Northern Virginia II

Redoubt "A" | Fort Albany | Alexandria Military Railroad Complex | Alexandria Quartermaster Depot
Camp Alger | Fort Ethan Allen | Camp Andrew | Aqueduct Bridge Gate | Camp Arlington
Arlington Line | Bailey's Crossroads Redoubt | Camp Banks | Fort Barnard | Camp Beckwith
Fort Bennett | Fort Berry | Fort Blencker | Blockhouse No. 1 | Blockhouse No. 2 | Blockhouse No. 3
Camp Briggs | Fort Buffalo | Camp California | Fort Cass | Contraband Barracks | Fort Corcoran
Fort Craig (1) | Camp Custis | Fort Dahlgren | Fort DeKalb | Camp Distribution (1) | Fort Ellsworth
Fort Farnsworth | Camp Franklin | Freedom Hill Fort | Battery Garesché | Camp Graham | Fort Haggerty
Fort Hunt | Fort Jackson (1) | Fort at Jones' Point | Camp Keyes | Fort Lyon | Fort McPherson
Fort Marcy | Camp Misery | Fort Morton (1) | Fort Munson | Fort Myer | Fort O'Rorke | Camp Ordway
Peach Grove Stockade | Camp Pierpont | Potomac River Fort | Fort Ramsay | Fort Reynolds
Fort Richardson (1) | Battery Rodgers | Fort Runyon | Fort Scott | Fort Baldy Smith | Fort C.F. Smith
Fort Strong | Fort Taylor | Fort Tillinghast | Fort Upton | Vienna Fort | Fort Ward | Fort Weed
Fort Whipple | Fort Willard | Fort Williams | Fort Woodbury | Fort Worth

Washington's Cold War AAA Defenses
(NOT INDEXED)

Northern Virginia I - page 1 | Central Virginia I - page 3 | Central Virginia II - page 4
Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6 | James River Area - page 7
Hampton Roads Area - page 8 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11

VIRGINIA CIVIL WAR TRAILS

Last Update: 01/NOVEMBER/2009
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2009 American Forts Network

Potomac River Fort
(1676 - 1682), Alexandria
A VA colonial militia blockhouse built by Capt. Peter Knight on John Mathew's land on Hunting Creek (Cameron Run) as a defense against the Susquehannock Indians to the north. Marker located in Belle Haven Park. (NOTE: what is known today as Hunting Creek was known as Little Hunting Creek then.)

Fort at Jones' Point
(Jones Point Park)
(1795), Alexandria
A Federal fort once located on Jones Point, it was never finished, and was reported abandoned and in ruins by 1807. Site is believed to be in Jones Point Park behind the old Jones Point Lighthouse (1856 - 1926). The area known as Battery Cove was infilled before WWI and became a private shipyard. The I-95 Woodrow Wilson Memorial Bridge was originally completed in 1961. The 52-acre park is owned by the National Park Service, managed by the city. State marker E-117 "Jones Point" approved but not yet erected (2008).
See also Archaeology at Jones Point from the Alexandria Archaeology Museum

Bailey's Crossroads Redoubt
(1861), Bailey's Crossroads
A CSA earthwork was located just northwest of town along Leesburg Pike. No remains.

Also of interest nearby: J.E.B. Stuart at Munson's Hill state marker || Mason's Hill state marker || Civil War Engagements state marker

Vienna Fort ? or ?
(1861 or 1862 ?), Vienna
The remains of a star-shaped earthwork are located near the V.F.W. Post on Center Street. It has not been determined whether this was a USA or CSA work (most probable), as it is not shown on most period maps.


Civil War Defenses of Alexandria and Washington
(NPS Historic Resources Study)
Washington, DC Civil War Defense System - FORT WIKI
(1861 - 1866), Northern Virginia
(See also MARYLAND and DISTRICT of COLUMBIA pages.)

