Canadian Forts

ONTARIO

Fort Amherstburg | Ancaster Barracks | Aurora Site | Baker Hill Site
Bois Blanc Island Blockhouse | Camp Borden | Burlington Heights Depot | Butler's Barracks
Chatham Barracks | Chatham Blockhouse | Fort Chippawa | Clinton RCAF Station
Fort Douville | Dover Earthworks | Draper Site | Fort Drummond | Fort Erie
Frenchman's Creek Battery | Fort George | Gibraltar Point Battery | Highland Creek Site
Fort Hope (1) | Fort Irwin | Jackes Site | Camp Kosciuszko | Lindsay Post | London Barracks
Magazin Royal | Fort Malden | Mantle Site | Matchedash Bay Post | Fort Mississauga
Narrows Post | Camp Niagara | Niagara River Batteries | Fort Norfolk | Old Fort Site
Orillia Post | Penetanguishene | Pine Fort | Fort Portneuf | Queenston Heights
Ratcliff Site | Fort Riall | Fort Rouillé | Rousseaux' Post | Saint Louis Mission
Fort Sainte Marie (1) | Fort Sainte Marie (2) | Sagingue Posts (2) | Saguingue Post (1)
Saugeen Post | Shawinaga Posts | Sheboananing Posts | South-East Lake Post
Southwold Earthworks | Stanley Barracks | Station Island Post | Stoney Creek | Fort Toronto
Wasaga Blockhouse | Fort Welland | Willow Creek Depot | Fort Willow | Windsor Barracks
Wolseley Barracks | Fort York | New Fort York | York Barracks

Southern Ontario (East) - page 2 | Northern Ontario (East) - page 3
Northern Ontario (West) - page 4

Last Update: 18/OCTOBER/2012
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2012 American Forts Network

NOTE: Once part of New France and Québec. Known as Upper Canada from 1791 to 1841 until reunited with Lower Canada (Québec) to form single colony of Canada. Provincial status restored in 1867.

Fort Hope (1)
(1812 - unknown), Windsor
A British fort from the War of 1812. It may have been captured by the Americans along with Fort Amherstburg in 1813. An 1812 British shore battery was also set up behind the François Bâby House (NHS) at 254 Pitt Street West, used in the attack on Fort Detroit. The house became the Hiram Walker Historical Museum in 1958, now known as the Windsor's Community Museum. The town of Sandwich was established in 1797 to accommodate British settlers in Detroit after the 1796 Jay Treaty border settlement. Of interest is the Seige of Detroit 1763 historic marker located at the northeast corner of Riverside Drive East and Pillette Road. See also Alexander Duff - James Bâby House (221 Mill Street) from Ontario Heritage Trust, and Canadian Register of Historic Places

Windsor Barracks was located here in 1837 - 1838. The town was burned during the Patriots' Rebellion in 1838.

Fort Malden (National Historic Site)
(Friends of Fort Malden)
(1796 - 1858), Amherstburg FORT WIKI
Originally called Fort Amherstburg. It was an earthen fort with four bastions, with a large blockhouse / barracks. After the British burned and abandoned it in September 1813, it was partially rebuilt and occupied by the Americans from October 1813 until July 1815. The British restored the post in 1819, and renamed it. They withdrew in 1836. The fort was completely rebuilt in 1838 (minus the blockhouse) and was larger than the original. The British left again in 1851. Retired soldiers maintained the fort until 1858. The government opened a lunatic assylum here in 1859. Existing structures were renovated to house the patients and staff. New facilities were added, including a two-story brick laundry. With the closing of the asylum in 1870, the buildings and grounds were used as a lumber yard and planing mill. By the early years of the 20th century, the site had been subdivided and private residences were erected. There are extant earthworks here from the 1840's and a restored 1819 Barracks, the last remaining original military structure. Admission fee. Nearby is Belle Vue (NHS) at 525 Dalhousie Street, which was the quarters of Robert Reynolds, the Deputy Assistant Commissary General of the garrison at Fort Malden. See also Fort Amherstburg in the War of 1812 by Bob Garcia

