American Forts: East

ILLINOIS

Fort Aggie | Camp Albany | Apple River Fort | Fort Armstrong (2) | Bartholomew's Fort
Camp Bureau | Camp Butler (1) | Camp Camden Mills | Carthage Fort | Camp Cedarville
Fort Charles | Fort Clark (2) | Crane's Fort | Fort Crèvecoeur | Fort Cribs | Cross Roads Fort
Darnell's Fort | Cantonment Davis | De La Harpe's Fort | Fort Defiance (1) | Camp Dement
Fort Deposit | Fort Dixon | Fort Doolittle | Camp Dover | Camp Duncan | Camp Dunlap
Fort Edwards | Camp Ford | Fort Galena | Camp Grant (2) | Camp Grant (3) | Gum's Fort
Hartzell's Fort | Havana Fort | Henderson's Grove Fort | Henline's Fort | Camp Herring
Fort Horn | Hubbard's Fort | Fort Illinois | Fort Johnson | Fort Johnston | Kellogg's Fort
Kellogg's Grove Fort | Kickapoo Fort | Knoxville Fort | Camp Latham | Fort Lewis
Camp Lincoln (1) | Camp Lincoln (2) | Camp Lowden | Camp Lyon (2) | Camp McClellan
McMurtry's Fort | Camp Mather (2) | Camp Neponset | Fort Ottawa | Patton's Fort | Fort Peoria
Fort Pimitoui | Plum River Blockhouse | Reed's Fort | Fort des Renards | Rock Island Arsenal
Rock Island Camp | Rock Island Res. | Fort St. Louis (2) | Fort St. Louis des Illinois
Fort St. Louis du Rocher | Camp Scott | Starved Rock Fort | The Stockade Refuge
Camp Tanner | Camp Taylor | Fort Tazewell | Thomas' Fort | Camp Tiskilwa
Urbana Ground School | Warnock's Blockhouse | Fort Wilbourn | Fort Wilburn
Fort Winnebago | Camp Wood (1) | Camp Wyanet | Camp Yates

Greater Chicago Area - page 2 | Southern Illinois - page 3

OLD LEAD REGION HISTORICAL SOCIETY

Last Update: 05/JANUARY/2013
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2013 American Forts Network

Camp Dement
(1861), Amboy
A Civil War training camp.

Fort Dixon
(Lincoln Monument State Memorial)
(1832), Dixon
A state militia earthwork with two blockhouses located at John Dixon's Tavern and Ferry on the Rock River. Used as General Henry Atkinson's headquarters for most of the war. The "Old Settlers' Cabin" was moved to the site in 1967, operated by the Lee County Historical Society. Located at President's Park on the north side of the river along North Galena Ave. and Lincoln Statue Drive. Abraham Lincoln served here as a captain during the Black Hawk War. During that conflict Lincoln, Jefferson Davis and Zachary Taylor met each other here for the first time. The Lincoln Monument (1930) is the only statue of Lincoln depicting him in military garb.

Camp McClellan
(1861), Dixon
A Civil War training camp.

Camp Grant (3)
(1917 - 1946), Rockford
A National Army cantonment training encampment for the 86th Division, later becoming an infantry replacement and demobilization center. Located four miles south of town. Buildings dismantled in 1921 and the site transferred to the state in 1924, used for National Guard training and a C.C.C. campsite until 1940. Federalized and rebuilt in 1940 as a Selective Service Reception Center and Army Medical Corps Replacement Center. After WWII most of the site became the Rockford Airport. The former rifle range area became Seth B. Atwood Park. A 1940's fire station was converted to the Command Post Restaurant, which also houses the Camp Grant Museum. Most of the WWII era buildings were demolished, but some still remain. See also Military Yearbook Project by Richard Morgan

Camp Scott
(1861 - 1862), Freeport
A Civil War training camp. Site located at the present-day high school.

Camp Cedarville
(1862), Cedarville
A Civil War training camp.

