Fort Baker |
Baker's Station |
Baldwin's Blockhouse |
Fort Baldwin |
Beech's Fort |
Beech Bottom Fort
Beeler's Station | Camp Belington | Beverly Defenses | Bowling's Fort | Brady's Blockhouse | Bridge Fort
Fort Buckhannon | Burris' Fort | Bush's Fort | Fort Bush | Butler's Fort | Camp Carlisle | Cassino's Fort (1)
Chapman's Fort | Clark's Fort/Station | Clarksburg Earthworks | Cobun's Fort | Collier's Fort | Coon's Fort (1)
J. Coon's Fort | Court House Fort | Cox's Fort (2) | Cresap's Bottom Blockhouse | Fort Cresap
Cross Creek Blockhouse | Davisson's Fort | Decker's Fort | Fort Dinwiddie | Edington's Fort | Edgington's Fort
Edwards's Fort (2) | Fort Fincastle | Flesher's Fort/Station | Friend's Fort | Fort Gaddis | Camp Garnett
Grave Creek Blockhouse | Harbert's Fort | Harrison's Fort | Fort Henry | Holliday's Fort | R. Jackson's Fort
Jackson's Fort (2) | Kerns' Fort | Camp Laurel Hill | Fort Liberty | Link's Fort | Lowther's Fort
McIntire's Blockhouse | C. Martin's Fort | P. Martin's Fort | Martin's Fort (2) | Meadowville Fort
Metz Blockhouse | Minear's Fort | Morgan's Fort | R. Morris' Fort | Fort New Salem | Nutter's Fort
Fort Paw Paw | Camp Pegram | Pierpont's Fort | Powers' Fort | Prickett's Fort | Ramsey's Fort | Richards' Fort
Rogers' Fort | Fort Rogers | Round Bottom Blockhouse | Sappington's Fort | D. Shepherd's Fort
Spark's Fort | Stadler's Fort | Statler's Fort | Stewart's Fort | Tomlinson's Fort | J. VanMeter's Fort
Wayne's Blockhouse | R. Wells' Fort (1) | Wells' Station (2) | Westfall's Fort (1) | G. Westfall's Fort
J. Westfall's Fort | West's Fort | Fort West | West Fork Fort | Wetzel's Fort | Wheeling Creek Stockade
Whortem's Station | Camp Willey | B. Wilson's Fort | Zane's Fort
Eastern West Virginia - page 2 | Southern West Virginia - page 3
VIRGINIA FRONTIER DEFENSES 1719 - 1795
WEST VIRGINIA IN THE CIVIL WAR
George Chapman's Fort
(1784 - unknown), New Cumberland
A settlers' blockhouse. Built by George and William, brothers.
John Holliday's Fort
(1776 - 1790's), Hollidays Cove
A settlers' fort used as a Patriot supply depot during the 1777 British attack on Fort Henry. Accidently burned down in 1781 and later rebuilt. It was still in use in 1793.
(1782 - unknown), near Weirton
A settlers' fort located about two miles southeast of town, where Sappington's Run meets Harmon's Creek.
George Edgington's Fort
(1774 - 1780's), near Weirton Junction
A settlers' fortified brick house located at the mouth of Harmon's Creek. Also spelled Edington. The family abandoned the area for safety in Pennsylvania.
(1771 - unknown), Colliers
A settlers' station.
Richard Wells' Fort
(1773 - 1780's), near Colliers
A settlers' stockaded fort located on a ridge between Cross Creek and Harmon's Creek. It was never attacked by Indians due to Wells' good nature towards them.
Cross Creek Blockhouse
(1777 - unknown), near Wellsburg
A settlers' blockhouse located at the mouth of Cross Creek. It was still in use in 1791.
Cox's Fort (2)
(1786 - unknown), Brooke County
A settlers' stockaded home.
John Decker's Fort
(1774 - unknown), Follansbee
A settlers' log and stone blockhouse. Site located at the public playground on Main Street north of State Street.
(1770's), near Wellsburg
A settlers' blockhouse.
