Northern Virginia II

Redoubt "A" | Redoubt "B" | Redoubt "C" | Redoubt "D" | Fort Albany
Alexandria Military Railroad Complex | Alexandria Quartermaster Depot
Camp Alger | Fort Ethan Allen | Camp Andrew | Aqueduct Bridge Gate | Camp Arlington
Arlington Line | Bailey's Crossroads Redoubt | Fort Baker | Camp Banks | Fort Barnard | Camp Beckwith
Fort Bennett | Fort Berry | Fort Blencker | Blockhouse No. 1 | Blockhouse No. 2 | Blockhouse No. 3
Camp Briggs | Fort Buffalo | Camp California | Fort Cass | Contraband Barracks | Fort Corcoran
Fort Craig (1) | Camp Custis | Fort Dahlgren | Fort DeKalb | Camp Distribution (1) | Fort Ellsworth
Fort Farnsworth | Camp Franklin | Freedom Hill Fort | Battery Garesché | Camp Graham | Fort Haggerty
Camp Harries | Fort Hunt | Camp Ingalls | Fort Jackson (1) | Fort at Jones' Point | Camp Keyes | Fort Lyon | Fort McDowell | Fort McPherson
Fort Marcy | Camp Misery | Fort Morton (1) | Fort Munson | Fort Myer | Fort O'Rorke | Camp Ordway
Peach Grove Stockade | Camp Pierpont | Potomac River Fort | Fort Ramsay (1) | Fort Ramsay (2) | Fort Reynolds
Fort Richardson (1) | Battery Rodgers | Fort Runyon | Fort Scott | Fort "Baldy" Smith | Fort C.F. Smith
Fort Strong | Fort Taylor | Fort Tillinghast | Fort Upton | Vienna Fort | Fort Ward | Fort Weed
Fort Whipple | Fort Willard | Fort Williams | Fort Woodbury | Camp Worcester | Fort Worth

Washington's Cold War AAA Defenses
(NOT INDEXED)

Northern Virginia I - page 1 | Central Virginia I - page 3 | Central Virginia II - page 4
Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6 | James River Area - page 7
Hampton Roads Area - page 8 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11

VIRGINIA CIVIL WAR TRAILS

Last Update: 12/OCTOBER/2014
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2014 American Forts Network

Potomac River Fort
(1676 - 1682), Alexandria
A VA colonial militia blockhouse built by Capt. Peter Knight on John Mathew's land on Hunting Creek (Cameron Run) as a defense against the Susquehannock Indians to the north. Marker located in Belle Haven Park. (NOTE: what is known today as Hunting Creek was known as Little Hunting Creek then.)

Fort at Jones' Point
(Jones Point Park)
(1795), Alexandria
A Federal fort once located on Jones Point, it was never finished, and was reported abandoned and in ruins by 1807. Site is believed to be in Jones Point Park behind the old Jones Point Lighthouse (1856 - 1926). The area known as Battery Cove was infilled before WWI and became a private shipyard. The I-95 Woodrow Wilson Memorial Bridge was originally completed in 1961. The 52-acre park is owned by the National Park Service, managed by the city. State marker E-117 "Jones Point" approved but not yet erected (2008).
See also Archaeology at Jones Point from the Alexandria Archaeology Museum

Bailey's Crossroads Redoubt
(1861), Bailey's Crossroads
A CSA earthwork was located just northwest of town along Leesburg Pike. No remains.

Also of interest nearby: J.E.B. Stuart at Munson's Hill state marker || Mason's Hill state marker || Civil War Engagements state marker

Vienna Fort ?
(1861 or 1862 ?), Vienna
The extant remains of a star-shaped earthwork are located near the V.F.W. Post on Center Street. It has not been determined whether this was first built as a Union or Confederate work (most probable), as it is not shown on most period maps. It was most certainly occupied by Union troops after 1862, and may have been used as an advanced signal station. Site is marked.


