Fort Advance |
Augusta Arsenal |
Fort Augusta (1) |
Augusta Defenses |
Camp Benning |
R. Carr's Fort | Childer's Fort | Fort Clarke (1) | E. Clarke's Station | Columbus Arsenal
Columbus Defenses | Camp Conrad | Fort Cornwallis | Coweta Blockhouse | Camp Davis (2)
Fort Defiance (1) | Dooly's Fort | Camp Dyer | Fort at Federal Town | Fort Fidius | Camp Fornance
Fortville Blockhouse | Fulsam's Fort | Greensboro Fort | Fort Grierson | Griffin Defenses
Camp Hancock | Camp Harris | Camp Haskell (1) | Camp Haskell (3) | Fort Hawkins | Heard's Fort
Hill's Fort | Hinton's Fort | Camp Hope | Fort Irwin | Fort Jackson (2) | Fort James (1) | Kerr's Fort
Kiokee Fort | Knox's Fort | Lamar Site | Fort Lawrence | Lawson's Fort | Camp Lawton
Fort at the Fork of Long Creek | Fort near the Mouth of Long Creek | MacKay's Post
Camp McKenzie | McNabb's Fort | Macon Laboratory-Arsenal | Macon Defenses | Fort Mathews
Milledgeville Arsenal | Milledgeville Defenses | Camp Milner | Fort Montpelier | Moore's Fort
Nail's Fort | Neal's Fort | Camp near Newnan | Newsome's Fort | Camp Northen | Ocmulgee Trade Post
Camp Oglethorpe | Old Fort (2) | Fort Perry | J. Phillip's Fort | Z. Phillip's Fort
Fort near the Mouth of Pistol Creek | Powell's Fort | Camp Price | Camp Prior | Camp Rae
Fort at Rock Landing | Rogers' Fort | Fort Romulos | Sherrall's Fort | Shoulderbone Site
Camp Stephens | Stewart's Fort | Fort Telfair (2) | Fort Twiggs (1) | Fort Twiggs (2) | Fort Twiggs (3)
Fort Tyler | Fort Washington | Well's Fort | Camp Wheeler | White House | Fort Wilkinson
Fort Winston | Wood's Fort | Camp Wright | Fort Wrightsborough | Camp Young
North Coastal Georgia - page 1 | Savannah Area - page 2
South Coastal Georgia - page 3 | Southern Georgia - page 4
Greater Atlanta - page 6 | Northwestern Georgia - page 7
Northern Georgia - page 8
GEORGIA CIVIL WAR HERITAGE TRAIL
(1689 - 1691), Columbus ?
A Spanish blockhouse built on the east-side (?) of the Chattahoochee River, opposite the Muscogee (Creek) village of Coweta.
(NOTE: "if" this fort is actually located on the west-side of the river, then this is a reference to Apalachicola Fort in ALABAMA.)
Civil War Defenses of Columbus
(1864 - 1865), Columbus
A line of CSA breastworks surrounded the city to the east. Gun batteries were located on the Chattahoochee River at both railroad bridges. A naval gun battery was located at the CSA Navy Yard at the foot of Fulton Street. The city was attacked by the Union in April 1865, considered to be the last major land battle of the Civil War. (see also Girard (Phenix City) Defenses in ALABAMA.) See also Battle of Columbus from Explore Southern History.com
Columbus CSA Arsenal and Ordnance Depot
(1864 - 1865), Columbus
A CSA Arsenal and/or Ordnance Depot was located in the city, transferred from Atlanta. Undetermined location. (NOTE: not to be confused with the Columbus Naval Iron Works. See SHIPYARDS page.)
(1898 - 1899), Columbus
A Spanish-American War winter training camp located between Third and Sixth Aves. and 29th and 33rd Streets. Originally named Camp Davis (2).
Fort Twiggs (3)
(1836), Fort Benning
A GA state militia log stockade with two blockhouses, located near the confluence of Upatoi Creek and the Chattahoochee River. A third blockhouse was nearby protecting a horse pen.