Wells' Station (2)
(1790 - unknown), Wellsburg
A settlers' station. The town was originally called Charlestown.
Beech Bottom Fort
(1772 - 1789), Beech Bottom
A stockaded blockhouse for area settlers. Possibly also named Fort Gaddis.
(1781 - unknown), near Bethany
A settlers' fort located north of present-day Bethany College.
Coon's Fort (1)
(1770's), near Bethany
A settlers' blockhouse located just east of present-day Bethany College (1818).
(1770's - unknown), West Liberty
A settlers' blockhouse during the American Revolution. It was later used as the county courthouse, and was known as the Court House Fort (1777).
John VanMeter's Fort
(1774 - 1780's), Clinton
A settlers' fortified cabin first built in 1768, located on the north-side of Short Creek five miles up from the Ohio River. It was constantly enlarged and became the second largest fortified enclosure in West Virginia. At one time more people were taking refuge here than at Fort Henry. The British and Indians attempted to take the fort on several occasions. It was later used as the first courthouse of Ohio County.
(1770's), near Wheeling
A settlers' fort located somewhere north of Wheeling.
Wheeling Creek Stockade
(1771 - 1780's), Wheeling
Also known as Ebenezer Zane's Fort, the founder of the city. The stockade was dismantled when Fort Fincastle/Henry was built, but the blockhouse survived many years, and was still used to store military supplies for Fort Henry. Site located at about 1100 Main Street.
(1774 - 1784), Wheeling ¤ WVA Archives Image ¤
Originally known as Fort Fincastle until 1776. It was attacked by Shawnee Indians in 1774 and was almost destroyed. There was no garrison in 1775. The fort enclosed one-half acre, with log barracks, storehouse, cabins, and a well. Attacked in September 1777 by Indians under Simon Girty. British and Indians again unsuccessfully attacked in September 1782, which is sometimes considered the last battle of the American Revolution. It was dismantled after the Indian threat was thought to be over, although parts remained standing until 1808. Site located on the west side of Main Street between 11th and 10th Streets. See also The Fort Henry Story from Ohio County Public Library
General Anthony Wayne ordered a blockhouse (Gen. Wayne's Blockhouse) built in this vicinity (1793 - 1795) to guard his rear supply line as the Army journeyed into Ohio. It was dismantled after the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
(1861 - 1864), Wheeling Island
A Union training camp located at Zane and North Wabash Streets. Later renamed Camp Willey.
Capt. David Shepherd's Fort
(1775 - 1777, 1786 - 1790's), Elm Grove
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse located at the Forks of Wheeling Creek. It was attacked and destroyed by Indians in 1777, rebuilt in 1786 as a palisaded complex of four blockhouses, and rebuilt again in 1790. Shepherd Hall was built on the site in 1798.
(1780 - unknown), Triadelphia
A settlers' blockhouse located on Middle Wheeling Creek. Built by either Jonathan or Jacob Link. Attacked by Indians in 1781.
Henry Clark's Fort
(1771 - unknown), near Sherrard
A settlers' palisaded fort/station with four cabins, located at "Pleasant Hill" (undetermined location). Also known as Clark's Station.
John Wetzel's Fort
(1769 - 1780's), near Limestone
A settlers' stockaded fort located on Wheeling Creek between Sand Hill and Limestone. John was killed in 1787 at Baker's Station.
(1785 - unknown), near Majorsville, PA
A settlers' station located just west of the state border on Whetstone Run.
Joseph Tomlinson's Fort
(1773 - 1777), Moundsville
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse, originally built in 1770, located just north of the present-day railroad station and Grave Creek Indian Mound. After it was abandoned in 1777, after a nearby battle, it was burned down by Indians. In 1784 Tomlinson returned and rebuilt his home.
Grave Creek Blockhouse
(1777 - unknown), Moundsville
A settlers' blockhouse. Possibly the same as Tomlinson's Fort listed above.
