American Forts: West


Camp Arnold | Bennett's Fort | Camp Berlin | Camp Blundell | Fort Boggy | Box's Fort
Bradshaw's Fort | Camp Brazos | Camp Brenham | Camp Brower | R. Brown's Fort
Fort Burleson | Post of the Caddos | Poste des Cadodaquious | Camp Carter (1)
Camp Carter (2) | Camp Chambers (2) | Clapp's Blockhouse | Camp Clear Creek
Camp Clever | J. Cook's Fort | Fort Crawford | Camp Crump | Camp Davis (1) | Fort Le Dout
Dunn's Fort | Durst's Fort | Fort Duty (2) | Erwin's Fort | Camp Felder | Camp Ford
Fort François | Camp Franklin | Fort Franklin | Camp Freeman | French Fort | Camp Groce
Hallmark's Fort | Camp Harris | Fort Harvey | Camp Hebért | Fort Henderson
Fort Houston (1) | Fort Howard | Jefferson Quartermaster Depot | Camp Johnston
Fort Jourdin | Fort Kickapoo | Lacy's Fort | Fort Lamar (1b) | Fort Lamar (2)
Camp Lauderdale | Camp Liendo | Marlin's Fort | Marshall Ordnance Works | Master's Fort
Fort Milam (1) | Fort Milam (2) | Post Milam | Camp Millican | Fort Mud | Camp Nacogdoches
Fort Nacogdoches | Nacogdoches Post | Camp Nashville | Fort Nashville | Camp Nichols
Old Stone Fort (1) | Oldham's Fort | Parker's Fort | Camp Randle | Camp Rusk (2)
Camp Rusk (3) | Post Sabine (2) | Post Sabine (3) | Fort St. Louis de Carlorette
Fort San Luiz de Cadodachos | Fort Saline | Fort Sarahville de Viesca | Fort Scott (1)
Camp Sherman (3) | Fort Sherman | Fort Skerrett | Spanish Bluff Fort | Fort Sterling
Camp Stroud | Fort Sullivan | Fort Tenoxtitlán | Fort Terán | Presidio of Texas | Fort Turan
Tyler Ordnance Works | Fort Viesca | Presidio de la Virgen de los Dolores de los Tejas
Walker's Fort | Post Washington | Camp Waul | Fort Wheelock | Woodward's Spring Camp

Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3 | North Central Texas - page 4
Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6 | Southern Texas - page 7
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9



Last Update: 29/NOVEMBER/2015
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2015 American Forts Network

Post of the Caddos
(1719 - 1767 ?, 1770 - 1773 ?), near Barkman
A French stockaded trading post built by Jean Baptiste Bénard de La Harpe at a Caddo (Nasoni) Indian village somewhere on the south bank of the Red River below Spanish Bluff (about six miles northeast of New Boston). Exact location undetermined. One source speculates possibly at Roseborough Lake, northeast of town, south of Ashdown, Arkansas. Also referred to as Poste des Cadodaquious, after the French pronunciation of "Kadohadacho", the Caddo Indian name for this area. The French maintained control here until after the Louisiana cession to Spain. The Spanish attempted to re-establish the post in 1770 as Fort San Luiz de los Cadodachos. The name Fort St. Louis de "Carlorette" is an American misnomer.

Fort Mud
(1863), near Clarksville
A CSA river defense. Undetermined location.

Camp Blundell
(1838), near Blodgett
A Texas Ranger post located on or near Blundell and Cypress Creeks, on or near the farm of William Blundell.

Fort Sherman
(Lake Bob Sandlin State Park)
(1838 - 1839), near Blodgett
A Texas Ranger post located along the Cherokee Trail, one mile north of the Cypress Creek crossing, about 13 miles southwest of Mount Pleasant. No remains. The Miller Cemetery (aka Fort Sherman Cemetery) is located on or near the site, within the state park.

Located somewhere on Cypress Creek in the general vicinity was Camp Sherman (3) (1840), a Texas Ranger post.

Camp Davis (1)
(1840), Titus County ?
A Texas Ranger post located somewhere in what was then Red River County, possibly along either Big Cypress Creek or the Sulphur River.