Civil War Defenses of Alexandria and Washington
(NPS Historic Resources Study)
Washington, DC Civil War Defense System - FORT WIKI
(1861 - 1866), Northern Virginia
(See also MARYLAND and DISTRICT of COLUMBIA pages.)

City of Alexandria:
Fort Ward (park & museum), fifth largest of the forts surrounding Washington (815 yard perimeter), it had 24 guns in 1861, rebuilt and enlarged in 1864 with 36 guns (10 vacant platforms) mounted in five bastions. Construction on the star-shaped earthworks was not fully completed until one month after the war ended in the east. The NW bastion was restored in 1964, and an Officer's Hut and Headquarters Building have been reconstructed. Located at 4301 West Braddock Road.
Fort Worth (28 guns, three vacant platforms) (463 yard perimeter) (no remains), located on Seminary Heights about one and one-half miles west of Fort Ellsworth, and one and one-half miles south of Fort Reynolds. Site destroyed for development in 1970. The postbellum house at 4010 Harris Place was built on the south magazine.
Fort Williams (park) (15 guns) (250 yard perimeter) (trace remnants exist, as well as the preserved brick magazine), located on Cooper's Hill (aka "Traitor's Hill") between Forts Worth and Ellsworth, site of CSA General Samuel Cooper's pre-war house "Cameron", which was destroyed to build the fort. Located at 212 North Quaker Lane (private property).
Fort Ellsworth (20 guns, seven vacant platforms) (618 yard perimeter) (trace remnants still exist), located on Shuter's Hill at King St. and Callahan Dr., mostly on the grounds (west side) of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Temple. The trace of the northwest bastion can still be seen on the grounds of the Ellsworth Condominiums.
Fort Dahlgren (1861) (no remains), located adjacent to (northeast of) Fort Ellsworth, on the north face of Shuter's Hill facing King Street.
Blockhouse No. 1 (1864) (two guns) site located on Telegraph Road, southwest of Fort Ellsworth near Cameron Run.
Blockhouse No. 2 (1864) (two guns), site located at 2922 Duke Street, between Fort Williams and Fort Ellsworth.
Blockhouse No. 3 (1864), site located near 3033 South Columbus Street, near King Street (VA 7) at I-395, between Fort Ward and Battery Garesché.
Battery Rodgers (1863 - 1869) (330 yard perimeter) (no remains), a six-gun coastal defense work, and was the only work (along with Fort Whipple) in Northern Virginia that was retained after the war. It was located at the east end of Jefferson Street. Townhomes now occupy most of the site. Marker at Lee and Green Streets.

A five-gun battery (1864) was located at the "Old Distillery" southwest of Fort Ellsworth, between Blockhouse No. 1 and Blockhouse No. 2. Two batteries (15 guns total) were located between Fort Williams and Blockhouse No. 1. Two batteries (eight guns total) were located between Fort Williams and the Theological Seminary on Seminary Heights. A four-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Worth. Three batteries (24 guns total) were located between Forts Worth and Ward. A six-gun battery was located in front of Fort Ward. A six-gun battery was located to the left of Blockhouse No. 3.

A stockade and two blockhouses were built around the yard and machine shops of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, known during the war as the U.S. Military Railroad Complex, located in the area bounded by South Payne, South Alfred, Duke, and Gibbon Streets. The Quartermaster Depot and Government Wharves were stockaded, located in the area bounded by North Fairfax, North Union, Oronoco, and Queen Streets. A small blockhouse (1863) was built at the tollgate on the Hunting Creek (Cameron Run) bridge, located at Henry and Church Streets (now the I-95 and US 1 interchange). Gated palisades were erected across several streets in the city.

Camp Andrew (1861), established for Massachusetts troops.
Camp Banks (1862 - 1863), established for paroled and exchanged prisoners.
Camp Briggs (1863 - 1864), established for draftees.
Camp California (1861), located by the old Fairfax County Courthouse, just west of Fort Worth along present-day Taney Ave. and North Gordon Street, established for western troops that served east. Marker located in Ben Brenman Park at 4800 Brenman Park Drive.
Camp Franklin (1861), located on the grounds of the Theological Seminary on Seminary Heights.
Camp Keyes (1861), located on Upton's Hill.
Convalescent Camp (1) (1861 - 1862) (aka Camp Misery), originally located on the northeast face and base of Shuter's Hill.
Contraband Barracks, barracks for freed slaves and black soldiers, located at Prince and South West Street.