Round Bottom Blockhouse
(1777 - unknown), near Moundsville
A settlers' blockhouse located in the "horseshoe" bend of the Ohio River between Moundsville and McKeffrey.
Col. Joseph Beeler's Station
(1779 - unknown), Beeler's Station
A settlers' stockaded defense. Garrisoned by the state militia in 1781. Attacked by Indians in 1782.
(NOTE: the WVA state marker says "George" Beeler.)
Blockhouse at Cresap's Bottom
(1777 - unknown, 1782 - 1787), near Cresap
A settlers' blockhouse located three miles downriver from present-day McKeffrey. Also known as Fort Cresap.
Capt. William (or John) Baker's Station (aka Fort Baker), a stockade with blockhouses, was built here in 1782 or 1784. Attacked by Indians in 1787. William Baker was killed by Indians in 1787.
Presley Martin's Fort
A settlers' stockade located at the mouth of Fish(ing) Creek, built sometime before 1793.
Martin's Fort (2)
(1770's - unknown), New Martinsville
A settlers' blockhouse built before 1780.
(1770 - 1775), Blacksville
A settlers' blockhouse. Also known as Fort Baldwin.
John Statler's Fort
(1770 - 1794), near Blacksville
A settlers' stockaded fort located on Dunkard Creek. Also spelled Stadler. Attacked by Indians in June 1779. From 1794 to 1850 the former home was used as a school and church.
Richard Harrison's Fort
(1780's), near Bowlby
A settlers' stockaded two-story log home, located near the head of Crooked Run on the state line.
Col. Charles Martin's Fort
(1769 or 1773 - unknown), Fort Martin
A settlers' fort located on Crooked Run about four miles northeast of Maidsville on Route 53. It was attacked by Indians in June 1779, killing ten settlers.
(1772 - 1780's), Stewartstown
A large VA colonial militia fort. Also known as Fort Rogers or Jacob (or John ?) Rogers' Fort. Still in use during the American Revolution. Site located by the Forks of Cheat Baptist Church.
John Pierpont's Fort
(1769 - unknown), Easton/Pierpont
A settlers' fort located one mile from town.
Col. Zackwell Morgan's Fort
(1767 or 1772 - unknown), Morgantown
A settlers' fort located at the mouth of Decker's Creek. Zackwell is also spelled Zackquill.
Michael Kerns' Fort
(1772 - unknown), Morgantown
A settlers' stockade located near the mouth of Decker's Creek. Site at 305 Dewey Street.
(1774 - unknown), Morgantown
A settlers' blockhouse. Located at Burroughs and Windsor Streets, now Summers Masonic Lodge.
Jonathan Cobun's Fort ?
(1770 - unknown), Morgantown
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse located near Dorsey's Knob on Cobun Creek.
John Stewart's Fort
(1773 - unknown), near Hagans
A settlers' blockhouse located on Stewart Run east of town.
Metz Blockhouse ?
(1773 - unknown), Metz
A settlers' blockhouse. Most likely named after a "Metz" family member, not simply the town name.
Cassino's Fort (1)
(1759 - unknown), Marion County
A settlers' fort located on Cassino Creek.
Fort Paw Paw
A VA state miltia 90-foot square stockade located on Paw Paw Creek.
Jacob Prickett's Fort (State Park)
(1774 - 1800), Mt. Harmony
A settlers' stockaded fort with four blockhouses and ten cabins, located at the mouth of Prickett's Creek. A 1976 reconstruction of the fort and later brick home. Admission fee.
Joseph Coon's Fort
(1777 - 1780's), Marion or Harrison County
A settlers' palisaded two-story blockhouse located either on the West Fork River near Enterprise, or on Coon's Run three miles from the West Fork River near Killarm. It was attacked by Indians several times.
John McIntire's Blockhouse
(1773 - unknown), Enterprise
A settlers' blockhouse.
