Accokeek Creek Encampment |
Accokeek Creek Fort |
Apex Fort |
Aquia Creek Defenses
Bacon's Fort | Battery Hill Redoubt | Fort Beauregard | Fort Belvoir | Brents Point Battery
Brent Town Fort | Bristoe Station | Brooke Station Fort | Cannon Branch Fort
Camp Carondelet | Camp Cary | Catlett Station | Centreville Defenses | Centreville Fort
Chancellorsville | Chopawamsic Battery | Camp Clifton | Camp Cobb | Cockpit Point Battery
Camp Early | Fort Evans | Evansport Battery | Falmouth Encampment
Fredericksburg Battlefields | Fredericksburg Gun Factory | Fredericksburg Magazine/Depot
Freestone Point Battery | Camp Gary | Fort Geary | Fort George (2) | Germantown Fort
Guilford Signal Station | Hazel Run Blockhouse | Fort Hood (2) | Camp Humphreys (1)
Camp Humphreys (2) | Fort Humphreys | Fort Johnston | Kelly's Ford | Kettle Run Stockade
Landry's Battery | Fort McLean | Marlborough Point Battery | Marye's Heights Fort
Massaponax Creek Encampment | Mayfield Fort | Camp Maury | Camp Mercer | Middle Fort
Mitchell's Ford | Mt. Gilead Battery | Neabsco Creek Encampment | Fort Nelson (3)
Norcom's Redoubts | Camp Pickens | Potomac Creek Battery | Potomac Creek Site
Potomac Creek Forts | Camp Quantico | Quantico Marine Base | Rappahannock River Fort
Rappahannock Station | Camp Seldon | Shipping Point Battery | Signal Hill (1)
L. Smith's Fort | Spotsylvania C.H. | Camp Strange | Tanxsnitania | Todd's Tavern
Waugh Point Forts | West Fort (2) | White House Point Battery | White Oak Encampment
Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3 | Central Virginia II - page 4
Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6 | James River Area - page 7
Hampton Roads - page 8 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11
VIRGINIA CIVIL WAR TRAILS
Fort George (2)
(1755 ?), Leesburg
A very vague reference to a post of this name is made for this area, located at or near a tavern operated by Nicholas Minor.
Civil War Defenses of Leesburg
(Ball's Bluff Battlefield Regional Park)
(1861 - 1862), Leesburg
Fort Evans, a CSA rectangular fort located two miles east of town overlooking Edwards' Ferry. It was later occupied by the Union in April 1862. Still exists on the grounds of the Rehau Company (group tours by appointment). The Battle of Ball's Bluff occurred near here in October 1861. State marker on US 15.
Fort Beauregard, a CSA fort located two miles southeast of town on Tuscarora Creek, about one-half mile south of Fort Evans. Built after the battle, it was later occupied by the Union. Site located in the gated Beauregard Estates subdivision. A small portion may still exist on top of the hill.
Fort Johnston, a CSA star fort located one and one-half mile west of town. Built after the battle, it was later occupied and renamed Fort Geary by the Union. Traces still exist on private property.
Traces of CSA trenches still exist in Ball's Bluff Park. A 300-foot long, six-foot deep CSA trench also exists on private property spanning Edwards' Ferry Road. About 70 yards of the so-called Masked Battery still exists on Edwards' Ferry Road at Cattail Branch.
Lt. John Bacon's Fort
(1755 - unknown), Philomont
A VA colonial militia defense on Colchester Road. It was used as a supply base on the wagon road between Winchester and Alexandria.
Guilford Signal Station
(Claude Moore Park - Lanesville Heritage Area)
(1862 - 1864), Sterling
A Union signal station. Marker at scenic overlook along the Little Stoney Mountain nature trail.
(For Defenses of Alexandria and Washington, DC please see page 2)
Civil War Defenses of Centreville
(1861 - 1863), Centreville
The Confederates began fortifying the town after the First Battle of Manassas (July 1861). The Union later intermittently occupied the CSA works until September 1861. The CSA used the area as part of the winter encampment of October 1861 to March 1862, building six additional earthen redoubts around the town. Union troops reoccupied some of the works after the Second Battle of Manassas (August 1862) to cover their withdrawal to the Washington Defenses. State marker at Centreville Regional Library.
Centreville Fort, a CSA circular fort with extensive earthworks, built after the First Battle of Manassas. Carved and blackened trees were used to resemble cannons (Quaker Guns). Supposedly still extant (undetermined location).