Arlington County:
Arlington Historical Society - Military Historic Sites
Fort Ethan Allen (park) (45 guns, four vacant platforms) (736 yard perimeter), a bastioned earthwork, portions still extant at Old Glebe and Military Roads. Originally named Fort Baker when first built. Several markers at site, located adjacent to the Madison Community Center. The present house at 4348 Old Glebe Road is on the site of the southwest bastion.
Fort C.F. Smith (park) (1863) (19 guns, six vacant platforms) (368 yard perimeter), located on Arlington Heights one mile west of Key Bridge, at North 24th Street and North 21st Road. Also known as Fort McDowell in some early reports. Most of the earthworks are still extant, the western side was destroyed by development. Several markers on site. The barracks were destroyed by a possible tornado in July 1865.
Fort Strong (15 guns, two vacant platforms) (318 yard perimeter), originally named Fort DeKalb until 1863. Located at Lee Highway and Wayne Street, between North Adams and North Vance Streets. No remains. Marker located on Lee Highway (US 29) at North Adams Street. Remnants still existed until about 1960 on the grounds of the Altha Hall estate. The barracks were destroyed by a possible tornado in July 1865.
Fort Bennett (park) (five guns) (146 yard perimeter), an outwork of Fort Corcoran, located at North Quinn Street and North 21st Road. Marker located in the 1600 block of North 22nd Street. No remains.
Fort Corcoran (five guns, five vacant platforms) (576 yard perimeter), a bastioned earthwork located off of North Quinn Street, between 18th Street and Key Blvd.. No remains. Marker located at North Key Blvd. and North Ode Street.
Fort Haggerty (four guns) (128 yard perimeter), an outwork of Fort Corcoran, located on North Arlington Ridge Road between North 19th Street and Wilson Blvd.. No remains. Marker on Wilson Blvd. at North Arlington Ridge Road.
Aqueduct Bridge Tête-du-Pont (1862), a fortified infantry post protecting the southern bridgehead of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal aqueduct across the Potomac River. There were also three small blockhouses here (one gun each). The water was diverted from going over the aqueduct and the bridge served as a planked wagon road throughout the war (present-day Key Bridge - US 29).
Fort Morton (1) (six guns, four vacant platforms) (250 yard perimeter), near Fort Corcoran, on the grounds of Key Elementary School near North 16th Street and North Custis Road. Originally an open field battery until enclosed in 1863. No remains. A small remnant still existed behind 2311 North Custis Road until the 1980's.
Fort Woodbury (13 guns, one vacant platform) (275 yard perimeter), a lunette to the rear of the present-day Arlington County Courthouse, at North Troy and North 14th Streets. No remains. Marker located on North Courthouse Road at North 14th Street.
Fort Whipple (1862 - 1867) (29 guns, 18 vacant platforms) (640 yard perimeter), a bastioned earthwork located adjacent to Arlington National Cemetery. No remains. Abandoned as an artillery defense in 1867, the Signal Corps used the post from 1869 to 1887 as a signal school. Became a permanent garrison post in 1872 and renamed Fort Myer in 1881 (see below). The General Albert Myer monument on post at Whipple Field, near Jackson and Grant Aves. and Quarters No. 6, is located at the site of the original fort. Marker located off post on Arlington Blvd. (US 50) at North Pershing Drive.