Camp Crump
(1862), Jefferson
A CSA cavalry encampment.

Jefferson CSA Quartermaster Depot
(1862 - 1865), Jefferson
A major CSA Quartermaster Supply Depot for northeast Texas. Marker located on 200 block of West Austin.

Marshall CSA Ordnance Works
(1863 - 1865), Marshall
A Confederate ordnance facility built in August 1863 after the loss of Confederate control of central Arkansas. Equipment from the arsenal in Arkadelphia, AR was sent here. A powder mill was in full operation by the summer of 1864. The arsenal (mostly for small arms repair) was completed before May 1865, but was abandoned to Federal forces as they occupied the town, and was soon dismantled. Site was excavated in the late 1970's before highway construction destroyed the site. Marker located on FM 390 one mile west of US 59. From 1863, the town was also the headquarters of the CSA Trans-Mississippi Department Medical Bureau and Postal Service, plus the location of two military hospitals and a commissary.
(thanks to Randy Gilbert for providing additional info)

Fort Crawford
(1839 - 1869), near Hallsville
A Texas Ranger post. Originally a settlers' fort built by W.C. Crawford in 1837 or 1838 prior to the 1839 Cherokee War, it was never attacked. Located about three miles southwest of town.

Camp Harris
(1839), near Owentown
A Texas Army camp during the Cherokee War (July 1839), located at or near the house of Delaware Chief Harris. Located near the present-day Harris Creek Baptist Church, about nine miles northeast of Tyler.

French Fort
(18th century), near Hoard
An unnamed French fort or fortified trade post was supposedly located on the Sabine River or on Lake Fork Creek. The site is labeled "Le Dout" on an early map. The Woldert Archaeological Site, located on Lake Fork Creek about five miles above the Sabine River, a few miles south of Hainesville, was excavated in 1989 and may be the fort site.

Camp Woodlief
(1839), near Grand Saline ?
A Texas Army camp during the Cherokee War (July 1839). Exact location undetermined, possibly near Lake Burleson in eastern Smith County.

Camp Ford
(1862 - 1865), Tyler
Originally established as the CSA Eastern Camp of Instruction for the State of Texas in April 1862. A POW camp, which became the largest west of the Mississippi River, was built adjacent to the training camp in August 1863, stockaded in November 1863 (at four acres), and expanded in April 1864 (over ten acres) before an influx of thousands of additional prisoners. Over 5000 POWs were held here in the summer of 1864. The last prisoners were released in May 1865. A marker is on US 271 two miles northeast of town. Now a county park managed by the Smith County Historical Society. See also ||

Tyler CSA Ordnance Works
(1863 - 1865), Tyler
Originally established in 1862 as the private firm of Short, Biscoe and Company, it contracted with the Texas Military Board for 500 Mississippi Rifles. The firm had erected buildings and obtained equipment but never went into production primarily due to the inability to obtain sufficient labor. The company was purchased by the C.S. Ordnance Bureau in August 1863, who then began operations in October 1863 as the Tyler Ordnance Works. The workers from the Little Rock Arsenal were transferred here. Under the command of Lt. Col Gabriel Hill, the facility operated reasonably efficiently until it was closed and abandoned in May 1865. During its operations, it produced, among other things, 2,652,601 small arms cartridges, 2,223 long arms, and 12,000 sets of accoutrements. The facility had 17 structures at the main complex, plus two leased buildings on the town square that were used for the office and cartridge laboratory. At the main facility, located at present-day South Robertson and Mockingbird Lane, among other structures was a large 100 x 30 foot two-story brick main building, a two-story “T” shaped frame barracks, and a 20 x 30 foot brick magazine enclosed within a brick wall. At the end of the war, Hill had the foundations built and brick made for an even larger manufacturing building. Nothing remains of the facility. The two buildings on the square were razed in 1978-79. Historical markers are located at 515 Mockingbird Lane, South College Ave. and West 4th Streets, and 106 East Ferguson. Exhibits are on display at the Smith County Historical Society Museum.
(thanks to Randy Gilbert for providing info)

Camp Rusk (2)
(1839), Redland
A Texas Army camp during the Cherokee War (July 1839).

