American Forts: East

GEORGIA

Fort Anderson | Fort Argyle | Camp Atkinson (1) | Fort Barrington | Beard's Bluff Fort
M. Carr's Fort (2) | Fort Darien | Camp Davis (1) | Fort Defence (1) | Fort Defence (2)
Fort Defiance (2) | Doctor Town Battery | Fort Ebenezer | First Fort | Genesis Point Battery
Fort George (2) | Gualdape | Fort Hammond (1) | Fort at Hardwicke | Fort Howe
Fort James (2) | Fort King George | Lake Bluff Battery | Fort McAllister | Fort Morris
Fort Mount Pleasant | Fort Mount Venture | Fort at New Inverness | Camp Newport
Old Fort (1) | Ossabaw Island Post | St. Catherines Island Presidio | San Miguel de Gualdape
Sapelo Island Battery | Sapelo Island Presidio | Sterling's Fort | Camp Stewart | Fort Stewart
Sunbury Fort (1) | Fort Sunbury (2) | Fort Telfair (1) | Tolomato Presidio | Uchee Fort

Spanish Missions
(NOT INDEXED)

Savannah Area - page 2 | South Coastal Georgia - page 3
Southern Georgia - page 4 | Central Georgia - page 5
Greater Atlanta - page 6 | Northwestern Georgia - page 7
Northern Georgia - page 8

GEORGIA CIVIL WAR HERITAGE TRAIL

Last Update: 8/MARCH/2014
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2014 American Forts Network

Fort Mount Pleasant
(1740 - 1747), near Clyo
A GA colonial miltia stockaded fort and Indian trading post at the site of an Uchee Indian village on the Savannah River. Also known as Uchee Fort. Located just upriver from Fort Prince George (1) in South Carolina, site northwest of town near River Road. Thomas Wiggins had long operated the civilian trade post here and became captain of the garrison. The Indian town was virtually abandoned in 1741.

Fort Ebenezer
(1757, 1776 - 1782), (New) Ebenezer
A GA colonial militia fort protecting the frontier settlement of Germans newly established in the province (1738). The town was an important trading center for silk. Refortified by Patriots in 1776, including a state militia magazine, captured and rebuilt by the British in 1779 and held until 1782. The town was recaptured by the Patriots just prior to the British evacuation of Savannah. The town ceased to exist after 1799. The old church and cemetery still remain. A museum is nearby on GA 275. State Marker

Camp Davis (1)
(1862), near Guyton
A major Confederate Camp of Instruction for the southern third of the state, in use from February to May 1862. Site located two miles north of town along GA 17, north of Keith Road and Woodlawn Plantation.

Camp Atkinson (1)
(1895 - 1897), Meldrim
A GA National Guard summer training camp for cavalry troops.


(For Savannah defenses please see page 2)


Fort Argyle
(1734 - 1747 ?), near Richmond Hill ¤ 1740 Savannah MAP ¤
A British four-gun palisaded fort (100 feet square with two bastions) defending the western approach to Savannah and South Carolina from Indian raids. Located on the west bank of the Ogeechee River within the present-day Fort Stewart Military Reservation, about 3.2 miles north of the Canoochee River. The site may have been used again for defense in the American Revolution.

Located about 5.5 miles upriver on the east bank of the Ogeechee River at Middle Landing, about 8.75 miles north of the Canoochee River, was Old Fort (1) (aka First Fort) (1733), the original location of Fort Argyle, which was relocated due to health concerns of the troops.

Sterling's Fort
(1734 ? - 1736), near Richmond Hill
A settlers' fort located on the west bank of the Ogeechee River about 0.5 mile north of Sterling Creek. In 1744 the town of Williamsburg was established here, or at nearby Richmond Hill.

Fort at Hardwicke
(1756), Hardwick ¤ 1755 MAP ¤
This small hamlet was originally designed to be the state capital by some in early state history, supplanting Savannah. Three 600-foot polygonal forts, with three detached bastions, armed with 25 guns and a garrison of 150 men, were planned for the protection of this town on the "Elbow of the Great Ogeechee". The town never came to fruition, and therefore the fortifications were never carried out. State Marker

Fort McAllister (State Historic Park)
(1861 - 1864), Fort McAllister FORT WIKI
A well-preserved Confederate fort built of sand and marsh-mud at Genesis Point on the Ogeechee River. Originally named Genesis Point Battery. It was attacked seven times but fell only until Sherman's March reached Savannah. Admission fee. Another website from NPS (Golden Crescent)

Ossabaw Island Post
(Ossabaw Island State Wildlife Management Area)
(Ossabaw Island Foundation)
(1862 - 1865), Ossabaw Island
A Union occupied island after the capture of Port Royal Sound, SC. The only standing historic structures on the island remain at the North End and the nearby Main House complex. The North End contains the Clubhouse (1876), a two-story frame house, a one-story tabby building adjacent to the clubhouse (the tabby "oyster house"), a frame barn, and three tabby slave/tenant houses with central chimneys. Public day-use visitation allowed, boat access only.

