts patrolled the area to protect the water supply and area settlers from Indian attack. Ruins remain. Site excavated in 2007-2009 by Texas Tech University. Private property, but annual tours can be arranged through the Rock Art Foundation. See also Rock Art Foundation April 2011 Newsletter
Nearby, or the same site, was Camp at Meyers Spring (1880).
Fort Lancaster (State Historical Park)
(1855 - 1861, 1862, 1867 - 1871, intermittent), near Sheffield
A Federal infantry post on Live Oak Creek, it guarded the Pecos River crossing of the San Antonio - El Paso Road. Originally called Camp Lancaster, renamed in 1856. Intermittently used by the Confederates during the Civil War, and briefly re-occupied by the U.S. in 1867, 1868, and 1871. Ruins remain. See also Over-Land.com
One mile from the fort was Camp on Live Oak Creek (1854, 1867).
(1868 - 1871), near Iraan
A subpost of Fort Lancaster located on the north or east bank of the Pecos River two miles west of present-day TX 349 in Crockett County. Also known as Camp Melbourne and Camp at the Pecos Crossing. The site was later known by many other assorted names. A stage station operated here from 1868 - 1881.
Camp at Escondido
(1878), near Bakersfield
Camp Van Camp (2)
(1859), near Fort Stockton
Located about 13 miles northeast of Fort Stockton.
Camp at Frazier's Ranch
(1879), near Fort Stockton
Camp at Pecan Springs
(1878 - 1880), near Fort Stockton
(1859 - 1861, 1867 - 1886), Fort Stockton
A Federal infantry post at Comanche Springs on Comanche Creek, originally named Camp Stockton until 1860. Named after Navy Commodore Robert F. Stockton who captured California for the United States. This was an outpost on the Butterfield Overland Mail Route. It was abandoned in 1861 when the state seceded. The Confederates then briefly occupied it, but they also soon abandoned it. Re-garrisoned in 1867 by Federal cavalry and rebuilt on its present site. Some adobe ruins and three adobe Officers' quarters on Officers' Row remain on Williams Street between Fourth and Fifth Streets. Two barracks have been reconstructed. Owned by the city, operated by the Fort Stockton Historical Society. Admission fee. See also Handbook of Texas Online || Tour Texas.com
Capt. John Pope's Camp
(1855 - 1858, 1868), Loving County
A water drilling camp built by the Army Topographical Engineers, protected by a Dragoon company. It was composed of a star-shaped adobe wall surrounding several adobe/stone buildings. Located 300 yards east of the Pecos River at Red Bluff Springs near the New Mexico state border, about three miles north of Red Bluff Dam. Also known as Camp at Pope's Well, Camp Pope, and Post Pecos River (2). Also later used as a Butterfield stage station. Re-occupied again in 1868 as Camp Pope. Stone ruins and foundation outlines still remain on site.
Big Bend Military Posts
(Big Bend National Park)
(1903 - 1911, 1916 - 1920), Castolon
First located here was Castolon U.S. Army Depot (1903 - 1911) to supply troops for border patrol duty. Camp Santa Helena (also spelled Santa Elena) was established nearby in 1916 by the U.S. Cavalry. A permanent garrison post for the Army's border patrol operations (Castolon Barracks) was built in 1919. However, the Mexican border crisis settled down by then, and the new post was abandoned without ever being actually utilized. The former Mess Hall became the "new" La Harmonia Store in 1921. The rest of the post was sold off in 1925. The National Park was developed in 1944. Five other original adobe miltary buildings still remain. See also GhostTowns.com
Also located in the Big Bend area were Johnson's Ranch U.S. Army Aircorps Airfield (1929 - 1943), Camp Glenn Springs (1916 - 1920), and Camp La Noria (date ?), northeast of Rio Grande Village.
Camp at Neville Springs
(Big Bend National Park)
(1885), Big Bend
A semi-permanent outpost with stone barracks. Located in Big Bend National Park on the Grapevine Hills Trail, 1.25 miles east of the modern campground on Government Springs Road. Some stone ruins still remain.
(1915 - 1920), Lajitas
A U.S. Army border patrol post. No remains.
El Fortin de San José
(1773 - 1810), near Presidio
A Spanish outpost which was garrisoned by troops from nearby Presidio del Norte located in Ojinaga, Chihuahua. (see MEXICO page) The abandoned post may have become the private residence of Mexican settler Juan Bustillos in 1830. However, contrary to early markers once located here, this was not later the site of Fort Leaton.
