Fort Albany (1) |
Fort Albany (2) |
Post of Albany |
Fort Anne (2) |
Fort Arnold |
Balcarres Redoubt | Baum's Redoubt | Camp Bluefields | Breymann Redoubt | Camp Buckner
Casteel Hoogte | Castle Island Trading Post | Catskill Fort | Fort Clinton (2) | Fort Clinton (4)
Fort Constitution (a) | Fort Constitution (b) | Continental Village | Fort Crailo
Dobbs' Ferry Forts | Dobbs' Ferry Blockhouse | D. Dubois' Fort | Camp Dutchess | Fort Esopus
Fishkill Barracks | Fort Frederick | Camp Greenburgh | Greenbush Cantonment
Greenbush Fort | Fort Half-Moon (1) | Fort Hamilton (1) | Camp Hardin | Hurley Blockhouse
Fort Independence (2) | Fort Ingoldsby | Fort at Kinderhook | King's Ferry Forts
Fort Lafayette (1) | Fort Look Out | Machin's Battery | Fort Meigs | Miller's Hill Redoubt
Fort Montgomery (1) | Montresor's Blockhouse | Mount Misery Redoubt | Fort Nassau (1)
Fort Nassau (2) | Fort Neilson | New Dorp Blockhouse | New Paltz Stockade
New Windsor Cantonment | Fort Orange | Peebles Island Blockhouse | Fort Plum Point
Pollepel's Island Battery | Fort Putnam (2) | Putnam's Battery | Red Hook Barracks
Camp Rose | Round Top Fort | Fort St. Croix | Saratoga Battlefield | Fort Schagticoke
Schoonmaker's Fort | Schuyler's Supply Depot | Shawangunk Indian Fort | Camp Smith
Smith's Clove Camp | Sneden's Landing Blockhouse | Camp Stevens | Fort Stillwater
Stillwater Blockhouse | Stony Point Fort | Camp Strong | Tarrytown Battery
Teller's Point Battery | Camp Townsend | Van Alstyne House | Camp Van Schaick
Fort Vaughan | Watervliet Arsenal | Fort Webb | Fortress West Point | Camp Whitman
Wiccopee Pass Batteries | Fort Wiltwyck | Fort Winslow | Fort Wyllys
Northeastern New York - page 1 | Mohawk River Valley - page 2 | Catskill Region - page 4
New York City I - page 5 | New York City II - page 6 | New York City III - page 7
Long Island - page 8 | Western New York - page 9 | Northwestern New York - page 10
NEW YORK'S FORTS AND MILITARY HISTORY
NEW YORK'S INDEPENDENCE TRAIL
Fort St. Croix
(1620's, 1750's), North Hoosick
A Dutch stockaded fort once located on the east bank of the Hoosick River, west of town. It was destroyed after several years. The village was stockaded again by the settlers during the French and Indian War.
Lt. Col. Friedrich Baum's Redoubt
(Bennington Battlefield State Historic Site)
A British hill-top breastwork that protected the headquarters camp of Dragoons during the Battle of Bennington (August 1777). The rest of the British column dug in near the river.
(Saratoga National Historical Park)
(1777), Bemis Heights
The main Patriot work here during the Battle of Saratoga (October 1777) was Fort Neilson, a palisaded barn with additional batteries on John Neilson's land. Several other Patriot batteries were located by the river, which forced the British to advance on Bemis Heights.
British redoubts include Balcarres Redoubt (eight guns) at Freeman Farm, Breymann Redoubt opposite the farm, and the Great Redoubt near the river. British earthworks are also located to the north in Victory Mills.
(1756 - 1758), Stillwater
Built on the site of Fort Ingoldsby (1709). Later, Col. James Montresor's Blockhouse and Storehouse Barracks were built here 1758 - 1759 or 1760. All of these were stockaded blockhouses, and were gone by the time of the American Revolution.