Camp Carter (1)
(1839), near Chandler
A Texas Army camp during the Cherokee War (July 1839). Located on the site of the first battle of the conflict, near a Delaware Indian village on Battle Creek, three or four miles northwest of town.

Fort Lamar (2)
(1839 - 1840), near Teaselville
A Texas Army post built during the July 1839 East Texas Cherokee War. It was a stockade around the homestead of Elisha DeBard, located on the Neches River about one mile west of town, about five miles southwest of Flint. Reoccupied and renamed Fort Scott (1) in the spring of 1840, then renamed Fort Skerrett one month later, although the new garrison may have actually built a new post near the former Fort Lamar (2).

Camp Johnston
(1839), near Teaselville
A Texas Army post and site of the July 1839 treaty negotiations between the East Texas Cherokee and the Texas Republic, which were rejected, leading to the East Texas Cherokee War (July 1839). Located adjacent to the Neches Saline, about five miles southwest of Flint. Site is marked.
(NOTE: not to be confused with Camp Johnson (1836) located in Jackson County, or Fort Johnston (1) (1840) located in Grayson County.)

Fort Saline
(1839), near Coffee City
A Texas Ranger post located on the west bank of the Neches River, opposite the Neches Saline, located between Highson and Flat Creeks near the TX 155 bridge. Occupied for only a few weeks in May 1839 before moving to Fort Kickapoo.

Fort Kickapoo
(1839), near Frankston
A Texas Ranger post located at the former Kickapoo Indian village that was attacked by the Texas Rangers in October 1838. The post was abandoned after the July 1839 Cherokee War. Located about 2.5 miles south-southeast of town on Kickapoo (Caddo) Creek. The village site is marked.

Mission de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores de los Ais
(1716 - 1719, 1721 - 1773), San Augustine
A Spanish mission commonly known as Mission Dolores. Abandoned in 1719 due to a French invasion from Louisiana, it was later re-established (at a new site) and became the headquarters of all East Texas missions. The Spanish later abandoned all missions in East Texas in 1773 for San Antonio. Site preserved in a city park located four blocks south of the courthouse, at 701 South Broadway, with a visitor center and library. See also Texas Beyond History
* This entry is listed only for historical interest. *

Post Sabine (3)
(1837), near Milam
A Texas Army post on the Sabine River at Gaines's Ferry, located six miles east of town near the present-day TX 21 bridge over the Toledo Bend Reservoir.

Post Sabine (2)
(1837), near Toledo
A Texas Army post on the Sabine River at Bevil's Ferry, located on the Jasper - Natchitoches Road on the Toledo Bend of the river.

Presidio of Texas
(1716 - 1719, 1721 - 1729), Nacogdoches
A short-lived Spanish presidio. Its official name was Presidio de la Virgen de los Dolores de los Tejas. It was originally located on the Neches River near Mission Tejas (see below) and protected the four missions in the area at that time (Mission de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Nacogdoches (1716 - 1719, 1721 - 1773), near Nacogdoches; Mission de Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Hainais (1716 - 1719, 1721 - 1730), near Douglas; and Mission de San José de los Nazonis (1716 - 1719, 1721 - 1730), near Cushing). Briefly abandoned, but then re-established east of the Angelina River to be more centrally located between the then six area missions. It was finally abandoned for Presidio de Los Adaes in present-day Louisiana (see also).

Old Stone Fort (1)
(1789 - 1839, 1861 - 1865), Nacogdoches
A 1936 reconstruction of a Spanish trading post/tavern and jail located on the campus of Stephen F. Austin State University. Originally built by Don Antonio Gil Y'Barbo, the structure was used as the headquarters for four different attempts to establish the Republic of Texas (the 1813 Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition, the 1819 James Long Expedition, the 1826 Fredonian Rebellion, and the 1832 Battle of Nacogdoches). Mexican troops were posted here in 1826 after the failed Fredonian Rebellion. U.S. Army troops from Fort Jesup, LA occupied the post in July-December 1836 as Camp Nacogdoches. The Texas Army established Nacogdoches Post in August 1838 as regional headquarters for East Texas, until 1839. Also known as Fort Nacogdoches, Texas CSA troops occupied the old fort during the Civil War. Federal troops may have used it for barracks during the occupation of the town during Reconstruction (1867 - 1870). The old fort was torn down in 1902. The original site was at the corner of Fredonia and Main Streets. See also Handbook of Texas Online