Fort Cass (13 guns, one vacant platform) (288 yard perimeter), a lunette located on what is now the Fort Myer Military Reservation, at Forest Circle, just south of North 10th Street and Wayne Street. Originally named Fort Ramsay (1) until 1862. No remains. Marker located off post on Arlington Blvd. (US 50) at North 10th Street.
Fort McPherson (1864), never completed, remnants located within Arlington National Cemetery. The well-preserved five-bastioned fort was levelled in 1947 to make room for additional gravesites. McKinley Drive traces the perimeter of what little is left.
Fort Tillinghast (13 guns, one vacant platform) (298 yard perimeter), a lunette located at 205 North Wayne Street. No remains. Marker located on Arlington Blvd. (US 50) at North 2nd Street.
Fort Craig (1) (12 guns, one vacant platform) (324 yard perimeter), a lunette located at South Courthouse Road and South 4th Street. No remains. Marker at site.
Fort Albany (eight guns, four vacant platforms) (429 yard perimeter), once located near South Arlington Ridge Road and South Nash Street, site now covered by the Shirley Memorial Highway (I-395). Marker located in Prospect Hill Park at 1025 South Arlington Ridge Road. A signal station was also located here at Prospect Hill.
Fort Richardson (1) (14 guns, three vacant platforms) (316 yard perimeter), remnants located around the ninth green on the grounds of the Army-Navy Country Club golf course off of South 18th Street. Marker at site.
Fort Berry (1863) (four guns, six vacant platforms) (215 yard perimeter), located at South Monroe Street and South 17th Street. Marker on South Glebe Road (VA 120) at South Walter Reed Drive. The Officers' Quarters were said to have been located at present-day 3225 South 17th Street.
Fort Barnard (park) (19 guns, three vacant platforms) (250 yard perimeter), located at South Oxford Street and South 22nd Street. The last remnant of the fort was destroyed in 1976. Remnants of the outer (left) battery on South Pollard Street, and rifle pits at the rear of 3816 South 22nd Street, still exist. Marker on South Pollard Street at South Walter Reed Drive.
Fort Reynolds (park) (13 guns, one vacant platform) (300 yard perimeter), originally named Fort Blencker until 1863. Located in the 4500 block of South 31st Street, east of South Woodrow Street. No remains, destroyed in 1954. Marker at site.
Battery Garesché (eight guns) (166 yard perimeter), located near Fort Reynolds. Marker at South Abingdon Street at South 30th Road. No remains.
Fort Jackson (1), an unarmed tête-du-pont located at the south end of 14th Street and Long Bridge. The gates were rebuilt in 1864, but the railroad had already cut through the work by then, reducing the effectiveness of the barrier. The present-day Long Bridge Park is adjacent to the fort site. No remains.
Fort Runyon, the largest of the bastioned earthworks (12 acres, 1484 yard perimeter), located about one-half mile southwest of Jefferson Davis Highway and Boundary Drive. Soon replaced by Fort Albany on higher ground, only two guns were still listed as being mounted in 1862. Used as a supply depot thereafter. Marker on Clark Street at Boundary Drive. No remains.
Fort Scott (park) (10 guns) (313 yard perimeter), a lunette, remnants (only the southern apex) still exist on Fort Scott Drive. Marker at site.