Oliver Kellogg's Fort
(1831), near Pearl City
A settlers' fortified log cabin located near the present-day intersection of Dublin Road and Rees Road. Torn down in 1852. Kellogg had moved away from Kellogg's Grove in 1831.

Kellogg's Grove Fort
(1832), near Kent
Abandoned settlers' houses that were fortified by U.S. Army troops, and then used by the Illinois state militia when a battle occurred there against the Sac Indians (Battle of Bloody Pond) in June 1832. A stone monument (1880's) marks the site about one mile southeast of town, at Kent Road and Blackhawk Road.
(thanks to Scott Dyar for providing information)

Fort Charles
(1832), near Scales Mound
A state militia fort during the Black Hawk War, located on Charles Mound at the state border with Wisconsin, about two miles north of town. Site is private property. At 1235 feet elevation, Charles Mound is the highest point in the state.

Fort Perrot
(1690 - 1692), East Dubuque
A French trading and lead mining post built by Nicolas Perrot.

The Stockade Refuge
(1832 - 1838), Galena
A settlers' fortification in the center of town, built under imposed martial law. A large blockhouse was in the center of the stockade, with another in one of the angles, and three fortified houses were in the other angles. Also known as Fort Galena. A third blockhouse was located outside the stockade on a hill overlooking the town. One of the fort houses, the Amos Farrar House, is still extant, and became a museum in 1941, now called "The Old Stockade on the Cobblestone Street". Located at 208 Perry Street. Admission fee.

Apple River Fort (State Historic Site)
(1832), Elizabeth
A settlers' stockade with a two-story blockhouse. Apple River Settlement was renamed to honor Elizabeth Armstrong who rallied the fort's defenders (mostly women because the men were out hunting) against an Indian attack. This was the only fort in the state that was attacked by Chief Black Hawk's band in 1832. The abandoned stockade was torn down in 1847 for lumber. Reconstructed on the actual site in 1996, located just east of downtown.

Plum River Blockhouse
(1832), Savanna
A settlers' blockhouse constructed from the settlers' dismantled homes. Attacked by Indians in May 1832, the settlement was then abandoned until the close of hostilities. In 1833 the timber was returned to rebuild the homes. The site of the fort was at the present US 52 bridge abutment. The town was originally named Plum River until 1850.

Crane's Fort
(1832), Carroll County
A settlers' fort. Undetermined location.

Camp Albany
(1862), Albany
A Civil War training camp.

Fort Armstrong (2)
(Rock Island Arsenal)
(1816 - 1836/1845), Rock Island
This was the site of the "Battle of Rock Island Rapids" against the Sac Indians in May 1814. The post was built on the lower east end of the island with two two-story stone and timber blockhouses, with barracks and storehouses. This was the only post in the state garrisoned by the Regular Army during the 1832 Black Hawk War. The Army left in 1836 but the post was still in use by the state militia as an ordnance depot until 1845. The Sac and Fox Indian Agency was located here outside the fort's walls from 1825 - 1833. The old fort was destroyed by fire in 1855 and 1859, afterwhich what was left was ordered removed. The grounds were later altered and graded for the relocation of the railroad and the new arsenal complex (see below). A replica blockhouse (1916) is on the site of the original. A D.A.R. plaque marks a second blockhouse. A scale model of the fort is in the Rock Island Arsenal Museum. Public access is controlled on the military base.

The American Fur Company also had a separate trade post on the island from 1836 - 1838, probably on the north end of the island near the second Davenport House.

Rock Island Arsenal (U.S. Military Reservation)
(Rock Island Arsenal Museum)
(1809/1862 - present), Rock Island
Rock Island Military Reservation was originally created in 1809. The Arsenal was first established in 1862, it has been in continuous operation since the 1880's. The Clock Tower Building was built in 1867. Quarters One was built in 1871. "Arsenal Row" consists of five historic 1870's stone buildings for ordnance production, and "Armory Row" consists of five buildings for small arms production. A Confederate POW camp, Rock Island Camp, was located here from December 1863 - July 1865, holding about 12,200 prisoners. On the north end of the island is the historic 1833 Col. George Davenport House (admission fee), his second house on the island. Nearby is the Pioneer Cemetery and the Rock Island National Cemetery. The Rock Island Arsenal Museum was established in 1905, located in Building 60. Group tours by advance reservation given by the Rock Island Arsenal Historical Society.