Camp Freeman
(1819), Nacogdoches
The main encampment of the 300 or so followers of Dr. James Long during his attempt to create an independent Texas, where they established a provisional government. See also The Long Expedition from Handbook of Texas Online

John Durst's Fort
(1837 - unknown), near Douglas
A settler's homestead (Mount Sterling) protected by several blockhouses, located at the lower crossing of the Old San Antonio Road over the Angelina River, about six miles south of the Linwood Crossing.

Fort Terán
(1831 - 1834), near Rockland
Established to prevent illegal entry of American settlers into Mexican territory. Located three miles west of town on the south bank of the Neches River, one-half mile below Shawnee Creek. Mostly abandoned after the Battle of Nacogdoches in 1832, a few soldiers remained until 1834. After American settlement began, it was known as Fort Turan. A 1936 monument marks the actual site (requires 4x4 vehicle access).

Martin Lacy's Fort
(1838 - 1842), near Alto
A stockaded civilian trading post built by a former Indian agent for the Mexican government. Possibly built as early as 1835. Texas Army troops were posted here in 1838 - 1839. Abandoned by 1842, the settlement retained the name Fort Lacy until the founding of Alto in 1849. Located two miles southwest of town on TX 21. Monument (1936) at site.

Roland Box's Fort
(1835 ?), near Weeping Mary
A settlers' stockaded log cabin located nine miles west of Alto off of TX 294, on a hill west of Box Creek about 1.5 miles east of the Neches River, and about two miles northwest of the present-day TX 21 bridge over the Neches River (Old San Antonio Road). The cabin burned down in the early 20th-century.

James Bradshaw's Fort
(1838 ?), near Weeping Mary
A settlers' fort located just east of the Neches River on the Old San Antonio Road (TX 21), about four or five miles southwest of Lacy's Fort.

Joseph Cook's Fort
(1839 - 1840), near Rusk
A settlers' fort built for protection from Indians, but never attacked. Texas Rangers were posted here in 1838 - 1839. The settlement took the name after the fort was dismantled, but was abandoned around 1846. Site located three miles southeast of town. Monument (1936) at site.

Camp Rusk (3)
(1861 - 1865), Rusk
A CSA training camp located just south of town.

Mission de San Francisco de los Tejas
(Mission Tejas State Historic Park)
(1690 - 1693, 1716 - 1719, 1721 - 1731), near Weches
The first Spanish mission in East Texas, built to thwart French influence in the region. The French threat disappeared, but the mission was never prosperous. Located nearby was Mission del Santísimo de Nombre de María (1690 - 1692), also on the west bank of the Neches River about five miles (direction ?) from Mission Tejas. Abandoned, then re-established in 1716. Relocated in 1721 to a new site on the east side of the Neches River about five miles southwest of Alto (renamed Mission de San Francisco de los Neches). Moved to San Antonio in 1731. A 1934 C.C.C. reconstruction of the log chapel is located in the park at the original 1690 site on San Pedro Creek. Maintained by the Texas Forest Service from 1934 - 1957 when it became a state park. Admission fee.
* This entry is listed only for historical interest. *

Fort Duty (2)
(1838 ?), near Palestine
A Texas Ranger post, located about three (?) miles east of town on Stills Creek, east of Snake Creek.

Fort Houston (1)
(1836 - 1841), near Palestine
A Texas Army stockaded blockhouse for protection from Indians, built just after the Battle of San Jacinto (April 1836). The site is now part of a historic home (1857) that has taken the fort's name (John H. Reagan's "Fort Houston" estate). Located two miles west of town at the old Houston townsite. Monument (1936) at site. State marker also at the nearby Fort Houston Cemetery.

Miles Bennett's Fort
(1838 ?), near Elkhart
A settlers' fort or fortified house located on Box Creek southwest of town. The Fort Bennett post office began in 1840.