The Patriots constructed a fortified supply depot here in 1777 (before the Battle of Saratoga), with defensive earthworks, which may have been called Fort Stillwater, or General Philip Schuyler's Supply Depot.
A reproduction blockhouse made out of period timbers from structures at Bemis Heights in Saratoga Battlefield. It was built by the NPS to be the first visitor center at Saratoga National Park, but was not historically accurate for the battlefield. The structure was deeded to the town in 1975, and was moved to Stillwater Park (Blockhouse Park) on Hudson Ave. in 1999. It is now interpreted as Fort Ingoldsby. See also History of the Town of Stillwater
(1703 - 1776), Schaghticoke
A palisaded fort with watchtowers and barracks, located at Tamhannock Creek and the Hoosic River west of town. It was rebuilt in the 1740's, and 1756 - 1760. Used by Patriots in 1775, captured by Loyalists in 1776. It may have then been destroyed.
Fort Half-Moon (1)
(1689/1691 - unknown), Waterford
Built by the British for the protection of the Schagticoke Indians. Located near present-day Lock No. 1 (above Campbell Island). In ruins by 1702 and repaired in 1704. No remains.
In 1757 a new fort was built on pilings at the mouth of the Mohawk River. Garrisoned by British troops until 1759.
Peebles Island Blockhouse
(Peebles Island State Park)
(1777 - 1782), Haver Island
Located across the Mohawk River from Waterford was a Patriot blockhouse with three batteries. It protected a supply depot on nearby Van Schaick Island in Cohoes, known as Camp Van Schaick. The post was still active during a state border dispute with Vermont in 1782. Earthworks still exist along the northern shore of the island.
See also Peebles Island Tour from A Revolutionary Day Along Historic US Route 4
The 1735 Van Schaick Mansion at 1 Van Schaick Ave. in Cohoes was used as the Continental Army's northern headquarters in 1777.
A Civil War training camp located at the Rensselaer County Agricultural Society fairgrounds. It may have also been called Camp Stevens (?).
Watervliet Arsenal (U.S. Army Reservation)
(The Arsenal Business and Technology Partnership)
(1813 - present), Watervliet FORT WIKI
Established in 1813, production started in 1817. It is the oldest continuously active Federal Arsenal in the U.S.. Produces cannon and gun tubes for the artillery and tank corps. The Watervliet Arsenal Museum is located in the 1859 Iron Building. Several other historic buildings also still remain. The New York State Military Museum was located on post until 2002, now relocated to Saratoga Springs.
Castle Island Trading Post
A French trading post was located on Castle Island.
Fort Orange (Oranje)
(1624 - 1676), Albany
Dutch Fort Nassau (1) (1614 - 1618) was originally located on Castle Island near the southern boundary of present-day Albany. It was destroyed by ice flows during a spring flood. The post was moved onto the west bank of the river near Norman's Kill, but it was abandoned in 1618 due to more flooding. Castle Island no longer exists as such because of modern river dredgings that were deposited between the river and the west bank. This area is now the modern Port of Albany.
Fort Orange (Oranje) was built about two miles north of Fort Nassau (1) in 1624. It was originally called Fort Oranje by the Dutch. The British (English) referred to it as Fort Aurania, which sounded like the Dutch pronounciation of "Oranje". The British took over the fort in 1664, renaming it Fort Albany (1). It was briefly held by the Dutch again in 1673 - 1674, reusing the old name Fort Nassau (2). The British regained control again in 1674 (the Fort Albany name was restored) and then abandoned it in favor of a new fort built nearby in 1676 (see below). Some remnants of the fort were still extant in 1812. The site was partially excavated in 1970.
Albany was the state's first permanent white settlement, settled and originally named Beverwyck in 1652 until 1664 when renamed by the British. Briefly renamed by the Dutch again in 1673 - 1674 as Willemstad.