Fort Benning (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1918 - present), Fort Benning
Originally named Camp Benning until renamed in 1922. A temporary site was first located on Macon Road three miles east of Columbus. A permanent site was selected south of the city. The Regular Army's School of Infantry was established here in 1934. The Army Airborne School is also here. The Army's School of the Americas (renamed Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation in 2001) is also located here. Of interest is the National Infantry Museum.
(1813), near Juniper
A GA state militia stockade with blockhouses on Juniper Creek. A state marker locates the site on GA 41 at Fort Perry Road, southeast of town.
(1863 - 1865), West Point
A CSA strong bastioned four-gun earthwork, 35 yards square, surrounded by a 12-foot wide moat, located at present-day Sixth Ave. and West 10th Street. Two circular stockades protected both sides of the railroad bridge across the Chattahoochee River, and a line of rifle pits encircled the town. Site of one of the last Civil War battles east of the Mississippi River in April 1865, a Union victory. This was the last CSA fort to fall in battle. See also Explore Southern History.com article by Dale Cox
Camp near Newnan
A Spanish-American War training camp.
Civil War Defenses of Griffin
(1861 - 1864), Griffin
Confederates entrenchments were built around the city to defend against Sherman's March in 1864, but Sherman veered away to the east.
A cluster of CSA training camps were also here.
Camp Milner was the main cavalry camp. A state marker locates site at Municipal Park on Country Club Drive.
Camp Stephens was the main infantry camp, located about one-half mile from old US 41 on East McIntosh Road, north of town. A U.D.C. boulder monument is at site.
(Griffin Municipal Park)
(1892 - 1910), Griffin
A Georgia National Guard summer training camp, located at the site of CSA Camp Milner. During the Spanish-American War (1898), it became an assembly camp for all state troops on their way to Tampa, FL. Site became a city park before WW I.
(unknown dates), Monroe County
Located on the Ocmulgee River, opposite Tom's Ford (location ?). Possibly never built.
(info provided by Marshall Sitrin)
(1813 - 1814), near Hammett
A GA state militia and Federal stockade located on the Flint River, between Roberta and Reynolds, at the later townsite of Francisville (1825). It was 180 feet square with two blockhouses, two hospitals, two storehouses, barracks, and other structures. See also Forts Along the Federal Road by Joe Halstead
State marker for the Lower Creek Indian Agency (1819 - 1826) located on GA 128 on the east side of the Flint River bridge.
Lamar Archaeological Site
(1350 - 1500), near Smithsonia
A palisaded Indian town with two major mounds and several house sites. Located on the Ocmulgee River three miles south of Ocmulgee Mounds.
Fort Hawkins (City Park)
(Historic Fort Hawkins)
(Ocmulgee Mounds National Monument)
(1806 - 1819), Macon
A Federal fort located on the east-side of the Ocmulgee River. It was a 14-acre pentagonal stockade with two two-story log blockhouses on stone foundations, and several log barracks. The Lower Creek Indian Agency was here from 1806 to 1819. One of the blockhouses survived until at least 1879. The current blockhouse is a 1938 reconstruction, located at Maynard and Woolfolk Streets, and maintained by the city since 2002. Site excavated in 2005, and the city plans to reconstruct the entire fort. See also Explore Southern History.com article by Dale Cox
See also Forts Along the Federal Road by Joe Halstead
Nearby at Ocmulgee Mounds was the site of a British stockaded trading post Ocmulgee Trading Post (1690 - 1715). The site of Camp Hope (1813) was also nearby, used by the GA state militia. Located on Dunlap Hill, along the Dunlap Trail, is an extant CSA nine-gun battery, used in the November 1864 Battle of Walnut Creek. Seven extant Woodland Period (900 - 1150) Indian temple and burial mounds are located here, as well as a ceremonial earth lodge built over the original site. Ocmulgee Mounds was not known to have been fortified by its inhabitants. Excavations of the entire site were made in the 1930's. Admission fee to National Park area. See also New Georgia Encyclopedia entry
(1844 - 1864), Macon
A GA state militia training area and county fairground before the Civil War. In 1862 became a POW camp for Union soldiers. Became a Union officer POW camp in 1864, holding almost 1,400 men, many originally from Libby Prison in Richmond, VA.. The three-acre site is located in the present-day railroad yards bounded by Seventh, Pine, and Hawthorne Streets, south of the restored train depot. See also Civil War Prisons in Georgia from the New Georgia Encyclopedia
Civil War Defenses of Macon
Camp Wright, the CSA headquarters of the area forces.