Reuben Brown's Fort
(1834 - unknown), near Grapeland
A settlers' fortified home on San Pedro Creek, at or near the old townsite of Refuge, east of town.

Jacob Master's Fort
(1838 - 1840 ?), near Belott
A settlers' makeshift blockhouse located on the Old San Antonio Road (TX 21) about ten miles northeast of Crockett.

George Hallmark's Fort
(1838 - 1841 ?), near Austonio ?
A settlers' blockhouse located at "Mustang Prairie". A company of the Texas Army was here in June 1839.

Capt. Elisha Clapp's Blockhouse
(1836 - 1841 ?), near Sand Ridge
A Texas Ranger stockaded blockhouse located at "Mustang Prairie" on the Trinity River at the old Robbins' Ferry Crossing of the Old San Antonio Road (present-day TX 21). Clapp and his family moved to another nearby settlement (Alabama, north of Midway) on the Trinity River in 1841.

John Parker's Fort
(1834 - 1836), near Groesbeck
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse. Possibly known as Fort Sterling by Texas Rangers in late 1835. Attacked by the Comanche in May 1836 with several settlers killed or taken captive, including Cynthia Ann Parker, who later became the mother of noted Comanche leader Quannah Parker. The fort was not thereafter reoccupied. Settlers returned in 1838 to found Springfield nearby. Reconstructed in 1936, and again in 1967, located three miles north of town, two miles south of the Navasota River. The historic site, once operated by the state, is now operated by the city since 1992. This is NOT located at Fort Parker State Park. See also Handbook of Texas Online

Camp Chambers (2)
(1840 - 1841), near Marlin
A temporary Texas Army encampment on the east side of the Brazos River just west of town, two miles north of present-day TX 7.

Fort Milam (1)
(1834 - 1838), near Marlin
A Texas Ranger post located near the Falls of the Brazos River, four miles southwest of town on the west bank of the river. Originally called Fort Sarahville de Viesca, or Fort Viesca, after the settlement (Robertson's Colony). The fort was renamed in December 1835. Sometimes referred to as Post Milam. Monument (1936) at site.

Located on the east bank of the Brazos River about two miles south of town was the temporary Texas Ranger post Fort Burleson (1839 - 1840), originally known as Fort Milam (2) until renamed in August 1839.

John Marlin's Fort
(1835 - 1841 ?), Marlin
A settlers' fortified cabin located about four miles east of the Falls of the Brazos and two miles south of town.

Camp Stroud
(1841), near Marlin
A Texas Ranger camp located near Fort Marlin.

Camp Brazos
(1839), Falls County
A Texas Ranger camp located somewhere on the east bank of the Brazos River.

Fort Boggy (State Park)
(1840 - 1841), near Leona
A local militia (Boggy and Trinity Rangers) stockade enclosing several cabins and two two-story blockhouses, built to protect area settlers against Indians, located on the north bank of Boggy Creek, two and one-half miles north of town. Originally known as Erwin's Fort on whose land (John and James Erwin) the fort was built. Monument erected 1936. Became a state park in 1985.

Spanish Bluff Fort
(1805 - 1813), Antioch
The Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition captured the Spanish fort in 1812, but the Spanish recaptured and destroyed it and the town the following year. Located on the Trinity River near Midway.

Fort Henderson
(1837), Robertson or Leon Counties
A Texas Ranger post located somewhere on the Navasota River (exact location undetermined). Abandoned due to supply problems.

Fort Franklin
(1838 - 1841), Old Franklin
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse. One cannon was received from the government in March 1839. Old Franklin was located on Touchstone Creek, off of Mud Creek, about two miles southwest of the present-day town, north of US 79.

Camp Franklin (1841) was a temporary Texas Ranger camp in town.

E.L.R. Wheelock's Fort
(1835 - unknown), Wheelock
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse located on the Old San Antonio Road (present-day TX 21), north of Dunn's Fort. The town was named in 1837. In 1837 Wheelock was also promoting a new town to be named "Lamar" for Milam County. He ordered small arms to be shipped to a "Fort Lamar", but it is not known if this fort was actually built, or even if this was his own fort here simply renamed (Fort Lamar (1b). (See also Fort Lamar (1a) on page 5)

James Dunn's Fort
(1834 - 1841), near Benchley
A settlers' fort located on the north side of the Old San Antonio Road, about four miles south of Wheelock, near "Staggers Point" on Dunn Creek. It was later used as a land office and courthouse.