(special thanks to Clifford W. Lamere for providing information)
(1702 - 1785 ?), Albany
Fort Albany (2), a wooden (timber) fort, was built in 1676 on State Street Hill, replacing Fort Albany (1) (see above). It lasted until it was gradually dismantled between 1705 to 1714. A larger masonry fort (21 guns) was begun in 1702; it was built on the same ground and surrounding Fort Albany (2). Temporarily (and unofficially) called Fort Anne (2) by then governor Lord Cornbury, it became known as Fort Albany by 1706, and then when completed in 1738 it was formally renamed Fort Frederick. Additional troop barracks were located outside the fort's walls. The British garrison post was also referred to as the Post of Albany during the French and Indian War. The Patriot garrison and military stores here was the objective of British General Burgoyne's campaign of 1777. Dismantled sometime after the war, the fort's stones were used for various public works projects. The town remained stockaded until 1789.
(thanks to Clifford W. Lamere for additional info)
(Crailo State Historic Site)
The British fortified an old Dutch settlers' brick manor house (Crailo) (1642) with a palisade, located on Riverside Ave.. This is the birthplace of the song, "Yankee Doodle". British officers scoffed at the American colonial militia units posted here and made up the lyrics. The house has been restored and is now a museum of colonial Dutch culture.
(1663 - 1690), East Greenbush
A Dutch stockaded fort three miles east of town that protected settlers from Indian attacks.
(1812 - 1819), East Greenbush FORT WIKI
A 400-acre post that was the headquarters of the Northern Division of the U.S. Army. Built here were eight two-story barracks, three Officers' quarters, hospital, two commissaries, arsenal, armory, guardhouses, magazine, and stables around a parade ground. Inactivated and then sold in 1831. All buildings were removed except one Officers' Quarters building, which then became a private residence. This structure still exists today at 250 McCullough Place (private property). The Red Mill Elementary School occupies the parade ground site.
(1898), Averill Park
A demobilization camp for state troops after the Spanish-American War.
Previously this was the site of an unnamed Civil War training and muster-out camp (1861 - 1866).
Van Alstyne House
(1770's), Chatham Center
The house was fortified during the American Revolution.
Fort at Kinderhook
(1755 - unknown), Kinderhook
A town stockade built for protection against French-led Indian raids. The old Dutch church parsonage on Hudson Street opposite Sylvester Street was within the stockade.
(special thanks to Clifford W. Lamere for providing information)
(unknown dates), Jefferson Heights
An Indian palisaded village described by the Dutch. State marker located on NY 23.
(1776 - 1783), Catskill ?
A Patriot garrison was here for use in Schoharie Valley actions.
Round Top Fort
(unknown dates), near Palenville
An Indian palisaded defense located in Kaaterskill Clove west of town, below Round Top Mountain. State marker located on NY 23A at NY 32A.
Red Hook Barracks
(1775 - 1782), Red Hook
Patriot barracks often used as a rest stop for New England troops moving into the Mid-Atlantic colonies. It also protected a gunpowder mill in Rhinebeck, the largest in New York at the time.
(1658 - 1677), Kingston
A Dutch palisaded settlement with a moat and guardhouse, also known as Fort Wiltwyck. A blockhouse (1658) was located at present-day Main and Fair Streets. The town was attacked by Esopus Indians in 1659 and June 1663. The palisades were rebuilt in 1661, 1669-70, and 1676. Site located at North Front Street, John Street, and Clinton Ave.. Esopus was the original name for the town until chartered as Wiltwyck in 1661. Renamed by the British in 1664. Briefly renamed by the Dutch again in 1673 as Swanenburgh.
A Dutch trading post was first located here in 1615.
New Dorp / Hurley Blockhouse
(1662 - 1686 ?), Hurley
A Dutch Walloon settlers' palisaded blockhouse. Attacked by Esopus Indians in June 1663. The settlement was originally known by the Dutch as New Dorp.
Capt. Frederick Schoonmaker's Fort
A settlers' stone house built in 1760. It was fortified in the American Revolution for the protection of area settlers. Marker located on NY 213 at the Coxing Kill (Coxen Creek) bridge.