Located nearby is the Bois Blanc Island Lighthouse (1836) which played a role in the fort's defense during the 1837-38 Patriots' Rebellion. The island is also known as Boblo Island, an English corruption of the French name. Two wooden blockhouses, one with a detached battery, were built on the island in 1796. They were replaced by three new blockhouses in 1839, garrisoned until 1858. Two of these still remain, one located in the east-center of the island (reconstructed), and the other located on the southern end (demolished in 2011, fully restored in 2014), near the lighthouse. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places, and also Restored 1839 Blockhouse from Boblo.ca
Historic marker

Adjacent to Fort Malden was the Amherstburg Royal Navy Dockyard (1796 - 1813). (FORT WIKI) It was the only British naval base on Lake Erie during the War of 1812. Two blockhouses were built here in 1797 for its defence. The site is at King's Navy Yard Park on Dalhousie Street. The 1831 Commissariat House (built for the garrison at Fort Malden) still exists, which opened as an interpretive centre for the Amherstburg Provincial Marine re-enactment unit in 2002.

Dover Earthworks
(1813), Dover
Defensive earthworks were built by the British during the "Battle of the Thames" in 1813.

To the east, just west of Wardsville on Longwoods Road (Highway 2), is the Battle Hill NHS historic marker (March 1814).

Chatham Blockhouse
(1794 - 1797), Chatham
A British blockhouse was built to protect a planned naval arsenal (never built), garrisoned by the Queen's Rangers. Site located in the south end of a park near a creek at William Street South and Stanley Avenue. After it was abandoned it was moved to Sandwich (Windsor) to be used as the jail.

Chatham Barracks
(1826 - 1843), Chatham
A stockaded British barracks was located here overlooking the Thames River. It was garrisoned by local militia after 1843.
(info provided by Joe Lucio)

Southwold Earthworks (National Historic Site)
(1500's), Iona
An Attiwandaronk Indian fortified village, composed of a ring of earthworks surrounding the remains of a double-palisade and village.

London Barracks
(Victoria Park)
(1838 - 1874), London
An infantry post known as the "framed barracks" was built following the 1837-38 Patriots' Rebellion. It was used a safe haven for fugitive slaves from the United States before the American Civil War. The 10-acre barracks complex included several dozen structures surrounded by a stockade with projecting bastions. The major structures centred around a parade square. It was bounded by the soldiers' quarters to the north, the Officers' quarters to the south, the hospital compound to the west, and the canteen, cells, defaulters room and powder magazine to the east. The barracks burned down in 1869, and the post was formally dis-established in 1874. No remains. Site located within the northern two-thirds of 15-acre Victoria Park (created in 1878). See also Canadian Register of Historic Places

Wolseley Barracks (National Historic Site)
(Canadian Forces Area Support Unit London)
(1885 - 1996/2012), London
Originally established as the London Infantry School, formed with the intention of recruiting and training militia officers in order to provide leadership and skills in national defence. This was the first post purpose-built by the federal government for the Canadian Army. Renamed in 1899. Became the headquarters post of the Royal Canadian Regiment in 1923. Renamed CFB London in 1966. Closed as an active base in 1996, the remaining portion of the base not initially sold off was used by local reserve units until 2012. Three buildings were demolished in 2013, five more buildings are scheduled for future disposal. The former Married Officers' Quarters (1888) is located at 650 Elizabeth Street. Of interest is the Royal Canadian Regiment Museum at Wolseley Hall (1886).

Also of interest in town is the Secrets of Radar Museum on Western Counties Road (admission fee).

Fort Norfolk
(1814 - 1815), Turkey Point
A log redoubt and a blockhouse for 300 men. A larger fort was planned to protect a planned British naval base nearby in the Long Point Inner Bay, but construction was never started on either one. A marker is at the site.

