Fort William Augustus |
Bartlett's Point Battery |
Basswood Cantonment |
Fort Brewerton | Fort Burnet | Fort Canaseraga | Cape Vincent Barracks | Fort Carleton
Fort Chauncey | Chimney Island Blockhouse | Fort Chouaguen | Camp Drum | Fort Drum
French Fort | French Mills Blockhouse | Fort at La Galette | Fort Ganaghsaraga
Fort George (2) | Fort Haldimand | Fort Hickory | Camp Hughes | Fort Isle Royale
Fort Jackson | Fort Kentucky | Fort Lévis | Madison Barracks | Malone Arsenal | Fort Mud
Camp de l'Observation | Oneida Indian Fort | Onondaga Castle (1) | Onondaga Castle (2)
Onondaga Castle (3) | Fort Onondaga | Fort Ontario | Fort Oswegatchie | Fort Oswego
New Fort Oswego | Oswego Falls Palisade | Fort Ox (1) | Fort Pepperrell | Pike's Cantonment
Fort Pike | Pine Camp | Pine Plains Res. | Pork Barrel Fort | Fort de la Présentation
Fort Rascal | Cantonment Sackets Harbor | Fort Ste. Marie de Gennentah | Fort St. Regis
Salt Point Blockhouse | Fort of the Six Nations | Smith's Cantonment (1) | Fort Stark (2)
Stevens' Blockhouse | Camp Syracuse | Three Rivers Blockhouse | Fort Tompkins (4)
Fort Virginia | Fort Volunteer
Northeastern New York - page 1 | Mohawk River Valley - page 2 | Hudson River Valley - page 3
Catskill Region - page 4 | New York City I - page 5 | New York City II - page 6
New York City III - page 7 | Long Island - page 8 | Western New York - page 9
NEW YORK'S FORTS AND MILITARY HISTORY
Oneida Indian Fort
(c. 1480), Fenner Township, Madison County
A palisaded Oneida Indian village. Located about six miles south of Canastota near Nichols Pond. A state marker was erected here in 1927 stating that this site was the village that was attacked by the Hurons and French under Champlain in October 1615, although later historians seriously doubt this. See also The Real Battle of Nichols Pond by Dan Weiskotten
(1756 - 1760 ?), Sullivan
A 120-foot square palisade with a 24-foot square blockhouse built by the British at the Tuscarora/Oneida village on Canaseraga Creek. The blockhouse probably no longer existed by 1770. The abandoned village was occupied by Patriots in October 1780, but was soon captured by the British. See also "Vrooman's Capture" by Dan Weiskotten
Onondaga Castle (1)
(1655 ? - 1666), near Oran
An Onondaga Indian fortified town was once located on Indian Hill on Limestone Creek, about two miles south of town. Destroyed by the French in 1666.
Onondaga Castle (2)
(1684 - 1696), near Jamesville
An Onondaga Indian fortified town was once located on Butternut Creek near the Jamesville Reservoir. Destroyed by the French in 1696.
An unnamed temporary French fort built for use in the 1696 raid against the Onondaga Indians. The Onondaga Sewage Plant is now on the site.
Built for the Onondaga Indians by the British. Also known as Fort Onondaga. Located in the vicinity of NY 173 and US 11.
A British fort was planned in 1710 for Onondaga Castle (3) (near Onondaga Castle on US 11), but it was never built.
Salt Point Blockhouse
A state militia palisaded blockhouse built during a war scare. Afterwards used as a state storehouse for salt. Demolished in 1816. Located on Salt Point Bluff, north of town near the bridge over the Oswego Canal, near I-81 and Hiawatha Blvd..
(1917 - 1919), Syracuse
A state guard recruitment camp and mobilization center. Site located on the state fairgrounds four miles west of the city.
Fort Ste. Marie de Gennentah (County Park)
(1656 - 1658), Liverpool
Also spelled Gannentaha. Also known as Ste. Marie Among the Iroquois. This was the first French settlement and Jesuit mission in upper New York State. The present stockade fort is a 1933 reproduction. Admission fee. The Onondaga Historical Association took over operation of the county park in 2013, and is repurposing the facility into a new museum of the Iroquois Confederacy, to be known as the Skä-noñh Center. The Iroquois Confederacy is said to have been founded in this area during the 1570's.