City of Alexandria:
Fort Ward (park & museum), fifth largest of the forts surrounding Washington (815 yard perimeter), it had 24 guns in 1861, rebuilt and enlarged in 1864 with 36 guns (10 vacant platforms) mounted in five bastions. Construction on the star-shaped earthworks was not fully completed until one month after the war. The NW bastion was restored in 1964, and an Officer's Hut and Headquarters Building have been reconstructed. Located at 4301 West Braddock Road.
Fort Worth (28 guns, three vacant platforms) (no remains), located on Seminary Heights one and one-half miles west of Fort Ellsworth, and one and one-half miles south of Fort Reynolds. (463 yard perimeter)
Fort Williams (park) (15 guns) (no remains), located on Cooper's Hill between Forts Worth and Ellsworth, site of CSA General Samuel Cooper's house "Cameron", which was destroyed to build the fort. (250 yard perimeter)
Fort Ellsworth (20 guns, seven vacant platforms) (no remains), located on Shuter's Hill at King St. and Callahan Dr., on the grounds of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Temple. (618 yard perimeter)
Fort Dahlgren (1861 ?) (no remains), located adjacent to Fort Ellsworth, on the north face of Shuter's Hill facing King Street.
Blockhouse No. 1 (1864) (2 guns) southwest of Fort Ellsworth near Cameron Run.
Blockhouse No. 2 (1864) (two guns), located on Duke Street between Fort Williams and Fort Ellsworth.
Blockhouse No. 3 (1864), located near 3033 South Columbus Street, near King Street (VA 7) at I-395, between Fort Ward and Battery Garesché.
Battery Rodgers (1863 - 1869) (no remains), a six-gun coastal defense work (330 yard perimeter), and was the only work (along with Fort Whipple/Myer and Fort Foote in Maryland) that was retained after the war. It was located at the east end of Jefferson Street. Townhomes now occupy most of the site. Marker at Lee and Green Streets.

A five-gun battery (1864) was located at the "Old Distillery" southwest of Fort Ellsworth, between Blockhouse No. 1 and Blockhouse No. 2. Two batteries (15 guns total) were located between Fort Williams and Blockhouse No. 1. Two batteries (eight guns total) were located between Fort Williams and the Theological Seminary on Seminary Heights. A four-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Worth. Three batteries (24 guns total) were located between Forts Worth and Ward. A six-gun battery was located in front of Fort Ward. A six-gun battery was located to the left of Blockhouse No. 3.

A stockade and two blockhouses were built around the yard and machine shops of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, known during the war as the U.S. Military Railroad Complex, located in the area bounded by South Payne, South Alfred, Duke, and Gibbon Streets. The Quartermaster Depot and Government Wharves were stockaded, located in the area bounded by North Fairfax, North Union, Oronoco, and Queen Streets. A small blockhouse (1863) was built at the tollgate on the Hunting Creek (Cameron Run) bridge, located at Henry and Church Streets (now the I-95 and US 1 interchange). Gated palisades were erected across several streets in the city.

Camp Andrew (1861), established for Massachusetts troops.
Camp Banks (1862 - 1863), established for paroled and exchanged prisoners.
Camp Briggs (1863 - 1864), established for draftees.
Camp California (1861), located by the old Fairfax County Courthouse, established for western troops that served east.
Camp Franklin (1861), located on the grounds of the Theological Seminary on Seminary Heights.
Camp Keyes (1861), located on Upton's Hill.
Convalescent Camp (1) (1861), originally located on the northeast face and base of Shuter's Hill.
Camp Misery (1862 - 1865), originally called Convalescent Camp (2), established after 2nd Manassas for convalescents, stragglers, and recruits. It was later renamed Camp Distribution (1) in 1864 as General Grant's central supply depot for the 1864 campaigns.
Contraband Barracks, barracks for freed slaves and black soldiers, located at Prince and South West Street.