Fort Erie (National Historic Site)
(Fort Erie Regional Park)
(Fort Erie in the War of 1812 by John Sek)
(1764 - 1779, 1783 - 1803, 1805 - 1814), Fort Erie FORT WIKI
The first fort, consisting of a log blockhouse, storehouses, and other buildings, was damaged from flooding and ice in 1779. Rebuilt in 1783, it was almost completely destroyed by a storm in 1803. The second stone fort was not completed until 1812. It was captured by American forces in July 1814, who then strengthened its defences. They successfully repelled one assault and seige in August/September before later abandoning and destroying it in November 1814. The Americans also had built a fortified encampment adjacent to the fort. The fort was restored in 1939. Operated by the Niagara Parks Commission. Admission fee. The remains of 28 U.S. soldiers were unearthed in 1987 outside of the fort, and were re-interred in New York with full military honours. See also Historic marker

Located near here on Highway 3 at Ridge Road is the Ridgeway Battlefield, commemorating the June 1866 Fenian raids. Exhibits and artifacts at the (City of) Fort Erie Historical Museum at 402 Ridge Road.

Frenchman's Creek Battery (National Historic Site)
(1812), Fort Erie
Located just north of Fort Erie on the Niagara Parkway. A shore battery along the river, it was captured by the Americans in November 1812. No remains. Site is marked.

Fort Chippawa
(1791 - 1815), Chippawa FORT WIKI
A palisaded log blockhouse and storehouse were built to protect the southern terminus of the Niagara portage road and served as forwarding depot for government supplies. Also known as Fort Welland. A gun battery was built on the river in 1812. Destroyed in July 1814 during the "Battle of Chippawa". A barracks / storehouse, Officers' quarters and earthworks were added in 1814-15 but shortly thereafter it was abandoned and fell into decay. Site is marked along the north bank of the Welland (Chippawa) River in Kings Bridge Park.

See also Battle of Chippawa NHS historic marker from the Canadian Register of Historic Places || Chippawa Battlefield Park from Niagara Parks Commission

Nearby in Welland, just east of the Welland Canal, is the Battle of Cook's Mills NHS historic marker (October 1814).

Queenston Heights Battlefield (National Historic Site)
(Queenston Heights Park)
(1812, 1814 - 1815), Queenston
The site of a major British victory against the Americans in October 1812. The Redan Battery was located by the river, and captured by the Americans during the battle. The site is marked. A redoubt battery (Fort Riall), a blockhouse with earthworks (Fort Drummond (NHS)) (FORT WIKI), and temporary barracks were built here in 1814. Both were briefly occupied by the Americans in 1814. The earthworks of both still exist. Located near Brock's Monument.

Nearby in Thorold, east of the Welland Canal, is the Battle of Beaver Dams NHS historic marker (June 1813).
Also, in Niagara Falls is the Battle of Lundy's Lane NHS historic marker (July 1814).

Niagara River Batteries
(1812), Niagara Parkway
Several British shore batteries were along the river between Niagara-on-the-Lake and Queenston. McFarland House Battery was set up behind the McFarland House. The restored house is operated by the Niagara Parks Commission. Brown's Point Battery was located on Brown's Point. It was also the site of a large British encampment. Vrooman's Battery (FORT WIKI) was located 2 km north of present-day York Road in Queenston. It was a one-gun crescent-shaped earthwork that took part in the "Battle of Queenston Heights" (October 1812). All sites are marked.

Fort George (National Historic Site)
(The Friends of Fort George)
(1796 - 1824), Niagara-on-the-Lake FORT WIKI
Built with six earthen bastions with a palisade and ditch. It was the replacement for Fort Niagara, which was awarded to the United States by the 1783 Treaty of Paris and the 1796 Jay Treaty. The Center Blockhouse was within the fort, and the North and South Blockhouses (1797) were used as barracks. Another blockhouse was built in 1800 inside the southeast redan, adjacent to the powder magazine. This fort was bombarded by Fort Niagara in New York, in a rare duel between opposing forts, and then captured by American forces in May 1813. It was rebuilt by the Americans, but the British recaptured it in December 1813 and held it through the rest of the war. See also Battlefield of Fort George NHS from the Canadian Register of Historic Places. Several buildings were reconstructed in the 1930's (although not completely historically accurate), such as the Officers' quarters, soldiers' barracks, Officers' kitchen, and guardhouse. The powder magazine (1796) is the only original extant structure. Admission fee. See also Historic marker