Sunbury Fort (1)
(1756 - 1761 ?), Sunbury
A town battery was erected here in 1756, consisting of eight guns. The parish church was also palisaded. A small log fort or blockhouse was built in 1760. Probably located at or near the site of later Fort Morris.

Fort Morris (State Historic Site)
(1776 - 1782, 1813 - 1815, 1861), Sunbury FORT WIKI
A Patriot 25-gun moated irregular quadrangular earthwork. The British attacked in November 1778 to the reply of the Patriots' "Come and take it!", but were repulsed. The British attacked again in January 1779, capturing the post and renaming it Fort Sunbury (2) or Fort George (2). Abandoned by the British before the evacuation of Savannah, then briefly occupied by the Patriots. Abandoned between 1782 and 1813. It was then rebuilt smaller as Fort Defiance (2) (or Fort Defence (2)) (eight guns). The earthworks here are the only works of the American Revolution still extant in the state. During the Civil War, two guns were taken to Riceboro, but were not used. Two additional guns were used as signal guns here, but were later transferred to Fort Bartow (1) in 1862. Admission fee. Another website from NPS (Golden Crescent) | Fort Morris Cannon display in Hinesville.

Capt. Mark Carr's Fort (2)
(1756), Cubbage Island
A GA colonial militia fort for the defense of Sunbury.

San Miguel de Gualdape
(1526 - 1527), St. Catherines Island ?
The first Spanish colonization attempt north of Mexico. There were 600 colonists, including a few women and some black slaves, and one Indian named "El Chicorano" as a guide (who had been captured on a 1521 slave raid to the region), as well as horses and supplies for three months. They sailed from Santo Domingo (Hispaniola) in two ships under the leadership of Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón. The party landed in Winyah Bay, SC (Cabo de San Nicolás, at roughly 30 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude, plus or minus 30 minutes), repaired their ships, and then headed southwest for 40-45 Spanish leagues to find a suitable settlement site. Only 150 people made it through the winter and several Indian attacks, and returned to Santo Domingo the following spring. (see also Winyah Bay in SOUTH CAROLINA)
See also Spanish Exploration of Georgia from the New Georgia Encyclopedia

St. Catherines Island Presidio
(1566 - 1597, 1605 - 1680), St. Catherines Island
An early Spanish fort was once here, later protecting the Spanish Franciscan Mission Santa Catalina de Guale (1595), which became the provincial headquarters of Guale (present-day north-coastal Georgia). Destroyed by Indians during the 1597 Guale Rebellion, and not rebuilt until 1605. Attacked and destroyed by South Carolina forces in 1680. Abandoned for Sapelo Island. Site of the mission is on Wamassee Creek, which has been excavated.

Tolomato Presidio
(1595 - 1597, 1605 - 1684), near South Newport
A Spanish Franciscan mission-presidio, Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Tolomato, probably originally located on the South Newport River near Harris Neck, burned in 1597, rebuilt in 1605, possibly at or near the Tupiqui - Espogache site. Abandoned for Sapelo Island.

Camp Newport
(1864), South Newport
A state marker locates the site of a CSA cavalry camp on nearby Fort Point. It was attacked by Union troops in August 1864.

Fort Hammond (1)
(1794 - unknown), Liberty County
A Federal or state militia fort purported to have been located somewhere in present-day Liberty County.

Fort Stewart (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1940 - present), Hinesville FORT WIKI
Originally established in 1940 as a Coast Artillery anti-aircraft gun and searchlight training range, known as Camp Stewart. Live-firing exercises were initially held at the beaches of St. Augustine and Amelia Island, FL until permanent training facilities were completed here in September 1941. Liberty Field was built in 1941 for the AAA target-towing airplanes. The post became a major troop replacement training center during the war. German POW's were held here in 1943 - 1945. Designated an armor training center in 1953. Became a permanent post in 1956 and renamed. Hunter Army Airfield, formerly an Army Air Corps base originally established in 1940, became a subpost of Fort Stewart in 1967. This is the largest Regular Army reservation in the Eastern United States, covering over 280,000 acres. On base is the Fort Stewart Military Museum, Building T904.

Fort Mount Venture
(1737 - 1742), near Bethel
A British civilian trading post located on the south (or west) bank of the Altamaha River in the Big Hammock area, somewhere between Five Mile and Ten Mile Creeks. Built and operated by Jacob and Mary Mathews. Fortified and garrisoned by the GA colonial militia in April 1741. Attacked and destroyed in November 1742 by Yamassee Indians. It was not rebuilt, and after Jacob Mathews died, Mary Mathews remarried Thomas Bosomworth and in 1746 established another trade post further west at the "Forks of the Altamaha". (see also page 4)

Beard's Bluff Fort
(1776), near Madray Springs
A temporary Patriot stockaded fort was located on Beard's Bluff along the Altamaha River and Beard's Creek. State marker on US 301 at the Long - Tattnall County line.

Federal Fort Telfair (1) was built here in 1790 - 1795. It was regarrisoned in 1814. It was palisaded with two blockhouses.

Fort James (2)
(1797 - 1802, 1817 ?), near Madray Springs ?
A Federal fort on the western bank of the Altamaha River about 50 miles upriver from Darien, located somewhere between Beard's Bluff and Doctortown.