Arlington County:
Arlington Historical Society - Military Historic Sites
Fort Ethan Allen (park) (45 guns, four vacant platforms), a bastioned earthwork, portions still extant at Old Glebe and Military Roads. (736 yard perimeter) Several markers at site.
Fort C.F. Smith (park) (1863) (19 guns, six vacant platforms), located on Arlington Heights one mile west of Key Bridge, at North 24th Street and North 21st Road. (368 yard perimeter) Still extant. Several markers on site.
Fort Bennett (park) (five guns), an outwork of Fort Corcoran, located at North Quinn Street and North 21st Road. (146 yard perimeter) Marker on North 22nd Street.
Fort Strong (15 guns, two vacant platforms), originally named Fort DeKalb until 1863. Located at at Lee Highway and Wayne Street. (518 yard perimeter) Marker located on Lee Highway (US 29) at North Adams Street.
Fort Corcoran (five guns, five vacant platforms), a bastioned earthwork located at North Key Blvd. and North Ode Street. (576 yard perimeter) Marker at site.
Fort Haggerty (four guns), an outwork of Fort Corcoran, located on North Arlington Ridge Road between 19th Street and Wilson Blvd.. (128 yard perimeter) Marker on Wilson Blvd. at North Arlington Ridge Road.
Aqueduct Bridge Tête-du-Pont (1862), a fortified infantry post protecting the southern bridgehead of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal aqueduct across the Potomac River. There were also three small blockhouses here. The water was diverted from going over the aqueduct and the bridge served as a planked wagon road throughout the war (present-day Key Bridge - US 29).
Fort Morton (1) (six guns, four vacant platforms), near Fort Corcoran, on the grounds of present-day Key Elementary School near North 16th Street and North Custis Road. (250 yard perimeter)
Fort Woodbury (13 guns, one vacant platform), a lunette to the rear of the present-day Arlington County Courthouse. (275 yard perimeter) Marker on North Courthouse Road at North 14th Street.
Fort Whipple (1862 - 1867) (29 guns, 18 vacant platforms) a bastioned earthwork located in Arlington National Cemetery. (640 yard perimeter) No remains. Became a permanent post in 1872 and renamed Fort Myer in 1881 (see below). Marker located on Arlington Blvd. (US 50) at North Pershing Drive.
Fort Cass (13 guns, one vacant platform), a lunette located on what is now the Fort Myer Reservation, just south of North 10th Street and Wayne Street. (288 yard perimeter) Marker on Arlington Blvd. (US 50) at North 10th Street.
Fort Tillinghast (13 guns, one vacant platform), a lunette located at Arlington Blvd. (US 50) and North 2nd Street. (298 yard perimeter) Marker at site.
Fort McPherson (1864 - 1865), never completed, remnants located in Arlington National Cemetery.
Fort Craig (1) (12 guns, one vacant platform), a lunette located at South Courthouse Road and South 4th Street. (324 yard perimeter) Marker at site.
Fort Albany (eight guns, four vacant platforms), once located near South Arlington Ridge Road and South Nash Street, site now under Shirley Highway. (429 yard perimeter) Marker in Prospect Hill Park.
Fort Richardson (1) (14 guns, three vacant platforms), remnants located on the grounds of the Army-Navy Country Club golf course. (316 yard perimeter)
Fort Berry (1863) (four guns, six vacant platforms), located at South Monroe Street and South 17th Street. (215 yard perimeter) Marker on South Glebe Road (VA 120) at South Walter Reed Drive.
Fort Barnard (park) (19 guns, three vacant platforms), located at South Oxford Street and South 22nd Street. Remains of outer battery and rifle pits still exist. (250 yard perimeter) Marker on South Pollard Street at South Walter Reed Drive.
Fort Reynolds (park) (13 guns, one vacant platform), originally named Fort Blencker until 1863. Located on South 31st Street, east of South Woodrow Street. (300 yard perimeter) Marker at site.
Battery Garesché (eight guns), located near Fort Reynolds. (166 yard perimeter) Marker at South Abingdon Street at South 30th Road.
Fort Jackson (1), an unarmed tête-du-pont located at the south-end of 14th Street and Long Bridge. The gates were rebuilt in 1864, but the railroad had already cut through the work by then, reducing the effectiveness of the barrier. The present-day Long Bridge Park is adjacent to the fort site.
Fort Runyon, the largest of the bastioned earthworks (12 acres, 1484 yard perimeter), located about one-half mile southwest of Jefferson Davis Highway and Boundary Drive. Only two guns were listed as still mounted in 1865. Marker on Clark Street at Boundary Drive.
Fort Scott (park) (10 guns), a lunette, remnants still exist on Fort Scott Drive. (313 yard perimeter) Marker at site.