Spanish missions located in the immediate area included: El Señor San José (1715); San Cristóbal (1715); San Antonio de Padua (1715); and San Antonio de los Puliques (1747) (all locations undetermined). Mission of the Cibolos (1715) was located north somewhere on Cibolo Creek near Shafter.
Fort Leaton (State Historical Park)
(1848 - 1875), near Presidio
A fortified settlers' 200-foot square adobe home/trading post, built by Ben Leaton, located four miles east of town on the Rio Grande. Intermittently used by Federal troops on occasion. Leaton died in 1851, and his family sold the fort to pay off debts. The next owner was killed by Leaton's son in 1875. The compound then fell into disuse as a general trade post, but was still occupied as a residence until the 1920's. Renovated in the 1930's, and became a state park in 1968.
Camp La Moras
(1854), near Presidio
Located north of Fort Leaton.
Camp near Presidio (1)
(1880 - 1883), Presidio
Possibly at Fort Leaton.
Camp Presidio (2)
(1914 or 1915 - 1920 ?), Presidio
A U.S. Army border patrol post. Located three blocks north of Main Street.
Camp Shafter (2)
(1916 - 1920), Shafter
Built by the Texas National Guard for border patrol and to protect the area's mines from Mexican bandits. Two adobe buildings still remain, plus ruins of a few others.
(Cibolo Creek Ranch Resort)
(1857 - 1890's ?), near Shafter
A private quadrangular adobe-walled fort with two circular watchtowers, located on Cibolo Creek four miles northwest of town. Also known as El Fortin del Cíbolo, it was the headquarters of Milton Faver's ranching empire that covered much of Presidio County. Intermittently used by Federal troops from Fort Davis, known as Relay Station at Fort Cíbolo (date ?), and Camp at Faver's Ranch (1879). Faver died in 1889, and his holdings were passed to his wife Francisca and son Juan, then later sold off to the Greenwood family in 1924. Privately reconstructed and restored from 1990-94, it is a rare example of a private fort still remaining in the Big Bend region. Now operated as the Cibolo Creek Ranch Resort. Faver also had a trading store at nearby Presidio Del Norte (present-day Ojinaga, Chihuahua).
Other nearby establishments of the Faver ranching empire were Fort Ciénega (aka El Fortin de la Ciénaga) (1857 - 1890's ?), located at Ciénaga Springs six miles east of town; and Fort Moritas (aka El Fortin de la Morita) (1857 - 1865), closer to Shafter. Both were constructed similar to Fort Cibolo, and both were also intermittently garrisoned by Federal troops. Fort Morita was attacked and captured by Apache Indians in or shortly after 1865. Fort Ciénaga was unsuccessfully attacked in 1871. Both are now restored, and are also units of the Cibolo Creek Ranch Resort.
Fort D. A. Russell
(Chinati Foundation - History of Camp Marfa-Fort Russell)
(Hacienda del Arcon Museum)
(1913 - 1946), Marfa
Originally called Camp Albert, then renamed Camp Marfa in 1914, it was a supply post for the U.S. Army border patrol. This was a cavalry camp during the Mexican Revolution, and became a permanent post in 1929, transferring the name from the closed Wyoming post. Briefly deactivated from 1933 to 1935, it reopened with field artillery units and was used during World War II for chemical warfare training and to house German POWs after 1943. After closing, many of the quarters became private residences. The Chinati Foundation opened in 1986, using several of the remaining buildings as an art museum. See also PHOTOS from Dick Schmitt
Building 98, the former Officers' Club, has been preserved since 2003 as the Hacienda del Arcon by the International Women's Foundation, where two rooms have large painted murals done by German POWs in 1945. Of interest in town is the Marfa and Presidio County Museum, at 110 West San Antonio Street, with exhibits of the fort.
Brite's Ranch Fort
(1918 - 1920 ?), near Candelaria
A concrete blockhouse built on Lucas Brite's Ranch near Capote Peak in western Presidio County, after the ranch was raided and looted by Mexican bandits on December 25, 1917. Three civilians were killed before 200 U.S. Army Cavalry troops arrived and drove off the intruders and persued them into Mexico the following day, killing 18 of them in a canyon near Pilares, Chihuahua and recovering some of the stolen goods. Texas Rangers were then posted here for a few years afterwards.
Camp (Cantonment) Peña Colorado
(1879 - 1893), near Marathon
A Federal outpost originally known as Camp Rainbow Cliffs until 1880. Located about four miles southwest of town, it was established to prevent Indian raids into Mexico and to open a wagon road from Fort Davis (1) to Fort Clark (1). It was raided by Apaches in 1881. In 1893 it was abandoned after western Texas was cleared of hostile Indians. Site is marked on private property. Several original wood-frame buildings possibly still remain, used as a ranch headquarters of the Combs Cattle Company.