(1759 - 1767), Brewerton
An eight-pointed star earthwork and palisaded stockade with four one-gun blockhouses. It was burned by the Iroquois in 1767. The site was not used during the American Revolution. The Oliver Stevens' Blockhouse was built from surviving timbers in 1793, and used as a trading post/dwelling until 1828. It was demolished in 1849. Reconstructed on site in 1977. Earthworks from the original fort also still remain. Located at State and Lansing Streets, operated by the Fort Brewerton Historical Society. See also Virtual Photo Tour from Oswego County Tourism
Three Rivers Blockhouse
(1758 - 1759), Three Rivers
A unnamed British supply depot, a 60-foot square stockade with a blockhouse and three storehouses. General Jeffery Amherst and 10,000 British troops encamped here in September 1760 enroute to Montréal, Québec.
Fort Ox (1)
(1756), near Hinmansville
A temporary British work located at the junction of Ox Creek and the Oswego River.
Oswego Falls Palisade
(1758 - 1760's), Fulton
Possibly known as Fort Bradstreet. It was an octagonal earthwork with barracks located on the east bank of the Oswego River near present-day South First Street. The post was not formally used by either side during the American Revolution except in transit. The western portion of the site was destroyed in 1820 for the Oswego Canal.
Nearby was once an ancient (date ?) Indian semi-circular earthwork located on a bluff by the river.
To the north near Lewis Corners is Battle Island State Park, scene of battle (July 1756) between British and French forces.
(State Historic Site)
(1755 - 1903/1946, intermittent), Oswego *PHOTOS*
The first fort here was an eight-pointed star-shaped log stockade with a ditch. It was 800 feet in circumference, with a 14-foot high wall and a moat 18 feet wide and eight feet deep. It was armed with eight cannon and four mortars. It was also known as Fort of the Six Nations, or East Fort. It was abandoned to the French in August 1756, and was then destroyed.
The second fort was built in 1758 and was pentagon-shaped with five bastions. It was deserted by 1770, and in a state of decay by 1776. The fort was burned by the Patriots in July 1778. The ruins were occasionally used by the British as a base camp during 1780-1781, until it was regarrisoned in February 1782. The defensive works were not rebuilt. The last action of the war occurred here as Patriot forces (about 400 men) attempted to assault the fortress in February 1783, only to withdraw before reaching the fort. The fort came under American control by the 1796 Jay Treaty. The British captured and burned the fort in May 1814.
The third fort was built between 1839 and 1844. It was converted and used as a training post and hospital between 1905 and 1946. The outer earthworks were removed during this time. It became a state park in 1949. Admission fee. See also Fort Ontario INFO from City of Oswego
Fort George (2)
(1755 - 1756), Oswego
Also known as New Fort Oswego. It was built one-half mile southwest on a bluff overlooking Fort Oswego, located in today's Montcalm Park at West Schuyler and 8th Streets. It was a 170-foot square with three bastions, garrisoned by the New Jersey militia. The earthworks were never completed before it was abandoned, then destroyed by the French in August 1756. Also known as Fort Rascal, or West Fort.
Fort Oswego (park)
(1727 - 1756), Oswego
Across the river from Fort Ontario, located at West First and Lake Streets. A British fur trade post was first located here in 1722. A stone blockhouse was built in 1727, known as Fort Burnet. A triangular stone wall, three feet thick and ten feet high, and two wooden blockhouses, were built around the stone house in 1741. It was known as Fort Pepperrell in 1745-1746. It was armed with 18 cannon and 15 howitzers and mortars. The fort was destroyed by the French in August 1756, who had referred to the fort as Fort Chouaguen. The fort was never rebuilt, however the site was used again for British water batteries during the American Revolution (1777) and for American water batteries in the War of 1812 (1814).
Camp de l'Observation
(Association Island RV Resort and Marina)
(1756 - 1757), Association Island
A French stockaded encampment overlooking Henderson Bay. Marker on NY 3 about four miles southwest of Sackets Harbor. The island was given its current name in 1905 by the National Electric Lamp Association, later acquired by General Electric. Became a family-owned recreational resort opened to the public in 1999.