A six-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Barnard. Three batteries (10 guns total) were located between Forts Barnard and Richardson. Four batteries (22 guns total) were located between Forts Richardson and Craig. A three-gun battery was located in front of Fort Craig. Two batteries (10 guns total) were located between Forts Craig and Tillinghast. A four-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Whipple. Two batteries (12 guns total) were located between Forts Tillinghast and Cass. Two two-gun batteries and two six-gun batteries were located in front of Fort Ethan Allen. Two batteries (8 guns total) were located on the south-side of Hawkins Run, north of Fort Ethan Allen. An Arlington Line marker (1965) is located in the median on Wilson Blvd. at North Courthouse Road.

Camp Arlington (1861 - 1862), located at Arlington Heights.
Camp Custis, located on Arlington Plantation.
Camp Graham, a cavalry camp.

City of Falls Church:
Fort Taylor (park), located near East Broad and North Roosevelt Streets, near the old (William) Taylor's Tavern (1856).

Fairfax County:
Chain Bridge:
Fort Marcy (park - NPS) (20 guns, one vacant platform), originally named Fort Baldy Smith, located on the north side of Hawkins Run. (338 yard perimeter) Several markers on site.
See also Civil War Defenses of Washington entry from NPS

An eight-gun battery was located in front of Fort Marcy. A two-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Marcy.

near Tyson's Corner:
Freedom Hill Fort (park) (1864), located at 8531 Old Courthouse Road, near intersection with VA 123 in the Westbriar area.
Peach Grove Stockade (1864), north of Freedom Hill.

Seven Corners:
Fort Buffalo, located at US 50 and VA 7, now office and retail buildings since the 1950's. Marker erected in 2000 on Sleepy Hollow Road (Rt. 613) south of Leesburg Pike (VA 7).
Fort Ramsay, originally named Fort Upton in 1861. Located on the 1100 block of John Marshall Drive on Upton Hill.

A battery was located on Perkins Hill.

near Bailey's Crossroads:
Fort Munson (Munson Hill Park).
Lincoln Reviews Troops state marker

Huntington:
(considered a part of the Defenses of Alexandria)
Fort Lyon (38 guns) (no remains), located at James Drive and Kings Highway (937 yard perimeter). The magazine exploded in June 1863. Marker in commuter lot of the Huntington Ave. Metro Station.
Fort Farnsworth (1862) (10 guns, three vacant platforms), near Fort Lyon. (255 yard perimeter)
Fort Weed (1862) (11 guns, one vacant platform), originally named Redoubt A until 1863, located at Monticello Road and Fort Drive. Remnants still exist (?) (253 yard perimeter)
Fort O'Rorke (1863) (13 guns, three vacant platforms), located at Fort Drive and Park Place. (160 yard perimeter)
Fort Willard (park) (1862) (16 guns, two vacant platforms), still extant, located near the mouth of Hunting Creek (Cameron Run). (240 yard perimeter)
Defenses of Washington state marker on US 1.

A six-gun battery was located to the right of Fort Willard, and a five-gun battery was located to the left of Fort Willard. A six-gun battery was located to the left of Fort O'Rorke. A six-gun battery was located between Forts O'Rorke and Farnsworth. A six-gun battery was located between Fort Lyon and Hunting Creek (Cameron Run).