Camp Haskell (1), possibly located at the Arsenal (?).
A line of earthwork redoubts, batteries and rifle pits surrounded the city west of the Altamaha River. An extant CSA gun battery remains in Riverside Cemetery on Riverside Drive. Macon became the state capital in 1864 - 1865 after Milledgeville was captured by Union forces.
Confederate Central Laboratory and Arsenal
(1862 - 1864), Macon
A state marker locates the site at Vineville Ave.. This was the headquarters of the Confederate Ordnance Department during the Civil War. The Arsenal was built nearby. Both were never fully completed before war's end. According to an 1864 map, the Arsenal was outside of the CSA earthwork defense line.
During the Spanish-American War (1898 - 1899), Camp Haskell (3) was located here, used as a winter camp for four Negro regiments.
A Spanish-American War summer training camp located in Central City Park, south of 7th Street along the Ocmulgee River.
A Spanish-American War muster camp for state troops. Exact location undetermined.
(1898 - 1899), Macon
A Spanish-American War winter training camp for white troops, located on Ocmulgee Land Company property north (northwest) of the city. Nearby was Camp Prior, also a winter camp for white troops.
(1917 - 1919, 1941 - 1946), Macon
A Federalized National Guard training encampment for the 31st Division. An Army Balloon School (1917) was located in the area, probably here. Unknown if site used by the state guard between the wars. Site was used again in WWII as an Infantry Replacement Center. Located six miles southeast of the city. Now Ocmulgee East Industrial Park. Marker at Riggins Mill Road and Joe Tamplin Industrial Blvd..
(1917 - 1919), Macon
An Army Remount Station during WWI. Located four miles northwest of the city.
Fort Clarke (1)
(1793 - 1794), near Rose Hill
A GA state militia palisaded two-story blockhouse at Scull Shoals on the Oconee River in northern Greene County. Site is within Oconee National Forest.
(1793 - 1794), near Swords
A GA state militia fort at the fork of the Oconee and Apalachee Rivers, built to keep watch on General Elijah Clark's illegal land speculation activities. Marker located on US 278 on the west side of the Oconee River bridge, about two miles southeast of Greshamville.
(unknown - 1787), Greensboro
A town fort that was attacked and burned by Indians in 1787.
(unknown dates), near White Plains
A settlers' fort just east of town. Also known as Old Fort (2) on Civil War era maps.
Shoulderbone Archaeological Site
(1325 - 1500 ?), Shoulderbone
A Late Mississippian Period palisaded Oconee (Ocute) Indian village and mound center. Site was excavated in 1986. This may have been the Indian village named Ocute that Hernando DeSoto visited in April 1540, and where a cannon was supposedly left behind. DeSoto did not report a palisade there, and no direct evidence has positively linked Ocute (undetermined location) with the Shoulderbone Site. The Shoulderbone Site had lost most of its population around 1500, and barely existed afterwards. Ocute was last visited by Gaspar de Salas and Friar Pedro de Chozas with 30 Indians in 1597.
Fort Twiggs (1)
(1793 - 1796), near Shoulderbone
A GA state militia 11-gun stockaded blockhouse located at the mouth of Shoulderbone Creek on the Oconee River.
Civil War Defenses of Milledgeville
CSA earthworks surrounded the town in advance of Union General Sherman's campaign. This was the state capital from 1803 until 1867. The State Arsenal on the north side of State House Square was burned by General Sherman's troops in November 1864, and the brick Powder Magazine on the south side was exploded, damaging the state house, the state library, and the nearby St. Stephen's Episcopal Church (1841) on South Wayne Street. The Old State Capitol Building has been the home of the Georgia Military College since 1879. It was restored in 1943 to its original configuration. The two sets of Gothic-style gates at State House Square were constructed after the war from recovered bricks from the destroyed Arsenal and Magazine.