¤ Sackets Harbor War of 1812 Defenses
(Sackets Harbor Battlefield State Historic Site)
(Sackets Harbor Battlefield Alliance)
History of Sackets Harbor from 1000 Islands.com
¤ Fort Tompkins (4)
(1812 - 1815), Sackets Harbor
This 20-gun earthwork fort and palisaded two-story wooden blockhouse protected the major Lake Ontario naval base here. It was gradually destroyed after 1825. Site is marked in the state park. This area became part of the Sackets Harbor Naval Station in 1848 - 1954. There are three restored buildings from the Naval Station. Admission fee.
Nearby, the Sacket House (1802) was used as Officers' quarters (1812) and a hospital (1813). It is now the town's visitor center.
¤ Naval Batteries
(1812 - 1813), Sackets Harbor
Three two-gun naval emplacements were located on Navy Point during the war. They were the Upper, Middle, and Lower Batteries.
¤ Smith's Cantonment (1)
(1813 - 1815), Sackets Harbor
Log barracks and four blockhouses in a square palisade, for 2500 men. Site located between Forts Tompkins and Kentucky, in the state park. Also known as Basswood Cantonment.
¤ Sackets Harbor Line
(1813 - 1815), Sackets Harbor
A line of earthworks and minor redoubts from Fort Pike to west of Fort Tompkins. These included earthwork redoubt Fort Kentucky (aka Fort Mud) (20 guns) which still exists in the state park near the shore; Fort Virginia (1812) (16 guns), a palisade and blockhouse (blockhouse still existed until about 1920) on Washington Street; Fort Chauncey, a plank-covered circular stone tower on Monroe Street; and Fort Stark (2). A stone powder magazine was located between Forts Kentucky and Virginia. The sites of Forts Virginia and Chauncey are marked, now residential areas. The sites of Fort Stark and the powder magazine are not marked.
¤ Pike's Cantonment
(1813 - 1815), Sackets Harbor
Located adjacent to Fort Pike. Barracks for 2000 men.
¤ Fort Pike
(1813 - 1815), Sackets Harbor
Replaced a hastily built earthwork called Fort Volunteer (1812). Included a blockhouse, with 20 guns. Site was later incorporated into Madison Barracks. Earthworks still exist. May be restored as a community park in the future.
¤ Madison Barracks
(1816 - 1947), Sackets Harbor
Originally built to house the garrisons of the area's several posts and shipyard. Enlarged in the 1880's. Became a hospital post in WWI and a training camp in WWII. Now a National Register Historic District. The former post is now a resort residential community. Many of the garrison buildings have been restored. See also Madison Barracks INFO from 1000 Islands.com
Sackets Harbor was first garrisoned with troops from 1809 - 1812, known as Cantonment Sackets Harbor.
Fort Drum (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1908 - present), Black River
A National Guard summer encampment named Camp Hughes was originally in the area in 1907. The location was so well suited that in 1908 a permanent summer encampment site was designated Pine Camp, used for training all Northeastern state guard units and Army Reserve units. Renamed Pine Plains Military Reservation in 1938. Renamed Camp Drum in 1951. Became a permanent installation in 1974 and renamed. This is the largest Army post in the Northeast, conducting summer and winter training for all service branches, including National Guard and Army Reserve. On post in the Heritage Center (Building 10502) is the 10th Mountain Division and Fort Drum Museum.
Cape Vincent Barracks
(1812 - 1814), Cape Vincent
Militia barracks were erected near the present-day ferry landing. Marker at Broadway and James Streets. One building is still extant, now used by the Cape Vincent Historical Society. See also History of Cape Vincent from 1000 Islands.com
(Thousand Islands Land Trust - Fort Haldimand Preserve)
(1778 - 1812), Carleton Island
Located on the southwestern tip of Carleton (Buck's) Island. A British supply depot was first built in 1775. The fort was originally named Fort Carleton but was soon renamed, leaving the island with the original name instead. This was the primary British naval base on Lake Ontario during the American Revolution. Construction on the new fort was left uncompleted when the war ended in 1783. It was an extensive stone and earthwork fort with 30 guns. The island remained in British control after American independence as part of Canada. The Americans took the island without a fight in June 1812, and then destroyed the post. The island was formally annexed by the United States in 1817, the only territory to formally change hands as a result of the War of 1812. Some earthworks and stone chimneys still remain. The site is owned by the Thousand Islands Land Trust since 1986 as a land preserve. Marker on NY 12E about two miles east of Cape Vincent.
