American Forts: East

NEW HAMPSHIRE

Fort Anglesea | Brentwood Garrisons | Castle Fort | Clark's Point Redoubt
Camp Constitution | Fort Constitution | Battery Cumberland | Damme Garrison
Fort Dearborn | Dearborn Garrison (1) | Dover Garrisons | Dover Gun House
Dover Meeting House | Dover Powder House | Durham Garrisons | Epping Garrisons
Exeter Garrisons | Exeter Powder House | Camp Fry | Gilman Garrison | Great Fort
Green Garrison | Greenland Garrisons | Hampton Garrisons | Hampton Falls Garrisons
Hampton Meeting House | Fort Hancock | Hilton's Point | Fort at Jaffrey's Point
Battery at Jerry's Point | Kingston Garrisons | Camp Langdon | Lee Garrisons
Madbury Garrisons | Camp Morley | New Res. | Newfields Garrisons
Newington Garrisons | Newmarket Garrisons | Oyster River | Pannaway | Pascataway
Portsmouth Arsenal | Portsmouth Garrisons | Portsmouth Gun House
Portsmouth Powder House | Rollinsford Garrisons | Rye Garrisons | Seabrook Garrisons
Shaw's Hill Fort | South Mill Pond Barracks | Fort Star | Fort Stark | Stratham Garrisons
Strawbery Banke | Castle Walbach | Walbach Tower | Fort Washington
Fort (Castle) William and Mary

Western and Central New Hampshire - page 2

Last Update: 15/FEBRUARY/2014
Compiled by Pete Payette - 2014 American Forts Network

Rollinsford Garrison Houses
(various dates), Rollinsford
James Stackpole's or the Sligo Garrison (1709 ?) was on Sligo Road at "The Point". Rev. James Pike's Garrison (1730) was near the present-day railroad station. Rollinsford, once known as Salmon Falls, was seperated from Somersworth in 1849.

Dover Garrison Houses
(various dates), Dover
There were up to 50 garrison houses in and around Old Dover Township during the 1689 Indian attack, which would include present-day Somersworth (until 1754), Rollinsford, Madbury, Durham, and Lee.
On the south side of the Cocheco River were located Capt. Peter Coffin's Garrison (built 1650's ?, fortified 1683) burned 1689, on Orchard Street near Central Ave., and Tristram Coffin's Garrison (son of Peter) burned 1689, near the old Belknap School. On the north side of the Cocheco River were located Major Richard Walderne's (Waldron's) Garrison (built 1664, fortified 1674) burned 1689, marker on National Block, Richard Otis' Garrison (fortified 1683) burned 1689, site on Mt. Vernon Street, Capt. John Heard's (Hurd's) Garrison (built 1660's ?, fortified 1675) survived 1689 attack, site on Central Ave. near Garrison Hill, and Paine's Garrison burned 1689, at Rogers Street and Portland Ave..
Along the Bellamy (Back) River were located Capt. John Gerrish's Garrison (built 1670) in Bellamy, survived 1689 attack, Richard Pinkham's Garrison (fortified 1675, dismantled 1825), Tibbet's Garrison between Pinkham's Garrison and the second Meeting House, survived 1689 attack, (Ebenezer ?) Varney's Garrison (unknown date) dismantled 1830's, Lt. Zachariah Field's Garrison (built 1690 or 1694, fortified 1707) on "Field's Plains", Meserve's Garrison (unknown date), Benedictus Torr's Garrison (1700 ?) burned and rebuilt, Ezekiel Wentworth's Garrison (1700's), Lt. John (Jonathan) Hayes' Garrison (1707 ?) dismantled 1812, and the William Damme Garrison (1675) the only remaining intact garrison house in Dover. It was originally located south of the Bellamy (Back) River near Garrison Road - Spruce Lane. It was moved to the Woodman Institute Museum in 1916 (admission fee).
The second Dover Meeting House (1654) on Dover Neck (Nutter Hill) was fortified in 1667 and 1683 with a 100-foot square, eight-foot high stockade around the house. It was demolished by 1695. Site is marked with monument. Hilton's Point was first settled in 1628 (local tradition 1623), and was probably palisaded across the neck.