(1797 - 1806), Milledgeville
Built on the west-side of the Oconee River three miles south of town. Site marked on Fort Wilkinson Drive. This fort replaced Fort Fidius (1793 - 1797), on the east-side of the river, marker on King Street, as the Federal fort protecting the Indian boundary. It once had the largest garrison of Federal troops south of the Ohio River. The Lower Creek Indian Agency was located here from 1796 until 1806 when relocated to Fort Hawkins. See also Forts Along the Federal Road by Joe Halstead
Fort at Federal Town
(1789 - 1793), Baldwin County
Also known as Fort at Rock Landing, it protected a tobacco trading center on the east-side of the Oconee River. Replaced by Fort Fidius.
Fortville Blockhouse ?
(unknown dates), Fortville
The town was either named after an early settlers' fort that may have been located here, or the prominent "Fort" family of the region.
Probably a settlers' fort, located on the Oconee River one-half mile below the town.
General Elijah Clark's Forts
(1794), Wilkinson County
General Elijah Clark and his followers attempted to establish an independent republic west of the Oconee River (Trans-Oconee Republic), and built at least six forts in defiance of Federal Indian treaties with the Creek and Cherokee Indians. The attempt was short-lived, and is sometimes referred to as the "Oconee War". They were: Fort Advance on the Oconee River opposite Town Creek, Fort Defiance (1) six miles upstream from Fort Advance, and Fort Winston (undetermined location). No information has been found for the other three.
Fort Jackson (2)
(1813), Twiggs County ?
One of a string of forts built along the Ocmulgee River to protect settlers from the Creek Indians.
Fort Telfair (2)
(1813), Twiggs County ?
One of a string of forts built along the Ocmulgee River to protect settlers from the Creek Indians.
Fort Twiggs (2)
(1813 - 1814), near Tarversville
A 100-foot square stockade with two blockhouses to protect area settlers. State marker located on GA 96 one mile east of the Ocmulgee River (marker missing or removed).
(1810's), Washington County
A settlers' fort located near "Union Hill" (undetermined location), built by General Jared Irwin and his three brothers; John, William, and Alexander.
General Solomon Wood's Fort
(1790's ?), Bartow
A blockhouse built to protect against Indian raids. Marker located on US 319 east of town.
Roger Lawson's Fort
(1759 ?), Louisville
A settlers' fort. Ruins may possibly exist behind "Mount Pleasant", Lawson's house that was built in 1759.
(Magnolia Springs State Park)
A CSA 42-acre square stockaded POW camp, five miles north of Millen, built to relieve the overcrowding at Camp Sumter (Andersonville). It held about 10,000 men. About 750 prisoners died here. There were two small uncompleted earthen forts to the southeast of the stockade, and a completed seven-gun earthen fort to the southwest of the stockade. After only two months operation, the camp was evacuated in November 1864 before General Sherman's "March to the Sea". The POWs were transferred to temporary camps in Blackshear and Thomasville. Earthworks still remain. See also Civil War Prisons in Georgia from the New Georgia Encyclopedia
(1736 - 1737), Augusta
A British trading post built by Roger Lacey. Possibly the precursor to Fort Augusta (1). (NOTE: possibly the same as Fort Moore in SOUTH CAROLINA ?)
Fort Augusta (1)
(History of St. Paul's Episcopal Church)
(1737 - 1767, 1776 - 1782), Augusta
Built on Kinyans Bluff to protect area settlers and traders. Originally 110 feet square with four bastions. No remains, site marked by the Celtic Cross Memorial behind St. Paul's Episcopal Church at Sixth and Reynolds Streets. The first church was built within the confines of the original fort in 1750. The fort was later occupied by Patriots from 1776 - 1779. The British recaptured the fort in January 1779, enlarged it, and renamed it Fort Cornwallis. Patriots briefly captured the fort in September 1780. The British surrendered the town in June 1781. The fort was demolished in 1786, and a new larger church was then built. The present church was built in 1918.