An infantry trench is still extant east of town. Traces of other works still exist within developed areas.
CSA Camp Strange (1861) undetermined location.
The Confederate Fortifications Historic Site (county park) is located near Union Mills, about 1.5 miles southeast of town. The site consists of the remnants of CSA Camp Early (1861 - 1862), Battery Hill Redoubt, and "A" Fort.
Historic Centreville Park (county park) is located west of town near Mt. Gilead (Centre Heights area). Two earthwork batteries (Mt. Gilead Battery) (four and five guns) are still extant on Stone Road.
Other known works included West Fort (2), Middle Fort, and Apex Fort.
Mitchell's Ford Earthworks
(1861 - 1862), near Manassas Park
CSA earthworks on the south side of Bull Run along Old Centreville Road that protected the railroad crossing. Private property. Marker at Yorkshire Elementary School at corner of Yorkshire Lane and Old Centreville Road.
(1861 - 1862), near Manassas Park
CSA winter encampment for Louisiana troops, site with marker located in a wooded park at the end of Cougar Court.
Signal Hill (1)
(1861 - 1863), near Manassas
A fortified CSA signal station, also known as Wilcoxen Signal Station, located on Signal Hill Road just east of the city limits, at Signal Hill Park. Site still exists, with monument and marker. Abandoned in March 1862, and used by the Union afterwards. This was the location of the first use of the semaphone signalling system during the war.
(Manassas Museum System)
(1861 - 1864), Manassas
Union Cannon Branch Fort (1864) is preserved along the railroad on the western side of town (on a knoll above Cannon Branch Creek near the airport, at 10611 Gateway Blvd.).
Confederate Mayfield Fort has been reconstructed along the railroad on the eastern side of town (at 8401 Quarry Road). This is the last remaining of eleven or twelve CSA forts that protected this important railroad junction. Abandoned by the Confederates in March 1862. Held by the Union afterwards to 1864.
CSA Camp Pickens (1861) was the main troop encampment prior to the First Battle of Manassas (July 1861).
Nearby is Manassas National Battlefield Park.
(1863 - 1864), Bristow
Two Union stockades protected the railroad bridge over Broad Run, both about 80 by 25 feet.
The Battle of Bristoe Station was fought in October 1863. Bristoe Station Battlefield Heritage Park is at 10708 Bristow Road.
Kettle Run Stockade
(1864), near Nokesville
A Union stockaded encampment protected the railroad bridge over Kettle Run. A battle was fought here earlier in August 1862. Marker located at corner of Nokesville Road (VA 28) and Aden Road.
Fort Nelson (3)
(1863 - 1864), Warrenton
A Union stockaded encampment.
(c. 1600), Fauquier White Sulphur Springs
A major Manahoac Indian town noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Probable site located at the river bend just upstream from the Springs Road bridge (County Rt. 802). Unknown if palisaded. The Manahoacs here relocated to Manakin Town on the James River in 1654, after constant raids by northern Iroquois Indians (see page 9).
(1862 - 1864), Remington
Two CSA two-gun redoubts (1862) with connecting earthworks were located on the north bank of the river upstream of the railroad bridge. They were captured by the Union in November 1863. Traces of one redoubt may still exist, between present US 29 Business and the railroad. A Union stockaded encampment was then built near town in the spring of 1864. (To the north of here is a Fort Union Drive.) On the south bank of the river in Culpeper County the Union built two redoubts and a blockhouse to protect the railroad crossing.
Kelly's Ford Earthworks
(1863), Kelly's Ford
Union rifle pits and trench lines still exist along the north side of the Rappahannock River, located on the grounds of the Inn at Kelly's Ford. Traces of CSA earthworks still exist on the south side of the river. Scene of battles in March, June, and November 1863.
(1719 - 1721 ?), Germantown
A palisaded settlement of 12 German families that moved away from Fort Germanna (see page 3). Site located along Licking Run. A land grant was issued to them in 1724 by Thomas Fairfax.
A Union stockaded encampment protected the railroad bridge over Cedar Run.
Brent Town Fort
(1687 - 1694 ?), near Sowego
A blockhouse located on the south side of Town Run at the settlement established by George Brent. Also called Brenton. The settlement failed after the death of Brent in 1694.