A Powder House (date ?) was once located on the banks of the Cocheco River, extant as late as 1877.

Dover Gun House
(1809 - unknown), Dover
A gun house was reportedly built by the town on land purchased from Moses Ham.

Madbury Garrison Houses
(various dates), Madbury
Abraham Clark's Garrison (1693) demolished 1836, David Daniel's Garrison on David's Lane, Eli DeMerritt's Garrison (1720) demolished 1836, located near Pudding Hill, Capt. Paul Gerrish's Garrison, Daniel Meserve Jr.'s Garrison in Freetown on Harvey's Hill, William Tasker's Garrison (built 1693, fortified after 1694 Indian attack) on Moharimet's Hill, demolished 1820 ?, and William Twombly's Garrison (1730's) demolished 1842.

Lee Garrison Houses
(various dates), Lee
There were garrison houses here during the 1680's. Also here was Capt. Nathaniel Randall's Garrison (1720's, demolished 1850), Joseph Doe's Garrison (1737), later renamed Elijah Fox's Garrison (demolished 1880), and the Jones' Garrison (1700) in Newtown.

Durham Garrison Houses
(various dates), Durham
There were 12 active garrison houses during the 1694 Oyster River Massacre. Five were destroyed. There were 20 militia soldiers posted at the various houses. Up to 14 garrison houses were built in the area in later years. Durham, known as Oyster River Plantation, was a part of Dover until 1732.
William Beard's Garrison (attacked in 1675) on Beard's Creek, Lt. James (John) Davis' Garrison (1654) at the mouth of the Oyster River on Wagon Hill Farm (survived 1689 and 1694 attacks), Lt. James Huckins' (Huggins') Garrison (burned 1689), Charles Adams' Garrison (burned 1694), Thomas Bickford's Garrison (survived 1694 attack) palisaded on Durham Point, James Bunker's Garrison (1650's) near Bunker's Creek (survived 1689 and 1694 attacks), Robert Burnham's Garrison (survived 1694 attack), Francis Drew's Garrison (1640's ?) at Drew's Point (burned 1694), William Durgin's Garrison (1695 ?) at Adam's Point, Thomas Edgerly's Garrison (burned 1694) north of Meader's Creek, John Goddard's Garrison (1630's), Valentine Hill's Garrison (built 1649, survived 1694 attack) now incorporated into the Three Chimneys Inn, the Mathes' (Matthews') Garrison (survived 1694 attack), John Meader's Garrison (1660's) on Hill's Neck (burned in 1694), Smith's Garrison (survived 1689 attack), Capt. John Woodman's Garrison (1656 ?) at the head of Beard's Creek (survived 1694 attack), burned in 1896, John Rand's Garrison (1695), Jonathan Chesley's Garrison (1716 ?), Capt. Samuel Chesley's Garrison (1700 ?) brother to Jonathan, Philip Chesley's Garrison (1700 ?), Joseph Chesley's Garrison (1707) in Lubberland, George Chesley's Garrison (1699 ?) brother to Joseph, David Davis' Garrison (2) (1720's ?) (son of David Davis (1) - see Newmarket below) at Packer's Falls (moved in 1790), Jabez Davis' Garrison (unknown date) one mile from the town, Stephen Jones' Garrison (1672) on Jones' Creek, burned before 1732, the Pendergast Garrison (1737) near Packer's Falls, Joshua Woodman's Garrison (unknown date) near Packer's Falls, and James Tilley's Garrison (1710's?) near Packer's Falls.

Newmarket Garrison Houses
(1690's), Newmarket
Several garrison houses were located here, including the David Davis Garrison (1) (1695) on Lubberland Road. It was attacked by Indians in 1696, and was renamed Capt. John Smith's Garrison (1696). It was demolished in 1880. Site was marked in 1934. On the Lamprey River was Doe's Garrison (1650), which still existed when photographed by HABS in 1937.