Shawangunk Indian Fort
(1663), Shawangunk Township, Ulster County
An Esopus Indian fortification. Attacked and destroyed by Dutch soldiers in July 1663 after the Indian attacks on Wiltwyck and New Dorp (Hurley) in June. Site located on Old Fort Road, along the east bank of Shawangunk Kill, about two miles south of Brunswick.
New Paltz Stockade
(1678 - unknown), New Paltz
A stockaded twelve log cabin settlement of French Huguenots. Stone dwellings were built in 1705.
Daniel Dubois' Fort
(1705 - unknown), New Paltz
A settlers' fortified stone house. It still exists on Huguenot Street.
A temporary Civil War encampment, located one mile northeast of the courthouse.
(1916), Green Haven
A NY National Guard mobilization camp for the Mexican Border Crisis of 1916. Site located at the NY State Industrial Farm, now the Green Haven Correctional Facility.
(1776 - 1783), Fishkill
Also known as Fishkill Supply Depot, it was the largest Patriot supply depot in the north during the war. Located about one mile south of town on both sides of present-day US 9. Located here in addition to the supply depot were an administration headquarters for all Patriot troops east of the Hudson River, barracks for 2000 troops, a hospital, and a POW camp. The post cemetery was discovered in 2007, with several hundred graves. The 1732 Van Wyck Homestead was used as the Officers' quarters, now a museum operated by the Fishkill Historical Society.
Fort Plum Point
(1777), near New Windsor
A Patriot 14-gun battery north of Murder Creek, also known as Capt. Machin's Battery, protecting the chevaux-de-frise in the Hudson River. The barrier proved useless as the British Navy easily maneuvered through it during their raid on Kingston in October 1777.
Across the river at Wiccopee Pass (below Beacon) were the Wiccoppe Pass Batteries, three gun batteries for the duration of the war, protecting the pass and the river barrier (1777) from Pollepel's (Bannerman's) Island to Fort Plum Point. Another gun battery may have also been located on the island in 1777 (Pollepel's Island Battery). A 1902 DAR stone monument is located on NY 9D on a hill just north of the county line.
New Windsor Cantonment (State Historic Site)
(1782 - 1783), Vails Gate FORT WIKI
The last winter encampment of Patriot forces under General George Washington in the final days of the American Revolution. About 7000 officers and men lived here in 700 huts and separate Officers' quarters, laid out in regular streets. The largest structure was an assembly hall called the "Temple of Virtue", located on Temple Hill. The Order of the Purple Heart was created here, and was only awarded to a total of eight men. See also The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor. The Society of the Cincinnati was also formed here. The "Newburgh Addresses", the greatest conspiracy against Washington's military leadership, took place here. The camp was dismantled after the peace treaty was signed and the British began evacuating New York City. Only one Officer's hut was saved as a private dwelling, and was restored to its location in 1934. Another hut was later found as part of a barn, and restoration efforts were undertaken. The park was created in 1965 with a scale reconstruction of the village. Also here is Knox's Headquarters State Historical Site, and nearby in Newburgh is Washington's Headquarters State Historical Site.
Smith's Clove Camp
(1779), near Central Valley
A Patriot encampment during the summer of 1779, located at Van Ambrose's house. Marker located on NY 32 one-half mile north of town.
Fortress West Point
(United States Military Academy) | (West Point Tours Inc.)