Bartlett's Point Battery
A two-gun American field battery used in the "Battle of French Creek" (October 1813).
Pork Barrel Fort
(1813), Alexandria Bay
A temporary breastwork built by American privateers with captured British supplies when the British Navy pursued ("Battle of Cranberry Creek" - July 1813). Located on Cranberry Creek.
(1760 - 1813), Ogdensburg
A British fort built at Lighthouse Point, a palisaded enclosure with a stone redoubt and five guns, built on the site of the earlier French Fort de la Présentation (1749 - 1759), which was sometimes referred to as Fort at La Galette, in reference to an old French trading post across the river in present-day Prescott, Ontario. The original French post (possibly established here as early as 1718) was attacked and burned by Mohawks (or Abenakis) in the fall of 1749, rebuilt in 1750 as a moated, square earthwork fort with palisades 70 feet to a side, tower bastions at each corner, a powder house, chapel, barracks, warehouses, and a sawmill. A Sulpician mission was also built in 1749. A palisaded Iroquois village (1751) was adjacent. The fort was abandoned in August 1759 for Fort Lévis, and the ruins were burned in July 1760 to prevent British use, although the British immediately rebuilt it. The British post was attacked by Patriots in 1779. Americans took control by treaty in 1796. Garrisoned in 1812, and captured by the British in February 1813. See also Ontario historic marker. A reconstruction is planned. A redan battery was located on the other side of town in 1812-1813, also captured by the British. See also History of Ogdensburg from 1000 Islands.com
Fort William Augustus
(1760 - 1761, 1814), near Ogdensburg
Located about three miles downstream (northeast) from Fort Oswegatchie on Chimney Island (Isle Royale), this was previously French Fort Lévis (1759 - 1760). It was a square log fort with four demi-bastions, barracks, magazines, and Officers' quarters, with 35 guns, and garrisoned by 300 men. The French may have also called it Fort Isle Royale. This position was regarded as a more strategic location to defend the river than that at Ogdensburg. The British attacked and captured the fort in August 1760, and then rebuilt it.
In 1814 the British built a 10-gun battery on the lower (northern) end of the island, after Ogdensburg was captured. The British Chimney Island Blockhouse was built in December 1814. The island was later mostly obliterated (reduced to six acres) by the St. Lawrence Seaway Project in 1957.
(unknown), Fort Jackson
A small community located on the St. Regis River, north of Hopkinton Village, named as such by early settlers after nearby natural rock formations along a local stream. There was no actual known fort here.
Fort St. Regis
(1755 - unknown, 1814), St. Regis
A French fort built at the Mohawk Indian village. The British built a blockhouse here in 1814.
French Mills Blockhouse
(1813 - 1814), Fort Covington
An American stockade with four blockhouses, initially used as a hospital camp for the wounded from battle in Canada, later used as winter quarters by Generals Wilkenson and Brown. The fort was evacuated in February 1814 for Sacket's Harbor, and burned by the British shortly thereafter. Site located on Covington Lane. It does not appear from records that the fort was ever actually named "Fort Covington" during the war. The town was originally called French Mills, but later changed after the war to commemorate the fort and the death of General Leonard Covington.
(1812 - 1855), Malone
A stone magazine and state arsenal was located here on the village green at Main Street, now called Arsenal Green (marker on East Main Street). A portion of Gen. Wilkenson's army spent the winter here (1813 - 1814).
(1813 - 1814), near Earlville
A blockhouse built by Samuel Hollenbeck, no longer exists. Marker at Earlville Road at Smith Road, northeast of Chateaugay town center.
NEED MORE INFO:
Special thanks to Col. Michael Stenzel, NY NG, for additional information from the New York's Forts website.Northeastern New York - page 1 | Mohawk River Valley - page 2 | Hudson River Valley - page 3
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
Updates @ NorthAmericanForts.com