1781 Maham Tower state marker at Eighth and Reynolds Streets. (NOTE: "Maham" is misspelled "Mayham" on the marker.)
Robert MacKay's Trading Post
(1758 - 1770 ?, 1780), Augusta
A colonial trading post located one and one-half miles below town on the Savannah River. Also known as the White House. Still standing during the American Revolution, some British troops had regrouped here during the September 1780 Patriot attack of the town. Patriot forces lay seige to the White House until British reinforcements from Fort Ninety-Six, SC arrived. The wounded Patriots that were left behind were hanged, or taken with the Indians to be tortured. The so-called "MacKay House" (Harris-Pearson-Walker House) (built 1797) at 1822 Broad Street has been determined by archaeological research to have not been the historic trading post, nor the site of the 1780 seige.
(1780 - 1781), Augusta
The stockaded home of Loyalist James Grierson, located one-half mile from Fort Cornwallis. Captured by Patriots in May 1781. State marker is at Eleventh and Reynolds Streets.
(Augusta State University)
(1816 - 1819, 1827 - 1958/1970's), Augusta
The original site was three miles from town at the present-day Harrisonville railroad yards. Black fever killed off most of the garrison. Rebuilt at a new site at present-day 2500 Walton Way, on the grounds of present-day Augusta State University. It consisted of two Officers' quarters, enlisted barracks, and a storehouse connected by a loop-holed brick wall. Confederates captured the complex in January 1861, and held it until May 1865. The Arsenal was still operational during both World Wars. Expanded with over 50 new buildings in WWII. The complex was closed and became the new home of Augusta Junior College in 1958. Five acres were held for the Army Reserves until the 1970's (now Galloway Hall). The college was renamed in 1996. Tours by reservation.
The still extant 168-foot tall brick chimney of the Confederate Powderworks Factory, constructed in 1861 along the Augusta Canal (National Heritage Area), is at 1717 Goodrich Street. Originally 26 buildings, this was the second largest munitions plant in the world at the time, extending for two miles along the canal. The abandoned factory was bought by the city in 1872 and torn down for new industry.
Civil War Defenses of Augusta
Confederate General Braxton Bragg with 10,000 troops defended the city against Sherman's March, which never came. Earthworks and other defenses were quickly thrown up in several places (locations undetermined). The Magnolia Cemetery at 702 Third Street has cannon embrasures in the east wall.
A Spanish-American War training camp. Location undetermined.
(1898 - 1899), Augusta
A Spanish-American War winter training camp for troops of several northern states, located near Wheless Station between Wrightsboro Road and Troupe Street. Originally named Camp Samuel B.M. Young.
(1917 - 1919), Augusta
A Federalized National Guard training encampment and demobilization center for the 28th Division. Site sold to the city after the war, became Daniel Air Field and a housing area.
Fort Wrightsborough ?
(1768 - 1776), Wrightsboro
A town fort located on the site of the present-day Methodist Church. The town was originally named Brandon from 1754 to 1768. Patriots may have briefly taken control in 1776. See also New Georgia Encyclopedia entry
Pioneer Forts of the Little River Frontier
(1770's - 1780's), various locations
Fort near the Mouth of Pistol Creek an unnamed fort located on Pistol Creek near the later townsite of Lisbon, south of Fort James (1). A state militia supply train to Fort James (1) was attacked by Indians near here in 1777. Site is now probably located under the waters of Clark's Hill (J. Strom Thurmond) Lake.
Hinton's Fort located near the mouth of Chickasaw Creek at the Broad River, near present-day Norman.
Kerr's Fort (aka Fort near the Mouth of Long Creek) located near the mouth of Long Creek, on the north side of the Broad River, near present-day Bell.
Stewart's Fort said to be located on the Broad River about two miles downstream (southeast) of Nail's Fort (below).
Capt. Joseph Nail's Fort located on the north side of the Broad River at Deep (Deer ?) Creek, near present-day Nickville. Attacked by Creek Indians in August 1778, and again by Cherokee Indians in November 1778. It was destroyed by Indians and rebuilt at least once. It was in use by the militia in February 1779.
Col. John Dooly's Fort, also known as "Lee's Old Place", located near the mouth of Soap Creek at the Savannah River. Dooly and his men surrendered here in 1780 after Charleston, SC, fell to the British. Dooly was later killed by Tories while on parole as a POW. Site is now probably under the waters of Clark's Hill (J. Strom Thurmond) Lake.