(1778 - 1802/present), West Point FORT WIKI
Constructed after the demise of Forts Montgomery (1), Clinton (2), and Independence (2) in October 1777. Fort Arnold was constructed first in 1778, and was originally considered the principal fort. It was renamed Fort Clinton (4) in 1780. It guarded the chain across the river. It was partially demolished for expansion of the academy, and what remained was first restored in 1857. The other major fort here was Fort Putnam (2). It was partially rebuilt in 1780 and 1794, and was restored in 1910, and again in 1976. Other minor forts built in 1778 were Chain Battery, Lantern (Lanthorn) Battery, Water Battery (aka Green Battery), Knox Battery (aka South Battery) (no longer exists), Sherburne's Battery (no longer exists), Fort Webb (no trace remains), Fort Wyllys with an outwork, and Fort Meigs (foundations remain). Southern defenses built in 1779 towards Highland Falls were Redoubts #1 (with two out batteries) and #2 (with one out battery), and further west were Redoubts #3 and #4 (restored in 1976). Information and exhibits are at the West Point Museum. Public access to historic sites is by guided tour only.
On Constitution Island (Martlaer's Rock) across the river was built Fort Constitution (a) in September 1775. It consisted of Roman's Battery and a blockhouse, Marine Battery, Hill Cliff Battery (1776), and Gravel Hill Battery (1776). The British destroyed this fort in October 1777. In 1778, with the construction of the new fort across the river, the Marine Battery and Gravel Hill Batteries were rebuilt. The Gravel Hill Battery was renamed Greaton's Battery. Also built in 1778 were Redoubts #5, #6, and #7 (all still extant). The eastern end of the river chain was anchored here. The island was garrisoned until 1783. The island became part of the USMA property in 1915.
Two miles southeast of Constitution Island on Fort Hill, near the town of Garrison, were North and South Redoubts, built in 1779.
The U.S. Military Academy at West Point was formerly known as West Point Military Academy. The Federal military reservation was created in 1790. The first engineer cadet class enrolled in 1802. Coastal artillery training batteries once located on campus included Battery Schofield (disappearing carriage), Seacoast Battery (barbette), and Battery Byrne (Mortar Battery until 1911) (mortars). Battery Byrne was buried under today's parade ground grandstand in 1931. Live-fire training for all gun types was conducted at Fort Hancock, Sandy Hook, New Jersey.
Also part of the USMA complex is Camp Buckner (1821 - present), originally at the site of Fort Arnold/Clinton. It was moved to Lake Popolopen in 1942, southwest of main campus, and renamed Camp Popolopen. In 1945 the name was changed back to Camp Buckner. Camp Smith (NY State Military Reservation) (1882 - present) is located across the Hudson River from Bear Mountain, and was originally named Camp Townsend until 1913. It was a muster and assembly camp for state troops during the Spanish-American War (1898). It was enlarged in 1913 and 1925. Both camps are now modern training grounds for the USMA and NY National Guard. The Stewart Army Sub Post (1941 - present) at Stewart International Airport (formerly Stewart Army Air Field - Air Force Base until 1972) in Newburgh is used for USMA cadet flight training.
Fort Montgomery (1) (State Historic Site)
(1776 - 1777), Fort Montgomery FORT WIKI *PHOTOS*
Its function was to guard the chain across the Hudson River to prevent the British from sailing upriver. It failed to do that. Destroyed by the British in October 1777 after a furious battle. The Patriots used the site as a camp after 1778, and also erected Putnam's Battery (1779 - 1783) here as a watchpost for West Point. Earthworks and stone foundations of the Grand Battery still exist, as well as a powder magazine. Located on the west of US 9 are the Round Hill Redoubt and West Redoubt (traces remain). See also John's Military History.com
Fort Clinton (2)
(Bear Mountain State Park)
(Palisades Parks Conservancy)
(1776 - 1777), Fort Montgomery FORT WIKI *PHOTOS*
Located just south of Fort Montgomery across Popolopen Creek. It was renamed by the British after its capture (October 1777) to Fort Vaughan. The British then abandoned the post shortly thereafter. The Bear Mountain Historical Museum is located within the site of the original fort. The West Redoubt still exists, located near the US 9 traffic circle. The majority of the site was destroyed to construct US 9 and the Bear Mountain Bridge.