Epping Garrison Houses
(1740's ?), Epping
David Lawrence's Garrison was located by the railroad bridge. Richard Sanborn's Garrison was located at Red Oak Hill. There was a third garrison house elsewhere (undetermined location). None exist today.

Newfields Garrison Houses
(various dates), Newfields
Daniel Ames' Garrison (1720) on the Piscassic River, burned in 1806. Jeremiah Folsom's Garrison (1719) was a two-story brick house, demolished in 1874. Capt. Edward Hall's Garrison (1722) was also a brick house, with a wooden portico over the front door which had a small cannon. Demolished in 1845. Capt. William Hilton's Garrison (1680), on Fowler's Hill, was a palisaded log house with a sentry box on the barn. Attacked in 1690. Demolished in 1822. Col. Edward Hilton's Garrison was attacked in 1706, It was later known as Col. Winthrop Hilton's Garrison. Aaron Rollins' Garrison was attacked in 1723, located near the lower falls of the Piscassic River. There was once another garrison house on the old Hall's Mill Road.

Newington Garrison Houses
(various dates), Newington
Anthony Nutter's Garrison (1663) was at Welshman's Cove. Nicholas Harrison's Garrison was on Fox (Bloody) Point, renamed John Downing's Garrison in 1707. Lt. William Furber's Garrison (1690's) was at Welch Cove. John Dam's Garrison (1690's) was also at Welch Cove. Newington was known as Bloody Point until 1714.

Greenland Garrison Houses
(various dates), Greenland
Capt. Walter Neale's Garrison (1660's) was located on Heard's Neck near the mouth of the Winnicut River. It was the only recorded garrison house in town.
The John Weeks' House (1638), still existing, may have been another garrison house.

Stratham Garrison Houses
(various dates), Stratham
Major Benjamin Barker's Garrison (1750's) was originally located on Mill Brook, but was moved to the junction of the Portsmouth and Newmarket Roads sometime after 1808. The J. Dearborn Garrison (2) (unknown date) was located on Stratham Heights, but burned down in 1900.

Exeter Garrison Houses
(various dates), Exeter
John Gilman's Garrison (1690 or 1709) was a fortified house that protected an adjacent mill. Located at Water and Clifford Streets. The house was expanded in 1770. Restored in the 1950's. Admission fee.
Edward Sewell's Garrison (1676) is located on Epping Road. The house has been greatly altered over time. Daniel Young's Garrison (unknown date) was once located on Garrison Lane. It was built before the 1740's.
A town fort, the Great Fort, was located near the Meeting House (1695). Exeter was founded in 1638, and included present-day Stratham, Newmarket, Newfields, Epping, and Brentwood.

Exeter Powder House
(1771 - unknown), Exeter
A colonial powder magazine located at Duck Point, on the south end of Jady Hill Ave., traditionally said to have stored some of the gunpowder taken from Fort William and Mary in New Castle during the December 1774 raids. Also used during the War of 1812. It was restored in 1999. See also Historical Tour of Exeter from Town of Exeter

Brentwood Garrison Houses
(various dates), Brentwood
Stephen Dudley's Garrison (1684), torn down before 1835, undetermined location. Henry Marshall's Garrison (1705) at Marshall's Corner, Nicholas Dudley's Garrison (1720 ?) (son of Stephen) near Deer Hill, and William Graves' Garrison (1720's), demolished 1860's. Brentwood was seperated from Exeter in 1742.

Kingston Garrison Houses
(1700's), Kingston
Aaron Sleeper's Garrison (1700) was on Exeter Road. Tristram Sanborn's Garrison was west of Sleeper's. There were several other garrison houses.

Stephen Green's Garrison
(unknown date), Kensington
A settlers' blockhouse. Undetermined location.