Nearby by the river was Navy Hall, part of the British naval base and marine depot from 1765 - 1783, and 1797 - 1812. From 1792 to 1796 it was used as the Governor's residence for Upper Canada. See also Navy Hall from the Friends of Fort George, and also Canadian Register of Historic Places. Of interest nearby, the Niagara Historical Society Museum is located at 43 Castlereagh Street (admission fee). Originally known as Newark, this was the capital of Upper Canada from 1791 to 1796.

Fort Mississauga (National Historic Site)
(The Friends of Fort George)
(1814 - 1870), Niagara-on-the-Lake FORT WIKI
A two-story brick blockhouse / keep, two powder magazines, and earthworks were built here to replace Fort George, which is still extant on the municipal golf club property. It was partially built with material from the Mississauga Point Lighthouse that once stood here from 1804 to 1814. Garrisoned by 50 men in 1837. The fort was disarmed in 1856, although troops were posted here again in 1861. No public admittance to the blockhouse, but the grounds may be walked. See also Historic marker

Butler's Barracks (National Historic Site)
(The Friends of Fort George)
(1814 - 1962), Niagara-on-the-Lake FORT WIKI
West of Fort George, several buildings were built along a creek to serve the British Indian Department. A Council House, residences and storage facilities stood here until they were destroyed during the War of 1812. They were rebuilt and used until 1822, when the department ended its activities in Niagara. They were thereafter used as the garrison hospital for Fort George. After Fort George was retaken by the British in December 1813, work began on new barracks and storehouses that were out of reach of American guns at Fort Niagara. By 1854, now known as Butler's Barracks, there were 20 buildings on the six-acre site, surrounded by an extensive log palisade. Other buildings were located outside the palisade, including the Commissariat Officer's Quarters, the Commandant's Quarters, the Hospital (formerly the Indian Council House), a fuel yard, and storehouses. This became the headquarters of British and Canadian defensive efforts in the Niagara Peninsula.
The site was transferred to the Dominion of Canada in 1871, and it was used as a summer training camp for both regular and militia units. In 1914 it became a training camp for the 14,000 soldiers of the 2nd Division of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. In 1917 Butler's Barracks became Camp Kosciuszko, the winterized training camp for the Polish Army. Americans and Canadians of Polish descent volunteered for this force, initially attached to the French Army. They were trained by Canadians.
Known as Camp Niagara in the 20th century, it reached its greatest development during World War II, when buildings, tents, parade grounds, streets, and other necessary facilities covered much of the grounds. Camp Niagara was active until the 1960's. Soldiers who trained here served in the Boer War, World War I and World War II, in the Korean Conflict, and in peacekeeping efforts of the 20th century. Most buildings have since been demolished.

Located on John Street is a restored historic five-building complex which includes the soldiers' barracks (1817); a 1950's era workshop; the Junior Commissariat Officer's quarters (1839); gunshed (1821); and the Commissariat House (1839). The barracks now house the Lincoln and Welland Regiment Museum.

Stoney Creek Battlefield (National Historic Site)
(Battlefield House Museum and Park)
(1813), Stoney Creek
A British victory here in June 1813 halted the American advance after the capture of Fort George. The "Battlefield House" is the Gage House, built in 1795. A 100-foot tall monument is also on site. Admission fee to park. Operated by the City of Hamilton.