Hubbard's Fort
(1818 - unknown, 1832 ?), Marseilles
An American Fur Co. stockade on a bluff overlooking the Illinois River.

This or another fort was also possibly used during the 1832 Black Hawk War. One source mentions an earthen (sod) fort built before 1832 and palisaded later.

Fort Winnebago
(1827), near Ottawa
A settlers' fort built during the 1827 Winnebago War. Located about two miles south (?) of Fort Johnston.

Fort Johnston
(1832), Ottawa
A state militia fort/blockhouse at the mouth of the Fox River, originally named Fort Ottawa. This was Gen. Henry Atkinson's headquarters for a time during the Black Hawk War. No remains. Site located just west of the IL 23 / IL 71 intersection.

Fort St. Louis du Rocher
(Starved Rock State Park)
(1682 - 1691), Utica
A palisaded trading post built by Henri de Tonti on the summit of Starved Rock. Across the Illinois River was the Grand Village of the Illinois, or Old Kaskaskia. It was abandoned in 1691 after an Iroquois attack, but sometimes occupied again until 1702. French traders occasionally occupied the site until it was finally burned by Indians around 1720. Also known as Fort St. Louis des Illinois.

Starved Rock Fort
(1812), Utica
A defense of some kind was supposedly here during the War of 1812.

Fort Horn
(1832), La Salle
A militia fort at the mouth of the Little Vermilion River, across from Fort Wilbourn. Reddick Horn was the militia supply master. The town was then known as Illinoistown.

Fort Wilbourn
(1832), Oglesby
A state militia fort and supply depot where Abraham Lincoln was mustered in as a private for his second term of enlistment. The post was located on a bluff overlooking the Illinois River, on the south bank across from the mouth of the Little Vermilion River. Originally known as Fort Deposit when a military supply ship ran aground and the supplies were offloaded here. Rebuilt and renamed when troops arrived under Capt. John Wilbourn. Also spelled Wilburn. No remains. Site is now part of Illinois Valley Community College.

Bureau County Civil War Camps
(1861 - 1862), Bureau County
Civil War recruitment and training camps were located at:
Camp Dover (1862), Dover.
Camp Bureau (1861 - 1862), Princeton, at the county fairgrounds.
Camp Neponset (1862), Neponset.
Camp Tiskilwa (1862), Tiskilwa.
Camp Wyanet (1862), Wyanet.

Henry Thomas' Fort
(1832), near Wyanet
A settlers' fortified log cabin on the old Galena Trail, four miles north of town.

Warnock's Blockhouse
(1832), near Granville
A settlers' blockhouse built on a farm near town.

Fort Cribs
(1832), near Hennepin
A settlers' stockade built mostly with corn cribs, hence the name. It was never attacked. A barn is reportedly located on the original foundation. Located about three and one-half miles north (or northeast ?) of town.

Hartzell's Fort
(1832), Hennepin
A trading post that was fortified during the Black Hawk War. Located on the east side of Front Street, overlooking the Illinois River. It stood for 10 years.

Benjamin Darnell's Fort
(1832), Roberts Township, Marshall County
A settlers' stockade built on Darnell's farm on Sandy Creek, large enough for 70 families to take refuge.

NOTE: There were six or seven additional settler blockhouses/stockades located in Marshall and Putnam Counties that were built or used during the 1832 Black Hawk War. Names and locations undetermined.

Fort Defiance (1)
(1832), near Hallock
A settlers' fort at La Salle Prairie during the Black Hawk War. Also known as Simon Reed's Fort.