Seabrook Garrison Houses
(1700's), Seabrook
Gove's Garrison (1703) was located near present-day Lafayette and New Zealand Roads. It no longer exists. Others may have also existed. Seabrook was once a part of Hampton, then Hampton Falls, until 1768.

Hampton Falls Garrison Houses
(various dates), Hampton Falls
Bonus Norton's Garrison (1700's) was located near the Hampton causeway on Lafayette Blvd. James Prescott's Garrison (1668 ?) (aka Prescott's Fort) was on Applecrest Farm. Daniel Tilton's Garrison (1667) was on Monument Square.

Hampton Garrison Houses
(various dates), Hampton
Thomas Philbrick's Garrison was before 1647 known as William Sanborn's Garrison. It was torn down in 1855. Col. Joshua Wingate's Garrison (1700), later known as Edmund Toppan's Garrison, was located near Whittier's Corner, and demolished in 1900. It was once palisaded.
The Hampton Meeting House was palisaded in 1689 following the attacks in Dover. It was enlarged in 1692 to allow room for small houses within the palisade. Hampton was founded in 1638, and included present-day North Hampton, Hampton Falls, Seabrook, South Hampton, Kensington, East Kingston, and Kingston.

John Dearborn's Garrison (1)
(1690's ?), North Hampton
A settlers' garrison house located near the village green and the first town Meeting House (1734). Later known as Simon Dearborn's Garrison (1720's), son of John. Simon was the father of Major General Henry Dearborn, of American Revolution and War of 1812 fame.

Rye Garrison Houses
(various dates), Rye
Odiorne's Point was the site of the state's first European settlement, Pannaway Plantation (1623 - 1627), which had a blockhouse named the Citadel of Safety, and the Great House (1), built by David Thompson. The settlement was abandoned in 1627.
The John Odiorne Garrison was built here in 1670. The William Berry Garrison (1649) was located at Sandy Beach on Washington Road. John Locke's Garrison (1690 ?) was on Lockes Neck. It was attacked in 1694. John Garland's Garrison (1720 ?) was on Garland Road.

Portsmouth Garrison Houses
(Strawbery Banke Museum)
(various dates), Portsmouth
Pascataway Plantation, or Strawberry Bank, was the original name for Portsmouth from 1630 to 1653, and was probably a palisaded village. An outer defense fort was excavated in 1803 at the northeast corner of High Street and Market Square, now the Peirce Block. Portsmouth originally included Newington, Rye, New Castle (until 1693), and Greenland.
The Great House (2) (1631 or 1634 - 1685) built by William Chadbourne for the Laconia Company, located on Water (Marcy) and Court Streets was probably fortified (stockaded) until 1644. There were at least three other garrison houses in later years; one at the head of Jacob Sheafe's Wharf on Water Street, the John Cutt Garrison on Market and Court Streets, and the Russell Garrison near the "Ferryways". None still exist.
Elsewhere in town were the Asa Ham Garrison (unknown date) at Bartlett Street on Islington Creek, the Plains Garrison (1690's) which was attacked in 1696, and the Henry Beck Garrison (1664) on the south side of Sagamore Creek (west of the present-day bridge).
In 1705 the town was palisaded within a line from the South Mill Pond north to Islington Creek (North Mill Pond).

Fort Washington
(Friends of Peirce Island)
(1775 - 1778, 1814 - 1815), Peirce Island
Earthworks built to supplement Fort Sullivan on Seavey's Island, Maine to protect the ship-building facilities on Badger's Isand. The site is located on the eastern end of Peirce Island. Remnants of earthworks still remain in an overgrown area near the water treatment plant, which was built in the mid 1960's. During the American Revolution, the name of the island was changed to Isle of Washington. The island was last used by the military as an Army Recreation Center in 1941.

Fort Anglesea
(1800), Portsmouth
A fanciful "stockade with two guns" was built by Edward Parry around the same time he built his house. Parry felt threatened by the locals because he continued to purchase British tea after the American Revolution. Site located near the west end of Edward Street on South Mill Pond. No remains.