Burlington Heights Depot (National Historic Site)
(1813 - 1815), Hamilton
A British military supply depot and barracks was established here after the fall of Fort George to the Americans. Several log barracks and a tent encampment were built on the heights. Officers used the Richard Beasley brick manor for quarters. Storehouses were built below the heights along the bay shore. After the Battle of Stoney Creek (June 1813), the British erected three lines of earthworks across the peninsula, with gun batteries and blockhouses on the heights behind the depot and at the old Burlington Inlet. A large stone powder magazine was built behind the second defence line. Although the military continued to view the site as defensible following the end of the War of 1812, the buildings were allowed to deteriorate, and today the site is occupied by various attractions, including the Dundurn Castle NHS (built 1832-35) and part of the Royal Botanical Gardens NHS. The stone powder magazine was later incorporated into the cellar of Dundurn Castle. A stone marker (1914) and cannon is at the site of the first line of defence. Another marker (1914) is located in Harvey Park. Another stone marker (1914) is located in Hamilton Cemetery, with excellent remains of the earthworks there. Of interest nearby is the Hamilton Military Museum in Dundurn Park.

Ancaster Barracks
(1812 - 1815), Ancaster
Militia barracks were located here on Wilson Street. The current building on the site is probably not to the time period.

Highland Creek Archaeological Site
(c. 1250), Toronto
A palisaded Iroquois Indian village on the north bank of Highland Creek. Site was excavated in 1956. Historic marker located at the entrance to Birkdale Ravine on the west side of Brimley Road, north of Lawrence Avenue.

Jackes Archaeological Site
(c. 1450), Toronto
A precontact Iroquois Indian palisaded village. The settlement, which covered about two hectares, included several longhouses. The site, also known as the Eglinton or Allenby School Site, was named after the contemporary property owner. Excavated in 1887. Although now destroyed by residential and school construction, this is the best documented Iroquoian village site in the city. Historic marker located at the Allenby School at 391 St. Clements Avenue.

Fort Douville
(1715 ? - 1720 ?), Toronto
A small French stockaded military supply depot with a stone blockhouse (Magazin Royal), located on the Humber River at Baby Point (Old Mills area).

Fort Portneuf
(1750 - 1751), Toronto
A French fort located at the mouth of the Humber River. Replaced by Fort Rouillé.

Fort Rouillé
(1751 - 1759), Toronto FORT WIKI
A palisaded four-bastion fort with five main buildings. Also known as Fort Toronto, it was burned in July 1759 to prevent the British from capturing it. An outline of the fort and an obelisk mark the site on the Canadian National Exhibition grounds.

Jean Baptiste Rousseaux' Post
(1791 - unknown), Toronto
A French-Canadian fur trader known to his English colleagues as "St. John", Jean Baptiste Rousseaux had built a trade post at the mouth of the Humber River as early as 1791. His knowledge of the area and its native inhabitants proved indispensable to Upper Canada's early administrators. Marker located in Etienne Brûlé Park near the site of the former trading post, on the east side of the Humber River, at the foot of Riverside Drive.

Fort York (National Historic Site)
(Fort York Heritage Conservation District)
(Friends of Fort York and Garrison Common)
(1793 - 1840 ?), Toronto FORT WIKI
Originally built west of Garrison Creek, moved in 1797 to the east side, consisting of a palisaded blockhouse / barracks. In 1810 the original west site was refortified with earthworks and a powder magazine. The fort was destroyed by the retreating British in 1813, preventing its capture by the Americans, and rebuilt by the British in 1814, with two new blockhouse / barracks, at the site of Government House. The original post was in use by the military until 1934 (part of Stanley Barracks) when it was opened as a historic site. There are eight original buildings restored to their original appearance. Operated by the City of Toronto. Admission fee. See also Historic marker

Toronto, then called York until 1834, became the capital of Upper Canada in 1796, and was captured and burned by American forces in April 1813 (see also "Battle of York"). The British retaliated by burning Washington in 1814. Gibraltar Point Battery (1794, with two blockhouses) was located on Gibraltar Point (Toronto Island), along with four or five other shore batteries in 1813, protecting the Royal Dockyard that was once briefly here, located at the end of University Ave.. This battery was destroyed by the Americans in April 1813, and was rebuilt in May 1814. The other 1813 shore batteries were Blockhouse Battery (two guns) at the Town Blockhouse (1798) (a militia barracks); Government House Battery (two guns); Half-Moon Battery (not armed in 1813); and Western Battery (two guns, with blockhouse) located at Strachan Ave.. In 1814 the Ravine Blockhouse was built, along with a new blockhouse on Gibraltar Point. The old Parliament Buildings were used as barracks after the war, but were demolished when the new Fort York (Stanley Barracks) was built. Victoria Memorial Square was the original military cemetery (1794 - 1863). It was replaced by the Burial Ground at Garrison Common (1860 - 1911).