Fort Sullivan
(1835), Port Sullivan
A fortified trading post built by Augustus Sullivan, located one and one-half miles east of town on the Brazos River, just above the mouth of the Little River.

Fort Nashville
(1835 - 1841), near Port Sullivan
A settlers' town fort located on the west bank of the Brazos River about two miles below the mouth of the Little River, at the old Nashville townsite. It was part of the Robertson's Colony settlement. Texas Rangers and the Texas Army periodically encamped here as Camp Nashville.

Fort Tenoxtitlán
(1830 - 1832), near Cooks Point
Built by Mexico on the west bank of the Brazos River at the crossing of the San Antonio - Nacogdoches Road, near the mouth of Dam Creek, to thwart American settlement and trade. Abandoned by Mexican troops in 1832, but the settlers continued to use it intermittently until 1860. The fort no longer exists. Monument (1936) erected at site. A second monument was erected in 1970 five miles east of Caldwell. The history is at the Burleson County Historical Museum in Caldwell. See also Handbook of Texas Online

William Oldham's Fort
(1837 - 1842), near Cooks Point
A settlers' fortified house built for protection from Indians. Located about four and one-half miles southeast of town. The Fort Oldham post office operated here from 1838 - 1842.

Camp Millican
(1861), Millican
A CSA recruiting camp. A marker is located near the town post office on TX 159.

Camp Arnold
(1839), near Navasota
A Texas Ranger camp at a crossing of the Navasota River. Exact location undetermined.

Post Washington
(1836), Washington
A Texas Ranger garrison was established here about three months after the "Runaway Scrape" (March 1836).

Walker's Fort
(1879 ?), near Washington
Located on the Brazos River at the "La Bahia Road" crossing, below the mouth of the Navasota River.

Camp Lauderdale ?
(1861), near Somerville (?)
No data.

Camp Waul
(1862), near Brenham
A CSA training camp located seven miles north of town on "Old Gay Hill" near New Year's Creek.

Camp Brenham
(1860's), near Brenham
A CSA encampment located three miles southeast of town.

Nearby, or the same site, was Camp Randle and Woodward's Spring Camp.

Camp Berlin
(1861), near Brenham
A CSA training camp for local German settlers. Site located about ten miles from town.

Camp Felder
(1864), near Chappell Hill
A temporary CSA POW camp set up along the Brazos River to avoid a fever epidemic at Camp Groce.

Camp Liendo
(1862 - 1865), near Hempstead
A CSA POW camp located on the Liendo Plantation on the east side of Clear Creek, also known as Camp Groce, on property owned by Col. Leonard Groce. Occupied by the Union in 1865 after the war had already ended.

Camp Hebért
(1861 - unknown), Hempstead
A CSA staging camp located along the railroad east of Clear Creek, near Camp Groce.

Also located somewhere in the vicinity were CSA Camp Carter (2), Camp Clever, and Camp Clear Creek. The town was used as a supply depot by the Texas Confederates.

Camp Nichols
(1840), near San Felipe
A Texas Army camp. Exact location undetermined.

NEED MORE INFO: Undetermined locations: Fort François (date ?); Fort Harvey (date ?); Fort Howard (date ?).
Fort Jourdin (1838), probably a fortified settler's house, located somewhere between San Augustine and Caddo Lake. Camp Brower (1838), a Texas Ranger camp probably located somewhere in either Walker or Montgomery Counties.

NOTE: The use of the Texas flag for settler forts before 1836 indicates those settlers of Anglo-American origin, even though Texas did not exist as a separate nation until 1836.

Coastal Texas I - page 2 | Coastal Texas II - page 3 | North Central Texas - page 4
Central Texas - page 5 | South Central Texas - page 6 | Southern Texas - page 7
West Texas - page 8 | Southwestern Texas - page 9

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