Fort Crèvecoeur (Park)
(1680), Creve Coeur
This was the first French fort in Illinois. The name, meaning "Broken Heart," comes from a fort of the same name in the Netherlands that was captured by the French. Soon after the fort was built (January 1680), Robert Cavelier sieur de La Salle returned to Canada to get needed supplies. Under command of Henri de Tonti, the garrison mutinied and plundered the fort during Tonti's absence at Old Kaskaskia/Starved Rock (April 1680), and Illinois Indians later burned the fort. A monument marks the site. The fort has been reconstructed.

Fort Pimitoui
(1692 - 1730 ?), Peoria
Built by Henri de Tonti after Fort St. Louis du Rocher was abandoned. Also known as (Old) Fort Peoria, Fort Illinois, and Fort St. Louis (2). No remains.

Fort Clark (2)
(1813 - 1817, 1832), Peoria
A state militia fort destroyed by Indians in 1819 after it was abandoned. Rebuilt by the local settlers for defense in the Black Hawk War. No remains, site located at Liberty and Water Streets. Probably built on the site of the earlier French Fort Pimitoui.

Peoria Civil War Camps
(1861), Peoria
Camp Mather (2) was located at the fairgrounds. Camp Lyon (2) was also in the area.

Camp Herring
(1917 - 1919), East Peoria
An Army Ordnance camp at the Holt Manufacturing Company, which produced heavy tractors and tanks.

Fort Tazewell
(1811), Pekin
A settlers' fort.

Fort Doolittle
(1832), Pekin
A converted schoolhouse (Snell School) fortified during the Black Hawk War. Site located on Second Street between St. Mary's and Elizabeth Aves..

Fort des Renards
(1730), McLean County
The Mesquakie (Fox) Indians were defeated by the French after a 23-day seige of their stronghold.

Kickapoo Fort (date ?) was nearby, a stronghold of the Kickapoo Indians.

John Patton's Fort
(1832 - 1840), near Lexington
A settlers' blockhouse built adjacent to the original 1829 log cabin. They were joined together in 1840 as an enlarged farmhouse. The extant house (relocated in 1969) is maintained by the McLean County Historical Society, restored in 1984. Located at Lexington Park.

Bartholomew's Fort
(1832), near Pleasant Hill
A fortified farmhouse used by the militia, located five miles outside of town.

Urbana Army Ground School
(1917 - 1919), Urbana
An Army Ground School on the University of Illinois campus.

George (or John ?) Henline's Fort
(1832), near Lawndale
A settlers' stockaded cabin. No remains.

Camp Latham
(1861), Lincoln
A Civil War training camp.

Havana Fort
(1812), near Havana
A settlers' fort located northeast of town.

Knoxville Fort
(1832), near Knoxville
A settlers' small stockaded fort located about three and one-half miles southeast of town. It was reportedly never actually used for defense. Exact location undetermined.
(thanks to Greg Carter, Old Lead Region Historical Society, for providing info.)

McMurtry's Fort
(1830 - 1832), Sparta Township, Knox County
A settlers' stockade and blockhouse, built on the William and James McMurtry Farm about three miles northwest of Henderson Grove on the south side of Middle Creek, in Township Section 10. This was the first fort built in the county.
(thanks to Greg Carter, Old Lead Region Historical Society, for providing info.)

Henderson's Grove Fort
(1832), Soperville
A settlers' stockaded fort on Henderson Creek.
(thanks to Greg Carter, Old Lead Region Historical Society, for providing info.)

John Gum's Fort
(1832), near Soperville ?
A settlers' fortified double log cabin. It would later become Knox County's first courthouse and post office. Knoxville became the county seat in 1839. The cabin was later moved and preserved in a Knoxville park until burned by arsonists in 1952.
(thanks to Greg Carter, Old Lead Region Historical Society, for providing info.)

Fort Lewis
(1832), near Henderson
A 210-foot square stockaded fort with two blockhouses, the principal defense in Knox County, built by the Volunteer Rangers. Site located in Township Section 33, above Lake Storey.
(thanks to Greg Carter, Old Lead Region Historical Society, for providing info.)