York Barracks
(1840 - 1947), Toronto FORT WIKI
Originally named New Fort York and renamed in 1893 as Stanley Barracks. The last remaining structure, the Officers' Quarters, was built in 1841. British troops left in 1870, replaced by the Canadian Militia. It was in use until just after WWII. It was the site of the Toronto Maritime Museum from the 1958 until 1997. Everything else was demolished during the 1950's. This site is located west of the site of the original Fort York.

Nearby on 700 Fleet Street is the Fort York Armoury, built in 1935. (FORT WIKI)

Draper Archaeological Site
(1475 - 1525), Pickering
A precontact Huron Indian palisaded village site located on West Duffins Creek at the present-day municipal airport. Site excavated in 1975-78.

Ratcliff Archaeological Site
(1550 - 1615), Markham
A precontact Huron Indian palisaded village site located on the Rouge River on the south side of the Oak Ridges Moraine, east of Highway 48 and south of Bloomington Road. Also known as the Baker Hill Site.

Mantle Archaeological Site
(1500 - 1530), Stouffville
A precontact Huron Indian palisaded village site located on Stoufville Creek about five kilometres northwest of Draper. Site discovered in 2003.

Aurora Archaeological Site
(1550 - 1575), Whitechurch-Stouffville
A precontact Huron Indian palisaded village site located on the East Holland River on the north side of the Oak Ridges Moraine, east of Vandorf near Kennedy Road and Vandorf Side Road. Also known as the Old Fort Site. Site excavated in 1947 and 1957.

Pine Fort
(unknown dates), near Holland Landing
No data.

Lindsay Post
(1864 - 1873), Lindsay
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Narrows Post
(1802 - unknown), Atherley
An independent British trade post located at the "Narrows" between Lake Simcoe and Lake Couchiching.

Orillia Post
(1815 - unknown, 1862 - 1875), Orillia
The British originally built this post for Ojibway Chief Yellowhead and his tribal band who settled here after their British service in the War of 1812. Later became a Hudson's Bay Co. post (HBC records cover 1875 only).

Fort Irwin
(unknown dates), Fort Irwin
No data. Located north of Haliburton.

South-East Lake Post
(1822 - unknown), near Waubaushene ?
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

Matchedash Bay Post
(1766 - unknown), near Port McNicoll or Sturgeon Bay
An independent British trade post.

Saint-Louis Mission (National Historic Site)
(1640's - 1649), near Victoria Harbour
A stockaded village and Jesuit mission of the Ataronchronon tribe of the Huron-Wendat Indians. In March 1649 the nearby Huron-Wendat village and Jesuit mission of Saint-Ignace II was attacked by the Five Nations Iroquois. Once St. Ignace was captured, the Iroquois continued west and that same morning attacked the village and mission of St. Louis, capturing the Jesuit missionaries Jean de Brébeuf and Gabriel Lalement. The missionaries were brought back to St. Ignace and killed there the following day. The raids made it clear to the Huron-Wendat that they were not safe from destructive attacks in their homeland, and it began a chain of events that led to the abandonment of Huronia in 1650. Site located along the Hogg River about 3 km inland.

Fort Sainte-Marie (1)
(Sainte-Marie Mission I National Historic Site)
(1639 - 1649), Midland
Also known as Sainte-Marie Among the Hurons, it is a 1964 recreation of a palisaded Jesuit mission, with massive stone bastions, and several Huron-Wendat Indian structures. Fearing an Iroquois attack after several nearby missions fell, the mission was destroyed in March 1649, and the residents and refugee Hurons (about 6000) then built a more defensible 100-foot square four-bastioned stone fort on Christian's Island to the east (see below). This was the center of a group of missions in what was known as "Huronia". Admission fee.