A six-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Barnard (portions still extant on South Pollard Street). Three batteries (10 guns total) were located between Forts Barnard and Richardson. Four batteries (22 guns total) were located between Forts Richardson and Craig. A three-gun battery was located in front of Fort Craig. Two batteries (10 guns total) were located between Forts Craig and Tillinghast. A four-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Whipple. Two batteries (12 guns total) were located between Forts Tillinghast and Cass. Two two-gun batteries and two six-gun batteries were located in front of Fort Ethan Allen. Two batteries (8 guns total) were located on the south side of Hawkins Run, north of Fort Ethan Allen. An Arlington Line marker (1965) is located in the median on Wilson Blvd. at North Courthouse Road.

Camp Arlington (1861 - 1862), located at Arlington Heights.
Convalescent Camp (2) (1863 - 1865), established for convalescents, stragglers, and recruits. It was later renamed Camp Distribution (1) in 1864 as General Grant's central supply depot for the 1864 campaigns. Located just south of Fort Richardson.
Camp Custis, located on Arlington Plantation.
Camp Graham, a cavalry camp.
Camp Ingalls, located adjacent to Fort Richardson.

City of Falls Church:
Fort Taylor (park), a six-gun battery located near East Broad and North Roosevelt Streets, near the site of the old (William) Taylor's Tavern (1856), and Oakwood Cemetery. Site marked, no remains.

Fairfax County:
Chain Bridge:
Fort Marcy (park - NPS) (20 guns, one vacant platform) (338 yard perimeter), originally named Fort (W.F.) "Baldy" Smith, located on the George Washington Memorial Parkway, on the north side of Hawkins Run. Several markers on site, earthworks are well preserved..
See also Civil War Defenses of Washington entry from NPS

An eight-gun battery was located in front of Fort Marcy. A two-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Marcy. A gated stockade on the Leesburg-Georgetown Turnpike to the right of Fort Marcy guarded the approach to the Chain Bridge.

near Tyson's Corner:
Freedom Hill Fort (park) (1864), a fortified picket post and signal station, located at 8531 Old Courthouse Road, near the intersection with VA 123 in the Westbriar area. Site marked, remnants still exist.
Peach Grove Stockade (1864), located north of Freedom Hill, a fortified plantation manor.

Seven Corners:
Fort Buffalo, located at US 50 and VA 7, no remains, now office and retail buildings since the 1950's. Marker erected in 2000 on Sleepy Hollow Road (Rt. 613) south of Leesburg Pike (VA 7), at the Seven Corners Fire Station. Built by Union troops just before First Manassas, it was briefly occupied by Confederate troops after the battle.
Fort Ramsay (2), originally named Fort Upton, renamed in 1862. Located on the 1100 block of John Marshall Drive on Upton Hill. No remains.

A field battery and/or rifle trenches was/were located on Perkins Hill. No remains.

near Bailey's Crossroads:
Fort Munson (Munson Hill Park), located on Apex Circle Drive. No remains.
Lincoln Reviews Troops state marker

Huntington:
(considered a part of the Defenses of Alexandria)
Fort Lyon (38 guns) (937 yard perimeter), traces of the south parapet wall may still remain along the south shoulder of James Drive, at North Kings Highway. The northeast trace of the fort can be seen in the hill along North Kings Highway down towards Telegraph Road. The north magazine exploded in June 1863, killing 21 troopers. Marker located at scenic overlook in the commuter lot of the Huntington Ave. Metro Station.
Fort Weed (1862) (11 guns, one vacant platform) (253 yard perimeter), originally named Redoubt A until 1863, located at Monticello Road and Fort Drive. No remains.
Fort Farnsworth (1862) (10 guns, three vacant platforms) (255 yard perimeter), originally named Redoubt B until 1863, located 133 yards north-northwest of the extant battery in Mt. Eagle Park (see below), at the eastern end of the present-day Huntington Ave. Metro Station parking lot. No remains.
Fort O'Rorke (1862) (13 guns, three vacant platforms) (160 yard perimeter), originally named Redoubt C until 1863, located at Fort Drive and Park Place. No remains, site now a community center.
Fort Willard (park) (1862) (16 guns, two vacant platforms) (240 yard perimeter), still extant, originally named Redoubt D until 1863, located at 6625 Fort Willard Circle in the Belle Haven neighborhood.
Defenses of Washington state marker on US 1.

A six-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Willard (at the end of Wakefield Court) (no remains), and a five-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Willard (at Radcliff Road and Fort Drive) (no remains). A six-gun battery was located to the left of Fort O'Rorke (at rear of 23-25 Fort Drive) (no remains). A six-gun battery was located between Forts O'Rorke and Farnsworth (still extant, located in Mount Eagle Park on Huntington Park Drive). A six-gun battery was located between Fort Lyon and Hunting Creek (Cameron Run). The Hunting Creek Bridge (Telegraph Road) was stockaded with a blockhouse.

Camp Worcester (1862), located behind Fort Lyon.