Stephen Heard's Fort (1774) located at the mouth of Anderson Mill Creek at Fishing Creek. Briefly occupied by Loyalist troops in 1779. Became the seat of the state government in 1780. No remains. State marker located on GA 44 one mile south of Sandtown.
Elijah Clarke's Station located on what was later named Clark Creek, near present-day Mallorysville.
Fort at the Fork of Long Creek an unnamed militia stockade located at the confluence of Long Creek and Dry Fork Creek, southeast of Vesta, on the north side of the present-day Oglethorpe - Wilkes county border. Capt. Thomas Dooly's militia detachment may have been stationed here in 1777.
John Hill's Fort located on Long Creek in Oglethorpe County, just upstream of the Fort at the Fork of Long Creek (above).
Robert Carr's Fort (1776-1780) a stockaded complex of several cabins, located at the fork of Beaverdam Creek. Attacked by Creek Indians in 1778 and again in the spring of 1779, where Carr was killed. Captured by Loyalist troops in February 1779. State militia troops attempted to recapture the fort soon after, but were driven off when British reinforcements arrived from Fort Ninety-Six in SC. The Battle of Kettle Creek occurred four days later, west of Washington on present-day War Hill Road. The undisclosed site of the fort was discovered by archaeologists from the LAMAR Institute in April 2013. News article April 30, 2013
Robert McNabb's Fort located on or near Kettle Creek, near present-day Tyrone. Attacked by Indians in November 1778, killing McNabb.
Joel Phillips' Fort located near Reedy Creek on the north side of the Little River, south of Lundberg. Stood in 1777.
Capt. Zachariah Phillips' Fort located at the mouth of Lick Creek on the south side of the Little River, near present-day Sandy Cross. Stood in 1777. Attacked and destroyed by Indians in 1780.
Powell's Fort located on an unnamed creek that flowed into the Ogeechee River, near the headwaters of the Little River. Renamed Childer's Fort when the fort's militia commander was replaced. Possibly located near present-day Robinson.
William Sherrall's Fort (1773-74) a blockhouse located on Sherrills Creek, about four miles from the head of the Ogeechee River, near the present-day border between Greene and Taliaferro counties, possibly near present-day Springfield. Attacked by Indians in January 1774, killing seven settlers including Sherrall.
Well's Fort located on the Ogeechee River, east of the forks, south of Crawfordville. Stood in 1777, attacked and destroyed by Indians in 1779. May be the same as Rogers' Fort (below).
Drury Rogers' Fort located on Poplar (Camp) Creek of the Ogeechee River. Attacked and destroyed by Indians in the spring of 1779 after its militia garrison had fled. May be the same as Well's Fort (above).
Benjamin Fulsam's Fort located on the Ogeechee River, above Fulsome Creek, near present-day Mayfield. Stood in 1777, attacked and destroyed by Indians in March 1779. The Indians then used the site as a temporary camp until a large force of Georgia militia arrived in the area.
Capt. Solomon Newsome's Fort located on the south side of Big Briar Creek in Warren County, near present-day Mesena. Attacked by Indians in March 1779 after the fight at Fulsam's Fort, but were repulsed.
Kiokee Fort a militia stockade located on Kiokee Creek at or near its mouth on the Savannah River, in present Columbia County.
(1780's ?), Washington
A state marker locates site at Fort Washington Park behind the courthouse. This town, in 1780, was the first in the nation named after George Washington.
Samuel Knox's Fort
(1786), Wilkes County
A settlers' fort. Undetermined location.
Fort James (1)
(1775 - 1781 ?), Elbert County
A GA colonial miltia stockade, about one-acre in area, with four bastions and a blockhouse, enclosing a commandant's house, barracks, and Officers' quarters. Held by Loyalists in 1776. Located at the confluence of the Broad and Savannah Rivers. The town here was originally named Dartmouth, renamed Petersburg in 1786. The exact site, now within Bobby Brown State Park, is most probably under the waters of Clark's Hill (J. Strom Thurmond) Lake.
NEED MORE INFO: Old Garrison Road in Jones County.
Towns: Fort Valley in Peach County, most probably named for Arthur Fort (1750 - 1833), a prominent figure in early state history.
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