Located nearby at 549 Little Lake Park is a recreated Huron-Wendat stockaded village at the Huronia Museum (admission fee).

Penetanguishene Establishment
(Discovery Harbour)
(1828 - 1856), Penetanguishene
A British Naval Shipyard (1817 - 1834) and Army Depot and Barracks (1828 - 1856) with 15 reconstructed buildings: offices, barracks, and warehouses. The 1830's Officers' quarters is the only original structure still extant. There is also the fully rigged replicas of the H.M.S. Bee and the H.M.S. Tecumseth at King's Wharf. Admission fee to park.

Fort Sainte-Marie (2)
(Sainte-Marie Mission II National Historic Site)
(1649 - 1651), Christian Island
Fort Sainte-Marie II was constructed in 1649 following the destruction of the former Jesuit mission of Fort Sainte-Marie I on the Wye River. The new fort was settled from June 1649 to June 1650 by Jesuit Missionaries, French soldiers, and Huron-Wendat Indians who had fled from the Wye River mission after confrontations with Five Nations bands and the Dutch who together sought to break the Huron-Wendat control of northern fur resources. In their new location, the French built a small stronghold consisting of a military-style four-metre-high stone outer wall, which was surrounded by a moat. These fortifications enclosed a church, missionary living quarters, and a well. The Huron-Wendat lived in a village adjacent to the fort structure. The site was partially abandoned in June 1650 after a winter of famine, disease, and new threats of encroaching Iroquois. At that time, the Jesuits, led by Father Paul Ragueneau and approximately 300 Huron-Wendat, travelled as a group from Christian Island into Lake Nipissing and the Ottawa River valley to Québec. The Huron-Wendat that remained at the site lived in the fort and during the next spring made their last stand against the Iroquois in Huronia. The survivors of this group then relocated to Québec to rejoin the Jesuits and other Huron-Wendat. Site located within the Beausoleil First Nation land reserve along the southern shore of Christian Island.

Wasaga Blockhouse
(Nancy Island Historic Site)
(Wasaga Beach Provincial Park)
(1814), Wasaga Beach
A hastily built blockhouse that defended the H.M.S. Nancy from the American fleet. The Nancy's guns were transferred to the blockhouse. The fort and the ship were destroyed by the Americans in August 1814. The ship was raised in 1928, and the Nancy Museum was built to tell the story.

Schooner Town was a short-lived British naval depot from 1815 - 1817. It was replaced by Penetanguishene. See also Historic marker

Willow Creek Depot
(Glengarry Landing National Historic Site)
(1814 - 1815), Minesing
The depot here on the Nottawasaga River was the main staging area for British military supplies between York (Toronto) and Fort Mackinac, Michigan, via Lake Huron. There was a palisade around eight buildings. Also known as Fort Willow. There are no remains, but the site is marked. The town was once known as Glengarry Landing.

Camp Borden
(Canadian Forces Base Borden)
(1916 - present), near Angus
Established during World War I as a major training centre for Canadian Expeditionary Force battalions. The military reserve, comprising over 5000 hectares, was soon occupied by some 32,000 troops. Training facilities were expanded in 1917 with the construction of the first Canadian military aerodrome, regarded at the time as the finest military aviation camp in North America. Following the armistice Camp Borden continued as an important army and air force centre and became one of the largest armed forces bases in Canada. In the 1930's the base hosted the first armour school. Renamed CFB Borden in 1966. This is the only tri-service base in Canada, hosting Army, Air Force, and Navy units under various commands. Of interest is the Base Borden Military Museum.