Fort Aggie
(1832), near Rio
A settlers' stockaded fort named in honor of settler Joseph Cresswell's wife. The structure was torn down in 1836 to use the lumber for a barn. Site located in Township Section 7.

Cross Roads Fort
(1832), near Macomb
A settlers' fort located at Old Fort.

Bernard de La Harpe's Fort
(1715 ?), La Harpe
A French fort. Four stone tablets inscribed in French with the date "June 15, 1715" were found here in the late 1890's.

Carthage Fort
(Old Carthage Jail Historic Site)
(1832), Carthage
A fortified settlers' home.

The stone "Old Carthage Jail" was built on the site in 1839. Mormon leader Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were killed here by a lynch mob in June 1844. The old jail is preserved as a historic site by the Mormon Church at Courthouse Square.

Fort Johnson
(1814), Warsaw
A Federal stockaded fort about 100 feet square, with two timber blockhouses, a stone powder magazine, and several barracks and quarters, located opposite the mouth of the Des Moines River, built by Major Zachary Taylor. It was abandoned and burned after being occupied for less than eight weeks (Sept. - Oct. 1814).

Cantonment Davis was later established here or nearby in October 1815 as a winter encampment for the building of Fort Edwards just to the north. The probable site, located on the west side of town in a residential neighborhood, has been under ongoing archaeological study since 2003.

Fort Edwards
(1816 - 1824, 1828 - 1832), Warsaw
A Federal stockaded fort located just north of Fort Johnson. Became a government Indian Factory from 1818 - 1822. Troops were withdrawn in 1819, but were later occasionally posted here until 1824. The American Fur Company then leased the fort from 1828 (?) - 1832. Settlers may have used the fort for protection in the 1832 Black Hawk War. The abandoned site was sold off in 1844, and the salvageable timber was used to make houses for the new settlers. No remains. A stone monument is located on a bluff along the Mississippi River, just west of the Great River Road.

Camp Wood (1)
(1861 - 1864), Quincy
A Civil War training camp. Located over one mile from the town square, just west of the present-day Illinois Veterans' Home and All Wars Museum on North 12th Street.

Jacksonville Civil War Camps
(1861 - 1862), Jacksonville
Civil War training camps located here were Camp Duncan (1861 - 1862), Camp Dunlap (1861), and Camp Grant (2).

Camp Ford
(1846), Springfield
A Mexican-American War training camp.

Springfield Civil War Camps
(1861 - 1866), Springfield
Camp Yates (1861), located at the Sangamon County Fairgrounds, west of town. After a few months, the camp was moved to Camp Butler (1). Marker located on grounds of Dubois Elementary School.
Camp Butler (1) (1861 - 1866), located northeast of town on Clear Lake. Became a Confederate POW camp after 1862. Now a National Cemetery at 5063 Camp Butler Road, off of US 36.
Camp Lincoln (1), a recruitment camp. Possibly the precursor to and same site as Camp Lincoln (2) (see below).
Camp Taylor, undetermined location.

Camp Lincoln (2) (State Military Reservation)
(1886 - present), Springfield
A state National Guard summer training camp and present-day headquarters located on the north side of town. Site was too small to be the state muster camp in 1898, so Camp Tanner (see below) was established for the overflow. Of interest here on post is the Illinois State Military Museum at 1301 North MacArthur Blvd..

Camp Tanner
(1898), Springfield
A Spanish-American War state muster camp located at the present-day State Fairgrounds, northeast of Camp Lincoln. Later the site was used for Camp Lowden (1917), a state guard mobilization encampment. The 1894 Exposition Building still exists on the grounds.


NEED MORE INFO: There were six or seven additional settler blockhouses/stockades located in Marshall and Putnam Counties that were built or used during the Black Hawk War in 1832. Names and locations undetermined.

Civil War recruitment camp Camp Camden Mills (1862) (location ?).

Greater Chicago Area - page 2 | Southern Illinois - page 3

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Eastern Forts