Fort Defence (1)
(1794), Doctortown
Commanded by Capt. James Armstrong, the fort was only briefly used. Built near the home of Dr. Alleck, a Creek Indian who was earlier made a captain by the British colonial authorities.

Doctor Town Battery
(1863 - 1864), Doctortown
A CSA two-gun battery was located here in 1864 to protect the railroad bridge from a landward attack. A Confederate picket post was probably located further along the railroad across the Altamaha River on the north side of Morgan Lake. The state marker located on US 301 just north of the bridge is misleading about this. Attacked by the Union in December 1864. One of the CSA guns was transferred to Waycross in 1887 for display in Phoenix Park. No remains of battery site.

Earlier in 1863, located about one and one-half miles downstream at Lake Bluff, at the convergence of the several river channels, was a CSA battery (1863) to protect the three railroad bridges upstream from a waterborne naval attack. No remains.
(thanks to Craig Swain for providing info on Lake Bluff)

Fort Barrington
(1751 - 1780's, 1860's), near Lower Sansavilla
A British fort located on the east bank of the Altamaha River two miles below town. It was a 70-square foot stockade with four bastions and a two-story wooden blockhouse. Rearmed by Patriots in 1776, captured by British Loyalist forces (Florida Rangers) in 1777 and renamed Fort Howe. The Patriots recaptured the fort in 1778. The site was also used by Confederates during the Civil War, mostly as a lookout post. No remains. State marker located on GA 57 at the Long - McIntosh County line.

Fort King George (State Historic Site)
(1721 - 1732), Darien FORT WIKI
Built on or near the site of the early Spanish Franciscan Mission Santo Domingo de Asao - Talaje (1) (1595 - 1661) (see below). At the time this was the southern-most British outpost on the continent. It guarded against Spanish raids into Carolina. It was an earthen fort with a three-story 26-foot square cypress blockhouse. It was almost destroyed by fire in 1726. It was rebuilt in 1727, but with only a token guard afterwards. The present structure is a faithful reconstruction (1960's). The brick ruins of a later sawmill operation are also located here. Admission fee. State Marker | Another website from NPS (Golden Crescent)

Fort Darien
(1736 - 1748), Darien
The town of New Inverness was founded by Scots settlers in 1736. A large fortification with two bastions and two half-bastions, armed with four guns, originally named Fort at New Inverness, was built to protect the town from the Spanish. A marker is located at Broad and Walton Streets at the Altamaha River bridge. Tabby foundations nearby are said to be the remains of one of the fort's half-bastions.
See also Darien, Georgia: The Scottish Plymouth Rock || History of Darien and McIntosh County

A temporary Patriot fort was located here in 1776.

Sapelo Island Presidio
(Sapelo Island State Wildlife Management Area)
(1605 - 1684), Sapelo Island
A Spanish presidio that protected the Franciscan Mission de San José de Zapala. It was probably located on the north end of the island along Blackbeard Creek. Destroyed by South Carolina forces. Abandoned for Amelia Island, FL.

Sapelo Island Batteries
(Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve)
(Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge)
(1898 - 1899), Sapelo Island
A temporary Spanish-American War battery was built on the south-end of the island. Another battery was built on the north-end of Blackbeard Island. Both batteries had sand-covered timber magazines. Damaged by a storm in 1899, but both were rebuilt. Blackbeard Island was a Naval Reservation from 1800 - 1924, set aside for its live oak timber stands. The Sapelo Island Lighthouse was built in 1820. Public day-use visitation of Blackbeard Island is allowed, boat access only. Passenger ferry access to Sapelo Island is from Meridian. The Sapelo Island Reserve Visitor Center is also located in Meridian.


Colonial Spanish Missions of Guale
Spanish Missions in Georgia from the New Georgia Encyclopedia

The following Franciscan Missions were established without presidios or other military protection, and are listed here purely for historical interest. Several missions were destroyed by Indians during the 1597 Guale Rebellion, and some were not rebuilt until 1605. The Spanish Guale Province encompased the coastal area from the Ogeechee River to the Altamaha River. (GUALE is pronounced "wally")

San Diego de Satuache (1610 - 1663), near Genesis Point / Fort McAllister. Abandoned and merged with the mission on St. Catherines Island.
San Phelipe de Alave (1) (1610 - 1670), near Seabrook / Carrs Neck. Moved to Cumberland Island.
Santa Clara de Tupiqui - Espogache (1595 - 1597, 1605 - 1670), near Julienton / Harris Neck. Abandoned and merged with the mission on Sapelo Island.
Talapo (1595 - 1597), probably near Valona.
Santo Domingo de Asao - Talaje (1) (1595 - 1597, 1605 - 1661), near Darien / Fort King George. Attacked and destroyed by northern Indians (Westos).

information courtesy of John Worth


NEED MORE INFO: Fort Anderson (1780) (location ?)
Towns:

Savannah Area - page 2 | South Coastal Georgia - page 3 | Southern Georgia - page 4
Central Georgia - page 5 | Greater Atlanta - page 6 | Northwestern Georgia - page 7
Northern Georgia - page 8

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