RCAF Station Clinton
(Canadian Forces Base Clinton)
(1941 - 1971), Vanastra
In March 1941 the Air Council of Canada agreed to the establishment of a radio direction finding school in Canada. Two months later the Tyndall farm outside Clinton was selected and construction of the new school was under way at what was then designated Royal Air Force Station Clinton. The school was ready for the arrival of staff on 20 June 1941. On 27 August 1941, Number 31 RAF Radio School opened (three weeks after the arrival of the first staff contingent from England). Staff consisted of 360 RAF personnel and included the three RCAF officers who had been trained in England the previous year. The first commander was Wing Commander Cocks, RAF. This station was created to provide a secure environment to teach radio direction finding or radar as it later became known. Security of the technology was very tight and the camp had electrically charged fencing and armed guards, something virtually unheard of in Canada. Even local civilians were unaware of the nature of the training or of the station's contribution to the war until long after. The first course started in September 1941 and consisted of United States Army, Navy and Marine Corps students taught by Royal Air Force instructors. Even before the Americans had entered the war Britain was assisting them to develop radar and other technologies in a form of reverse "lend-lease". By war's end 2,345 Americans and 6,500 Canadians had graduated from Clinton. On 21 June 1943 the allied "Committee on RDF" was renamed the "Committee on Radar" and on 23 August 1943 the American term "RADAR" (RAdio Direction And Ranging) was officially adopted in place of "Radio Direction Finding". The term "radar" was already in common usage by the time of the official change. On 31 July 1943 No. 31 RDF School RAF became No. 5 Radio School RCAF and was actually handed over to the RCAF, Wing Commander Patrick, RCAF commanding, on 15 October 1943. In June 1944 control of No. 5 Radio School Clinton was transferred from the Commonwealth Training Plan to Home War Operations Training. On 28 February 1945 No. 5 Radio School Clinton had a staff of 478 all ranks with 627 trainees. Unlike many RCAF stations across Canada, RCAF Station Clinton was not mothballed at the end of the Second World War and in November 1945 became home to the No. 1 Radar and Communications School (No. 1 R&CS), which it co-hosted with nearby RCAF Station Centralia. During the Cold War, RCAF Station Clinton hosted other units, including No. 12 Examination Unit, No. 1 Air Radio Officer School, School of Food Services, and the Aerospace Engineering (AERE) Officer School. In 1968 upon unification of the Canadian armed forces, the station was renamed Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Clinton. With consolidation of duplicate services, the radar school was transferred to CFB Kingston in 1969. Following the closure of the base in 1971, the buildings were sold to real estate developer John Van Gastel and now make up the small village of Vanastra. Several non-housing structures still remain, although many are in ruin. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places

Saugeen Post
(1826 - 1832), Southampton
The Anishnabe lived by the mouth of the Saugeen River before Pierre Piché arrived in 1818 to begin fur trading in the region. By 1826 the Hudson's Bay Company established an outpost here (aka Saguingue Post (1)) to compete with independent fur traders like Piché. From Fort La Cloche, its main post on Lake Huron, the HBC employed First Nations, Métis, French, and British fur traders who largely depended on Anishnabe hunters to supply deer, bear and marten skins. By 1832 the supply of premium furs was exhausted and the company closed its post. Although many Anishnabe gave up hunting and settled in an agricultural village, fur trading continued here until the mid-19th century when Southampton was founded. Marker located in Pioneer Park at the south (or west) side of the mouth of the Saugeen River, on North Front Street. Historical cannon (date ?) are also located in Pioneer Park.

Station Island Post ? ?
(unknown dates), Main Station Island, near Oliphant
Ruins of an unknown trade fort are supposedly located on Main Station Island, in the Fishing Island group located just offshore.

Sagingue Posts (2)
(1827 - unknown), near Parry Sound
A Hudson's Bay Co. post, according to the "National Atlas of Canada" (1974).

An independent British trade post was located nearby in 1830.

Sheboananing Posts
(1828, 1831), near Snug Harbour
An independent British trade post, according to the "National Atlas of Canada" (1974).

A Hudson's Bay Co. post was located nearby in 1831.

Shawinaga Posts
(1827 - unknown), near Shawanaga or Pointe au Baril
A Hudson's Bay Co. post.

An independent British trade post was located nearby in 1828.


NEED MORE INFO: Pine Fort (unknown date) at or near Holland Landing, near Bradford in York County.
Towns / Villages: Fort Irwin in Haliburton County, north of Haliburton.

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