White House Point Battery
(1814), Fort Belvoir
A temporary U.S. Naval battery with 13 guns and trenchworks, set up to harrass the British fleet sailing downriver after attacking Alexandria in September 1814. Now called Whitestone Point. (see also Indian Head Battery in MARYLAND)
Fort Belvoir (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1918 - present), Fort Belvoir
An Army Corps of Engineers training camp and replacement center, later a demobilization center. Originally named Camp Humphreys (2). Renamed Fort Humphreys in 1922. Renamed again in 1935. The U.S. Army Engineer School was located here from 1918 until 1988 before transferring to Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. The U.S. Army Engineer Museum was located here until 1989 before also transferring to Fort Leonard Wood. A four-gun 120mm AA battery was located on post (Gum Springs) in 1951 - 1958. State marker on US 1. On the post reservation is the archaeological site of "Belvoir", William Fairfax's manor estate built in 1741. It was burned in 1783.
Freestone Point Battery
(Leesylvania State Park)
A well-preserved CSA four-gun battery on the shore of the Potomac River, located along a short walking trail in the park. The park's visitor center has a small museum with artifacts and history of the site. Admission fee.
Neabsco Creek Encampment
(1861 - 1862), Woodbridge
CSA fortified winter camp sites located along Neabsco Creek. Marker located at the Ferlazzo Government Building at 15941 Donald Curtis Drive.
Cockpit Point Battery
(1861 - 1862), Dumfries
A CSA work located halfway between Freestone Point and Quantico, it consisted of six guns (one heavy gun) in three batteries, a powder magazine, and rear rifle pits, on top of a 75-foot high cliff known as "Possum Nose". The earthworks and the powder magazine still remain in good shape. Some hut sites can also still be found. Private property, marker on Cockpit Point Road. A field battery was located on the actual Cockpit Point, but that site was destroyed in the 1970's for a landfill project.
(1861 - 1862), near Dumfries
A CSA encampment on Quantico Creek, probably east of town. Marker located at William's Ordinary (1765) in town, at 17674 Main Street, which was used as the local headquarters for the area encampments.
Civil War Defenses of Quantico
(1861 - 1862), Quantico
Shipping Point Battery was located at the future site of the Quantico Naval Hospital (1939) (aka Hospital Point). No remains. Site now the USMC Systems Command complex.
Evansport Battery, located downtown, was actually two batteries on the river bank, and another 400 yards inland on Waller Hill. No remains. A marker and gun display are on Waller Hill. The old Quantico Hotel was built here in 1871, became the USMC Waller Hall Officers' Club in 1918, razed in 1970.
Chopawamsic Battery was located at the mouth of Chopawamsic Creek. No remains. The mouth of Chopawamsic Creek was altered in the 1930's due to the construction of the Quantico Marine Corps Air Facility runway. A CSA field battery was located where the creek now empties to the Potomac River.
All works were destroyed and abandoned by the Confederates in March 1862.
Quantico Marine Corps Base (U.S. Military Reservation)
(History of Quantico MCB)
(1917 - present), Quantico
Originally established as Quantico Marine Barracks, renamed in 1968. The post is a major training command where many wartime fighting techniques and concepts have been developed. On post is the USMC Command and Staff College, the Marine Corps University, the Marine Corps War College, the USMC Officer Candidate School, and other various schools. Turner Field was built in 1931, replacing the smaller Brown Field from 1919. It was renamed Quantico MCAF in 1941. Naval seaplanes were also based here before WWII. The F.B.I. Academy and forensics laboratory, and a D.E.A. training facility, are also on post. The National Museum of the Marine Corps is located off post on US 1, opened in 2006.
(1861), near Mountjoy Store
A CSA training camp located at Clifton Church, about one mile from the present-day intersection of County Rts. 611 and 635.
Aquia Creek Defenses
(Aquia Landing Park)
(1861 - 1864), near Aquia Landing
Confederate defenses built here in 1861 included:
Naval Battery #1 (originally four guns, later seven guns) at Aquia Landing, it was the very first Confederate fortification built in Virginia after hostilities broke out in April 1861. It was built to cover the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad terminus at the steamboat landing, not the ship channel in the Potomac River. At least two of the original guns came from captured stores at the Norfolk Navy Yard. The first engagement with Union ships occurred in May 1861. No remains.
Fort McLean was nearby on the bluff west of the boat landing, originally built in June 1861. Reused by the Union in 1863. Named as such by the Union, or later after the war. Still exists on private property near the western end of Thorny Point Road.