Portsmouth Arsenal
(1808 - 1865 ?), Portsmouth
A Second System Gun House once located on Jenkins Ct. and South School Street. It was used to store additional cannon and other equipment to support Fort Constitution in case of military emergency. A second story was added after the Civil War when the building was no longer needed for military purposes. Abandoned by 1890 or so, demolished in 1920.

Portsmouth Powder House
(1811 - 1865), Portsmouth
A brick powder house built at "The Plains" for the local militia. Used by the city to store explosives until 1904. Restored in 2007, located on Islington Street at Essex Ave.. It replaced an older 1750's era powder house once located at the North Cemetery.

Camp Fry
(1861), Portsmouth
A Civil War training camp. Possibly located at "The Plains", or a later name for Camp Constitution (see below).

South Mill Pond Barracks
(1814, 1861), Portsmouth
A former ropewalk facility on South Street converted to militia barracks in 1814. A Civil War recruitment camp, Camp Constitution, was located here in 1861. No remains.

Camp Morley
(1942 - 1943), Portsmouth
An Infantry coastal defense base camp, located at the Morley Button Manufacturing Company factory building at 855 Islington Street (now The Button Factory Artists' Studios). Posted here from March to May 1942 was "L" Company, 101st Infantry Regiment. Posted here from May 1942 until November 1943 was "E" Company, 181st Infantry Regiment. The 181st IR patrolled the coast between Seabury (York), ME and Seabrook, NH, but not including Gerrish Island, ME, New Castle, or Rye, which was covered by the Coast Artillery.

From January to March 1942 the responsibilty of coast patrols along New Hampshire and Maine was assigned to the 104th Infantry Regiment. Their command post location in New Hampshire is undetermined.

Clark's Point Redoubt
(1775 - 1778, 1814), New Castle
A stone and earthwork square redoubt built on the northwestern arm of New Castle Island in conjunction with Fort Washington and Fort Sullivan. Rebuilt during the War of 1812 (Shaw's Hill Fort), but never armed and never used. No remains, last traces bulldozed in 1950. Site located at the top of the hill above Riverside Cemetery.


HARBOR DEFENSES of PORTSMOUTH (partial)
Portsmouth's WWII Fire-Control Towers
Harbor Defense of Portsmouth - FORT WIKI
Portsmouth Harbor Defense Fortifications by Ken Johnson

Fort Constitution (State Historic Site)
(Portsmouth Harbor Coast Guard Station)
(U.N.H. Coastal Marine Laboratory)
(1631 - 1948/present), New Castle
Previous names include The Castle (1631 - 1666), and Fort (or Castle) William and Mary (1692 - 1775). The fort was not used by Patriot forces during the war. The fort fell into disuse and the site was afterward called Castle Fort or Fort Castle. The U.S. Army took over the site in 1794, added a two-story wooden blockhouse, and rebuilt the fort in 1807 - 1808 into a 36-gun brick fortress. It was renamed in 1801. Walbach Tower (or Castle Walbach) (three guns) was built nearby in 1814 (only the foundation still exists). Construction of the fort's new granite outer wall was begun in 1863 adjacent to the original 1808 brick wall. Construction was halted in 1867, and the fort went into caretaker status until 1897. Coastal defense batteries were built outside the old fort, which include Battery Farnsworth (1898 - 1917), and Battery Hackleman (1904 - 1945), which was destroyed in 1965 to make way for the Coast Guard building. Two mine casemates (1905, 1921) are also located here. A minefield observation tower was built atop Battery Farnsworth in 1942, and Battery Hackleman's BC station was built atop the bastion of the old fort. Fort Constitution was the harbor defense headquarters in World War I. The fort was deactivated in 1948, the land divided in 1950 between the U.S. Coast Guard and NH State Parks. The mine storehouse became home to the Coastal Marine Laboratory in 1989. The University of New Hampshire acquired half of the Coast Guard property in 2000. The present Portsmouth Harbor Lighthouse was built here in 1877, replacing an earlier light from 1803.