Lewinsville:
Camp Beckwith (1861 - 1864), a cavalry camp. Attacked by the Confederates in 1863.

Langley:
Camp Pierpont (1861), located 12 miles east of Dranesville.

Many of these sites are located in various parks; others were not preserved and have been built over with houses or condos.


Fort Myer (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1872 - present), Arlington County
Originally Fort Whipple (see above), it was enlarged and became a permanent post in 1872, renamed in 1881. Many of the present structures were built after 1895. Since 1908 the post has become the quarters of the Army Chief of Staff. Also in 1908 Orville Wright demonstrated his new airplane to the Army from the post parade ground. The post became a Regular Army mobilization center during the two world wars. There are no remains of the original Civil War work, which was located near Quarters No. 6 near Jackson and Grant Aves.. There were two four-gun 90mm AA batteries emplaced here in 1951 - 1957 (W-61). Of interest on post is the Old Guard Museum, in Building 249. See also History of Fort Myer from Arlington National Cemetery

Camp Russell A. Alger
(1898), Dunn Loring
A Spanish-American War training camp located west of Falls Church along the railroad, on the property once known as "Woodburn Manor".

Camp Ordway
(1916), Arlington County
A temporary encampment for Negro troops of the DC National Guard during the Mexican Border Crisis. Located at Radio, near Fort Myer.


¤ COAST DEFENSES of the POTOMAC RIVER (partial) (see also Fort Washington, MD)
Harbor Defense of the Potomac - FORT WIKI

¤ Fort Hunt (National Park)
(1898 - 1933, 1942 - 1946), near Mount Vernon
Located on Sheridan Point, it was a subpost of Fort Washington across the Potomac River. Endicott batteries include Battery Robinson (1901 - 1917), Battery Sater (1904 - 1920), Battery Porter (1901 - 1917), and Battery Mount Vernon (1898 - 1917). The U.S. Army Finance School was located here briefly in 1921 - 1923. Fort Hunt was reactivated and used as a military intelligence center and POW camp during World War II. A four-gun 120mm AA battery was here in 1951 - 1954. The park is administered by the National Park Service.


Cold War AAA Defenses of Washington
(1951 - 1958), Northern Virginia
Several permanent sites were established for the Army's Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) Gun Site Program, the precursor to the NIKE missile defense program. Four 90mm AA guns and/or four 120mm AA guns were positioned at each site, with troop barracks and other support buildings. Known sites include:
Fort Belvoir (1951 - 1958) 120mm guns: at Gum Springs.
Fort Hunt (1951 - 1954) 120mm guns: on post.
Hybla Valley (1953 - 1958) 120mm guns, (1951 - 1953, 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-51).
Franconia (1951 - 1954) 120mm guns: undetermined.
Annandale (1951 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-63).
Vienna (1951 - 1957) 120mm guns: undetermined.
Hunting Ridge (1951 - 1954) 120mm guns, (1957) 90mm guns: undetermined.
Langley (1957 - 1958) 120mm guns, (1951 - 1957) 90mm guns: undetermined (W-72).
Fort Myer (1951 - 1958) 90mm guns (eight): on post (Washington Forest) (W-61).

NIKE missile defense sites are beyond the scope of this website.

Lorton NIKE Site state marker (W-64) (1954 - 1963)
Fairfax NIKE Site state marker (W-74) (1954 - 1963)
Great Falls NIKE Site state marker (W-83) (1955 - 1962)

(See also the DISTRICT of COLUMBIA and MARYLAND pages)


Northern Virginia I - page 1 | Central Virginia I - page 3 | Central Virginia II - page 4
Richmond Area - page 5 | Tidewater Virginia - page 6 | James River Area - page 7
Hampton Roads Area - page 8 | Northwestern Virginia - page 9 | Southwestern Virginia - page 10
Eastern Shore - page 11

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