Fort Independence (2)
(1776 - 1777), Peekskill
A small Patriot earthwork defense with barracks. Originally named Fort Constitution (b). Its purpose was to defend Continental Village, a Patriot supply depot located three miles northeast. In October 1777 the British attacked the garrison and destroyed it, along with Forts Clinton (2) and Montgomery (1). The site of the fort was on Tethard's Hill (Fort Hill Park) on Roa (Rahway) Hook, near the entrance to Camp Smith. Site now obliterated by a quarry.
Located on Galloway Hill (Annsville) to the east of here was Fort Look Out, another Patriot defense that was also destroyed by the British in October 1777.
Fort Lafayette (1)
(1779 - 1783), Verplanck FORT WIKI
A Patriot fort protecting King's Ferry, located south of West Point on Verplanck Point, which is across the river from Stony Point (see below). This fort and Stony Point were the southern outposts of the West Point defenses, and were often refered to as the King's Ferry Forts. They were captured by the British in May-June 1779 before they were completed, but the Patriots soon recaptured Stony Point in July. The British again retook Stony Point, and strengthened both defenses. The British later secretly abandoned both forts in October 1779 to concentrate on New York City's defenses. The Patriots then held both forts until the end of the war.
Stony Point Fort
(Stony Point Battlefield State Historic Site)
(Palisades Parks Conservancy Historic Site)
(1779 - 1783), Stony Point FORT WIKI
A Patriot fort/blockhouse located across from Verplanck Point. May have been called Fort Hamilton (1). It was uncompleted when captured by the British in May 1779. Recaptured by Patriots in July 1779, but soon retaken again by the British and strengthened. The British referred to this post as "Little Gibraltar". Abandoned by the British in October 1779 and then held by the Patriots until the end of the war. The lighthouse was erected here in 1826.
Teller's Point Battery
A small Patriot battery was located here.
(1917 - 1919), Croton Reservoir
A NY National Guard camp near the "Pines Bridge" (location ?) protecting New York City's water supply during WWI.
A small Patriot redoubt was located here at the foot of Church Street.
Miller's Hill Redoubt
(Miller's Hill Battlefield Park)
(1776), North White Plains *PHOTO*
A Patriot earthwork redoubt built during the last phase of the Battle of White Plains (October 1776). Still extant with monument, the small three-acre county park is located on McDougal Drive. This is the only remaining site of the White Plains Battlefield still in its natural state.
Just to the east near 17 Nethermont Ave. is the site of the Mount Misery Redoubt (1776), which saw no action during the battle. The site was so named for the lack of supplies and bitter cold. Trace remains, private property.
(1777, 1781), Hartsdale
Temporary headquarters for the French Army after arriving in New York. Site located along Ridge Road. The Odell House at 425 Ridge Road was used as the Officers' quarters. Site was again used by the French Army in 1781.
Dobbs' Ferry Forts
(1776 - 1783), Dobbs Ferry
Patriot works overlooking the ferry landing, commanding an excellent view of the Hudson River in both directions. The British captured the fort after the Patriots abandoned New York City. The fort was recaptured in January 1777. Two redoubts were nearby, and the ruins of all three works were still visible in 1850.
(Blauvelt State Park)
(1918, 1940's), Blauvelt
A WWI POW camp located on the grounds of a former state guard target range (pre 1913). The site had become a public park in 1913. The site was again used by the military in WWII. Site is now part of Blauvelt State Park, an undeveloped natural park, and Clausland Mountain County Park.
Dobbs' Ferry Blockhouse
(1780 - 1783), Palisades
A large wooden and stone blockhouse about 500 feet north of the road to Sneden's Landing, just south of today's Tallman Mountain State Park. Also known as Sneden's Landing Blockhouse. A battery of three guns was also built to cover the ferry landing to Dobbs Ferry.
Special thanks to Col. Michael Stenzel, NY NG, for information from the New York's Forts website.Northeastern New York - page 1 | Mohawk River Valley - page 2 | Catskill Region - page 4
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Updates @ NorthAmericanForts.com