Walker's Battery was on a hill one mile south of the boat landing, consisting of four rifled field guns. Took part in the May 1861 engagement. The guns were relocated to Brent's Point in June 1861. Still exists, marked on trail off of Brooke Road at Patawomeck Band Memorial Park.
Brent's Point Battery (four field guns) was across Aquia Creek from the boat landing. Built in June 1861. Remnants still exist on private property.
Marlborough Point Battery (five guns) a field battery. No remains.
Camp Gary (1861) at Aquia Landing.
Aquia Landing was abandoned in March 1862 to Union forces. The first use of nautical mines (torpedoes) in the Civil War occurred here in July 1861 by the CSA.
Union forts built here in February 1863:
Redoubt #1 a 60-foot square moated work on Aquia Creek northwest of the depot, almost directly north of Redoubt #2. Private property. The moat was filled-in during the 1950's.
Redoubt #2 (two guns) a 95-foot square moated work at the eastern end of present-day County Rt. 630 (Courthouse Road) on Old Fort Lane. Still exists in good condition on private property.
Redoubt #3 a 50-foot square moated work on Rose Hill. Destroyed in 2005. Stone monument erected in 2006, located in the Sentinel Ridge neighborhood.
A Union winter encampment site (1862 - 1863) was located between Redoubt #2 and the depot. Hutment traces still remain in the Brooke Ridge neighborhood.
Aquia Landing became a major Union supply depot in 1862 - 1863 until the Gettysburg campaign forced its abandonment. A new supply depot was established in 1864 at nearby Belle Plains Landing on Potomac Creek during the Wilderness-Spotsylvania campaign, but it too was soon abandoned in favor of a new depot at City Point on the James River as the Union forces moved south towards Richmond and Petersburg. The Aquia Landing Depot site is now a Stafford County park and beach. The actual battery sites are on private property nearby.
(some info provided courtesy of Thomas Mountz)
Potomac Creek Archaeological Site
(1300 - 1600), near Marlboro Point
A Late Woodland Period palisaded Potomeck Indian town located at Indian Point where Accokeek and Potomac Creeks converge. Site was excavated in 1965. Patawomeck, the later town that was noted on John Smith's map of 1608, was nearby, but that site has been almost completely eroded away. Pocahontas was kidnapped here by Samuel Argall in 1613, and brought back to Jamestown by ship. The town was already abandoned (1615 ?) before white settlement began in the area in 1635.
A CSA training camp.
Brooke Station Fort
(1863 - 1864), Brooke
A Union 75-foot square moated work. Still exists on private property.
Accokeek Creek Fort
(1863 - 1864), near Brooke
A Union 30-foot square redoubt protecting the railroad bridge over the creek.
Accokeek Creek Encampment
(1862 - 1863), near Brooke
A Union winter encampment area south of Accokeek Creek west of town. Three extant Union earthwork batteries and two log-hut campsites are located on a 25-acre site within the present-day Stafford Regional Landfill on Eskimo Hill Road. Battery One is 248-feet long with two gun platforms and a nine-foot pit that was possibly a blockhouse or magazine, surrounded by a zig-zag trench and rifle pits. Battery Two is 210-feet long and possibly held four guns. Battery Three was a large six-gun work with a dug-in blockhouse/magazine. A small portion of a fourth battery also exists. Well-preserved traces of a pine-log corduroy road are also extant. The county is proposing this site as a future county park.
Potomac Creek Bridge Defenses
(1863 - 1864), Daffan
The Union protected the vital Potomac Creek railroad bridge with a 50-foot square redoubt on the high ground, a two-gun five-sided closed work about 40 yards long, a 16-foot square blockhouse on the south bank of the creek, a semi-circular earthwork to cover the blockhouse (still exists, private property), and a palisade toward the river at the end of the bridge.
Waugh Point Forts
(1862), Waugh Point
Two CSA earthwork batteries covering the entrance to Potomac Creek, located on the south shore opposite Indian Point.
Potomac Creek Battery
(1861), near Belvedere Beach
A CSA shore battery on the eastern side of Passapatanzy Creek, covering Fooke's Landing and the entrance to Potomac Creek.
White Oak Encampment
(1862 - 1863), White Oak
A large Union winter encampment area. Camp Seldon (1863) was also here. Of interest here is the White Oak Museum at 985 White Oak Road, which has a reconstruction of the crude log huts, and artifacts and exhibits of all the known military encampments of the area. Admission fee.