(unknown date), Brewster County ?
Located about 40 miles east of Fort Davis (1).
Camp Willow Springs
(1885), near Alpine ?
Located southeast of Fort Davis (1).
Fort Davis (1) (National Historic Site)
(1854 - 1862, 1867 - 1891), Fort Davis
A Federal infantry post, originally located in the box canyon near Limpia Creek, consisting of a shabby collection of pine-slab huts. A Comanche Indian campsite was previously located here, known as "Painted Comanche Camp" or "Painted Camp on the Limpia". Confederates occupied the post from 1861 to 1862, it then remained mostly deserted for five years, except for Indians and Mexican bandits. A new post on the flat plain at the mouth of the canyon was established in 1867, and completed in 1880, first with stone buildings, then adobe, about 50 buildings total. It was home to the Buffalo Soldiers until 1885. The restored barracks serves as the museum and visitor center. Of interest in town is the Fort Davis Historical Society Museum. See also Handbook of Texas Online
Fort Davis and the Trans-Pecos Trails from TexasBeyondHistory.net
Army camps located in the general vicinity of Fort Davis included Camp Relief (1855), Camp near Mountain Peak (1856), and Camp at Seven Springs (1878 - 1879) (undetermined locations).
Camp near Limpia Creek
(1853, 1855), near Fort Davis
Located about 15 miles north of Fort Davis (1). Also known as Camp Burbank in 1855.
Camp Barrell Springs
(1860), near Toyahvale
Located northeast of Fort Davis (1) near the Barrilla Mountains.
(1918 - 1922), Vieja Pass, near Valentine
A U.S. Army border patrol post located about 12 miles west-southwest of town at Canyon Springs, on what was then the J.R. Holland Ranch. Built in response to Pancho Villa's raids into Texas. Several stone buildings still remain on the Miller Ranch (private property). The owners allow site visits with permission. A 1936 monument is located here commemorating the so-called "Last Battle with the Apaches" which occurred here in June 1880. See also Texas Escapes.com || Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo || GhostTowns.com
Previously located here or nearby was Camp Holland (1914 - 1918).
Located about six miles further west on the former Quinn Ranch was the Army border patrol post Camp on Dias e Ocho Creek (1914 - 1918). There are trace remnants of this post, site accessible only with 4x4 vehicles. Located on the 96 Ranch (private property).
Pine Springs Camp (1)
(Guadalupe Mountains National Park)
(1878), near Pine Springs
A subpost of Fort Davis (1). Located between the upper and lower Pine Springs, near the stone ruins of the 1858 Pinery Butterfield stage station, and near the present-day Guadalupe Mountains National Park visitor center. Site first mapped in 1970, excavated in 2004. See also Buffalo Soldiers, the Apache Wars, and Archaeology from About.com
Camp at Eagle Mountain
(1880), near Allamoor
Camp at Eagle Springs
(1854, 1879 - 1880), near Sierra Blanca
Located south of town. Also known as Camp Cass in 1854.
Camp on the Rio Grande (2)
(1880), near Fort Quitman
Located below Fort Quitman.
Camp at Ojo Caliente
(1880), near Fort Quitman
Located on the Rio Grande below Fort Quitman.
(1858 - 1863, 1868 - 1877, 1881 - 1882), Fort Quitman
A Federal infantry post protecting the stage line. Taken over by the Confederates in 1861, and briefly occupied by Union troops from California in 1862 - 1863. Regarrisoned in 1868. Regarrisoned again during Apache troubles. No remains, only the post cemetery remains today, four miles north of the fort site. An adobe-walled tourist replica of the fort was once located at "Tommy's Town" on I-10 near Esperanza. See also GhostTowns.com
(1881 - 1895), Fort Hancock
A Federal cavalry post, initially a subpost of Fort Davis (1), and originally named Camp Rice, that replaced Fort Quitman. In 1882 it moved from its original location (about six miles northwest of Fort Quitman) to a site along the Southern Pacific Railroad. Six weeks later it moved again to its present location to the west on higher ground, still along the railroad. It became an independent post in 1884 and was officially renamed in 1886. No remains, site marked on Old US 80.