Fort Stark (State Historic Site)
(1874 - 1948/1983), New Castle
Located on Jaffrey's (Jerry's) Point at the southern end of the island, this site was first fortified in 1746, known as Battery Cumberland. It was rebuilt during the American Revolution (Fort Hancock ?) and again in 1794 - 1815 as a "heavy" stone redoubt, known as Fort at Jaffrey's Point, and was possibly still in use in the 1840's. The 12-gun Battery at Jerry's Point was built in 1874 - 1876, and was armed in 1898 with only one M1888 8-inch BL gun on a modified 15-inch Rodman carriage, but was demolished in 1900 in order to construct Endicott coastal batteries.
The new fort was named in 1900. Seacoast batteries located here are Battery Hunter (1904 - 1944), Battery Kirk (1904 - 1917), modified into the Harbor Entrance Control Post (1942 - 1945), Battery Hays (1905 - 1942), Battery Lytle (1905 - 1942), and New Battery Lytle (1943 - 1945), gun blocks remain, one eroded off cliff in 1978. AMTB Battery 953 was proposed but never built. The U.S. Navy continued to use the post for harbor defense purposes until 1983. The Ordnance Machine Shop (1902) is now the park visitor center/museum (open by appointment).

Camp Langdon
(1909 - 1946/1963), New Castle
Located at Great Island Common, between Fort Stark and Fort Constitution. It was originally named the New Military Reservation, established to provide wartime overflow barracks space for Fort Constitution and Fort Stark. After World War I (1920's) there were two 3-inch anti-aircraft guns (AA Battery #1, mounts still remain) and a searchlight station here. These were the only AA guns ever installed to defend Portsmouth Harbor. The guns were removed by 1937. During World War II the post became the harbor defense headquarters and main garrison area for the four forts. Property turned over to the Navy and Marine Corps after the war as an annex to the Portsmouth Naval Prison. The camp was sold to the town in 1963 as a municipal park. Admission fee for non-residents. The town library is also now located here. The original Army Fire Station still exists, the last remaining structure, now a private residence. Building foundations still remain throughout the park.

Fort Dearborn (State Historic Site)
(Odiorne Point State Park)
(1942 - 1948/1961), Rye
Batteries here are Battery Seaman / 103 (1944 - 1948) at Frost Point, a four-gun 155mm battery (1942 - 1944) on Panama mounts, one mount covered, at Odiorne Point, Battery 204 (1944 - 1948) (proposed name Battery Barry) at Odiorne Point, and Anti Motor Torpedo Boat Battery 951 (1943 - 1946) partially destroyed, located at nearby Pulpit Rock. There is a plotting room casemate and a group command bunker behind Battery Seaman. A TNT magazine is located in the woods across the highway. The NH National Guard continued using the post (Frost Point) until transferred to the state as a park (opened to public in 1971). The Air Force used the Odiorne Point portion from 1949 - 1968 as an air defense radar location (Rye Air Force Station). Admission fee. Of interest here is the Seacoast Science Center, with exhibits on the military history (admission fee).

Extant fire-control towers in NH associated with Fort Dearborn are located at Pulpit Rock just south of Fort Dearborn (state owned), and at Great Boars Head in Hampton Beach (private). A third tower at Rye Ledge was converted to a private home in 1967, but was destroyed in 2007. Additional towers were/are located in Maine and Massachusetts (see also).


Fort Star
(1653 - 1776, intermittent), Star Island, Isles of Shoals
A two-gun stone fort built as a defense against Indians and French. The site is west of the present hotel, facing the mainland. Rebuilt with 11 guns and regarrisoned in 1692 for King William's War, and later for Queen Anne's War. Regarrisoned again with nine guns in 1745 for King George's War. In 1776 the fort was dismantled and the settlers removed to the mainland. No remains.


Western and Central New Hampshire - page 2

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