(1861), near Chatham Heights
A CSA training camp near Claiborne's Run, between present-day Ferry Road (County Rt. 606) and White Oak Road (VA 218).
(1862 - 1863), near Falmouth
A large Union winter encampment area (November 1862 - June 1863), encompassing several individual sites. Camp Humphreys (1) was located along present-day Forbes Street.
Fredericksburg Powder Magazine and Depot
(1777 - 1781), Falmouth
A state militia powder magazine and supply depot for the Continental Army. James Hunter's Iron Works (aka Rappahannock Forge) (1759) was nearby, which was an important supplier to the Continental Army and Navy, and was garrisoned by soldiers in 1781.
Rappahannock River Fort
A settlers' stockaded fort that was attacked and burned by Manahoac (Mahock) Indians during some kind of dispute. Other buildings were also burned before the Indians crossed the river into Stafford County and destroyed buildings there owned by a Col. Carter. Pursued by the colonial militia, the remnants of the Manahoac tribe later merged with the Monacans to the south. Exact location undetermined, possibly the same site as Lawrence Smith's Fort (see below). Fredericksburg was founded and named in 1728.
(Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Battlefields National Military Park)
(1862 - 1864), Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County
The First Battle of Fredericksburg was fought in December 1862. The Second Battle of Fredericksburg was fought in May 1863. Located in town on Marye's Heights were the CSA two-gun Double Lunette Battery (or Marye's Heights Fort) (1862 - 1863), briefly captured by the Union in the Second Battle; CSA one-gun Landry's Lunette Battery (1862 - 1863), converted to two guns in 1863; and CSA Norcom's Redoubts (1863) two one-gun works on Byram's Hill (now part of University of Mary Washington campus). All earthworks on Marye's Heights survived the war, but were plowed under by the 1880's. Within the battlefield park are about five miles of extant CSA earthworks from Lee's Hill to Hamilton's Crossing, mostly constructed after the First Battle.
Also once located in town was Confederate Camp Mercer (1861 - 1862), a training camp located at the former Mercer Square, the town's former fairgrounds before the Civil War.
Union works were the Hazel Run Blockhouse (1862), a one-story wooden structure with loopholes, located on the west side of the railroad on the south side of the creek, and also two other similarly built blockhouses located at both the Middle Pontoon Crossing (1862, built on a wharf, destroyed by a flood) and the Upper Pontoon Crossing (1862 - 1863). No remains.
Extensive CSA and Union earthwork trench lines and gun pits were/are located on the surrounding battlefields in various locations, including Chancellorsville (April 1863), The Wilderness (May 1864), Todd's Tavern (May 1864), and Spotsylvania Court House (May 1864).
A Spanish-American War training camp at Gunnery Springs for the "Immunes" recruited into the 4th U.S. Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Site located at the present-day City Office of Student Services at Gunnery Road and Dunmore Street. State marker at site.
This was originally the location of the Fredericksburg Gun Manufactory (1775 - 1783), the first state-run arsenal in the nation. The principal product was a version of the British Brown Bess musket.
Fort Hood (2)
(1862), near Greenfield
Located on the Rappahannock River just downriver from Fredericksburg, one mile upstream from the mouth of Massaponax Creek. It was a seven-gun CSA earthwork built to prevent Union gunboats from proceeding upriver. The Union captured it in December 1862, one month after it was built, but did not remove the guns. The earthworks still remain in good condition, but overgrown. Site located on private property, near Cosner Park. State marker located on US 17 / VA 2.
Major Lawrence Smith's Fort
(1676 - 1682), near Greenfield
A VA colonial militia blockhouse built on the south side of the Rappahannock River opposite Little Falls Run. Garrisoned by 50 men. Also here was a 60-foot by 22-foot warehouse and a ten-foot square powder magazine. Site now on the grounds of the Fredericksburg Country Club, near the 10th hole of the golf course. Marker on US 17 / VA 2.
Massaponax Creek Encampment
(1862 - 1863), near Four Mile Fork
The CSA Army of Northern Virginia spent the winter of 1862-63 at various sites along present-day US 1 (Lafayette Blvd.), County Rt. 636 (Mine Road), and along the north side of Massaponax Creek south of Fredericksburg.
Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia I - page 3 | Central Virginia II - page 4
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