Presidio de San Eleazario
(San Elizario Historic District)
(1789 - 1846, 1847, 1849 - 1851, 1861 - 1862), San Elizario
Formally called Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pilar y Gloriosa San José, it was moved to its present site in 1789 from El Porvenir, Chihuahua, Mexico (the "Valley of San Eleazario"). An adobe-walled compound, originally located on the south bank of the river, the Rio Grande shifted to the south in 1829, thus creating an "island" where the settlements were located. The presidio remained garrisoned by Mexican troops up until the Mexican-American War. American troops briefly established Camp at Presidio de San Elizario in 1847. The U.S. Army formally established Post of San Elizario here in 1849. Occupied by Confederates in 1861, and by California Union troops in 1862. The presidio was gradually dismantled over time by settlers. The mission chapel was rebuilt in 1882 on the original site, and is still in use today. See also Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo
Fort Bliss (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1849 - present), El Paso
Originally called Post of El Paso, or Post Opposite El Paso del Norte, built to protect settlers from Indians and to assert authority over newly acquired Mexican lands. Also known as Camp at Franklin or Camp at Smith's Ranch. The original location was on Coon's (later Smith's) Ranch in Franklin, the site of the present-day Civic Center (near Main and Santa Fe Streets). Vacated in 1851 for Fort Fillmore, NM, but regarrisoned in 1853 on a new site in Magoffinsville (near Magoffin and Octavia Streets), and renamed in 1854. The Confederates occupied the vacated fort in late March 1861 to carry out their New Mexico-Arizona campaign. California Union troops drove the Confederates out in June 1862, but not before the fort was burned and the military stores looted. The fort was not re-garrisoned again until October 1865. Camp Concordia was established in 1868 three miles northeast on the Stephenson Ranch, near Concordia Cemetery (near junction of I-10 and US 54), after the old fort was encroached upon by the Rio Grande floodwaters in 1867 and officially abandoned in March 1868. In 1869 the new camp was renamed Fort Bliss. Briefly abandoned from January 1877 until January 1878, when the post was re-established and moved back towards the river, using rented quarters at the public square (Jacinto Plaza) until yet another site was selected in 1880 on a bluff overlooking the river on the west side of town (Hart's Mill). The Rio Grande and El Paso Railroad was granted a right-of-way across the parade ground in the late 1880's, so a final move occurred in 1893 to its present location on La Noria Mesa. Two original brick Officers' Quarters still exist at the Hart's Mill site, now modern apartments located along I-10 at 1836-44 West Paisano Drive. Biggs Army Air Field was built in 1919, formally named in 1925, and has the third longest paved runway in the United States. The post became an anti-aircraft artillery training center in 1940. Became the headquarters of the Army's Air Defense Command in 1946. The Fort Bliss and Old Ironsides Museum and the Museum of the Non-Commissioned Officer are located on post. A replica of the original adobe fort (four adobe buildings) is located at the Old Fort Bliss Museum, also on post. A stone monument to the original post is located near the 1853 site at Magoffin Ave. and Willow Street. The original name of the settlement in 1848 was Franklin, and in 1853 it was renamed Magoffinsville. See also PHOTOS from On Walkabout.com
Other camps associated with Fort Bliss were Camp Owen Bierne (1916 - 1919), a border patrol post located eight miles east of town on the current military reservation, and Camp Newton Baker (1916 - 1920), located three miles northeast of town, which served as a mobilization center for border patrols, and as an Army Signal Corps training camp (1917).
The old Spanish Presidio of El Paso del Norte (1683 - 1773) was located across the river in El Paso del Norte, now present-day Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (renamed in 1888), which protected the Guadalupe Mission. (see MEXICO page) Other Spanish missions in the area include Nuestra Señora del Carmen (1681), also known as Corpus Christi de la Ysleta, located at 131 South Zaragosa Road, which was once on the Mexican side of the river before the river changed course in 1829; and Nuestra Señora de la Concepción del Socorro (1682) in Socorro, originally located near Fabens, but moved to its present site (328 South Nevarez Road) after an Indian revolt in 1683, and was also once on the Mexican side of the river before 1829. The Chamizal National Memorial (Mexico's El Chamizal National Park) denotes the 1964 border adjustment made by President Lyndon Johnson. This parcel of land was originally part of Mexico after the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, but the river changed its course in 1864, leaving this section on the American side of the river. It was claimed but never formally annexed by the United States. This is the only piece of territory ever given back to Mexico after the Mexican-American War.
Ysleta Mission Church || La Purisima Mission Church
(1856), El Paso
Located on the Rio Grande about 12 miles upstream from old Magoffinsville. The Rio Grande no longer flows within its original channel through this area due to past flooding.
NEED MORE INFO: Undetermined locations: Camp Pecos River (1) (1849, 1854); Camp Independence Spring (1856) possibly located on Independence Creek in Pecos County (?).
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com