Lewinsville:
Camp Beckwith (1861 - 1864), a cavalry camp. Attacked by the Confederates in 1863.

Langley:
Camp Pierpont (1861), located 12 miles east of Dranesville.

Many of these sites are located in various parks; others were not preserved and have been built over with houses or condos.


Fort Myer (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1869 - present), Arlington County
Originally Fort Whipple (see above). After abandoned as an artillery defense in 1867, it was then first re-occupied in 1869 by the Army's first Signal Corps school. It was enlarged and became a permanent garrison post in 1872, renamed in 1881. Became a Cavalry post in 1887. Many of the present structures were built after 1895. Since 1908 the post has become the quarters of the Army Chief of Staff. Also in 1908 Orville Wright demonstrated his new airplane to the Army from the post parade ground. The post became a Regular Army mobilization center during the two world wars. There are no remains of the original Civil War work, which was located near Quarters No. 6 near Jackson and Grant Aves.. There were two four-gun 90mm AA batteries emplaced here in 1951 - 1957 (W-61). Of interest on post is the Old Guard Museum, in Building 249. See also History of Fort Myer from Arlington National Cemetery

Camp Russell A. Alger
(1898), Dunn Loring
A Spanish-American War training camp located about two miles west of Falls Church along the railroad, on the property once known as "Woodburn Manor". Originally known as Camp Harries when DC National Guard troops mobilized here after they were mustered in. Marker on US 50 just east of I-495, between Fairmount and Fenwick Streets.

Camp Ordway
(1916), Arlington County
A temporary encampment for Negro troops of the DC National Guard during the Mexican Border Crisis. Located at Radio, near Fort Myer.


¤ COAST DEFENSES of the POTOMAC RIVER (partial) (see also Fort Washington, MD)
Harbor Defense of the Potomac - FORT WIKI

¤ Fort Hunt (National Park)
(1898 - 1933, 1942 - 1946), near Mount Vernon
Located on Sheridan Point, it was a subpost of Fort Washington across the Potomac River. Endicott batteries include Battery Robinson (1901 - 1917), Battery Sater (1904 - 1920), Battery Porter (1901 - 1917), and Battery Mount Vernon (1898 - 1917). The U.S. Army Finance School was located here briefly in 1921 - 1923. Fort Hunt was reactivated and used as a military intelligence center and POW camp during World War II. A four-gun 120mm AA battery was here in 1951 - 1954. The park is administered by the National Park Service.


Cold War AAA Defenses of Washington
(1951 - 1958), Northern Virginia
Several permanent sites were established for the Army's Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) Gun Site Program, the precursor to the NIKE missile defense program. Four 90mm AA guns and/or four 120mm AA guns were positioned at each site, with troop barracks and other support buildings. Known sites include:
Fort Belvoir (1951 - 1958) 120mm guns: at Gum Springs.
Fort Hunt (1951 - 1954) 120mm guns: on post.
Hybla Valley (1953 - 1958) 120mm guns, (1951 - 1953, 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-51).
Franconia (1951 - 1954) 120mm guns: undetermined.
Annandale (1951 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-63).
Vienna (1951 - 1957) 120mm guns: undetermined.
Hunting Ridge (1951 - 1954) 120mm guns, (1957) 90mm guns: undetermined.
Langley (1957 - 1958) 120mm guns, (1951 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-72).
Fort Myer (1951 - 1958) 90mm guns (eight): on post (Washington Forest) (W-61).

NIKE missile defense sites are beyond the scope of this website.

Lorton NIKE Site state marker (W-64) (1954 - 1963)
Fairfax NIKE Site state marker (W-74) (1954 - 1963)
Great Falls NIKE Site state marker (W-83) (1955 - 1962)

(See also the DISTRICT of COLUMBIA and MARYLAND pages)


Northern Virginia I - page 1 | Central Virginia I - page 3 | Central Virginia II - page 4
Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6 | James River Area - page 7
Hampton Roads Area - page 8 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11

QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
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