Fort New Salem
(1792 - 1801), Salem
A reconstructed (1974) living history frontier settlement, with a stockade fort and blockhouse, consisting of 18 original period log cabins and barns relocated from other areas. Located on the Salem International University campus. The original settlement (1792) was probably fortified. More Info from the Council of Independent Colleges: Historic Campus Architecture Project
Richard Jackson's Fort
(1774 - unknown), near Sardis
A settlers' stockaded fort located on Ten Mile Creek. Indians attacked here or nearby in 1778 and 1779.
Thomas Harbert's Fort
(1775 - unknown), near Lumberport
A settlers' blockhouse located on Jones Creek (Run) about two miles from town. Attacked by Indians in 1778. Later used as a barn.
Daniel Davisson's Fort
(1773 - unknown), Clarksburg
A settlers' blockhouse located at present-day Chestnut and Pike Streets.
Union earthworks still remain in good condition, located in Lowndes Hill Park.
Thomas Nutter's Fort
(1772 - 1790's), Nutter Fort
A settlers' stockaded fort located on the east-side of Elk Creek. Matthew and Christopher Nutter, brothers to Thomas, also settled here. Used by the VA state militia 1776 - 1780. Marker located at the West Virginia Business College.
(1774 - 1780's), Bridgeport
A settlers' fort on Simpson Creek, with access provided by a log pontoon bridge over the creek, hence the name. Site located on Davis Street. This may have been John Powers' Fort (1771), or another site. The town was originally named Bridge Fort, but was mis-spelled on an early map.
Edwards' Fort (2)
(1770's), near Boothsville
A settlers' fort located five miles south of town.
Arnold Richards' Fort
(1774 - 1780's), West Milford
A settlers' fort located one-half mile southeast of town. Also known as Col. William Lowther's Fort or West Fork Fort when used by the VA state militia 1776 - 1780.
Edmund West's Fort
(1770 - 1779), Jane Lew
A settlers' stockaded fort located on Hacker's Creek. Used by the VA state militia 1776 - 1779, known as Fort West. Indians burned the fort and the settlers fled. Some later returned and built Beech's Fort (1780 - 1793) one-half mile downstream.
Henry Flesher's Fort
(1776 - unknown), Weston
A settlers' blockhouse located at present-day Main and Second Streets. Also known as Flesher's Station. Attacked by Indians in 1784. The town was originally named Flesherville.
(1770's - 1782), Red Rock
A settlers' defense during the American Revolution, it was attacked and destroyed by Indians under Timothy Dorman in 1782. Jackson's Fort (2), a settlers' blockhouse, was located here or nearby on Fink Run, possibly the same fort.
John Bush's Fort
(1773 - 1782), near Buckhannon
A settlers' fort located just south of the mouth of Turkey Run on the Buckhannon River. Renamed Fort Bush during the American Revolution when garrisoned by local militia. It was destroyed by Indians. Located adjacent to Heavener Cemetery.
Camp Laurel Hill
A CSA fortified camp located east of town at the Mill Creek Reservoir. Abandoned in July 1861 after Camp Garnett fell to the Union. A marker locates extant trenches.
A Union fortified camp located two miles west of town. A marker locates the site on County Route 11.
(1784), near Belington
A settlers' fort located a few miles north of town.
Richard Morris' Fort
(1774 - unknown), near Hazelton
A settlers' stockade with several cabins, located on Hog Run west of town, a branch of Sandy Creek. Also known as Hog Run Stockade. Monument erected 1915.
Thomas Butler's Fort
(1774 - unknown), Ruthbelle
A settlers' fort located at the mouth of Roaring Creek.
John Minear's Fort
(1776 - 1781), St. George
A settlers' fort located on the east-side of the Cheat River. It came under Indian attack in 1780 and 1781.
Jonas Friend's Fort
(1772 - unknown), near Elkins
A settlers' fort located at "Maxwell's Ferry" on Leading Creek. It was attacked by Indians in 1781.
Col. Benjamin Wilson's Fort
(1774 - unknown), near Midland
A settlers' fort located about one-half mile above the mouth of Chenoweth Creek on the Tygart Valley River. It was still in use in 1782. A monument marks the site, located about two miles south of Elkins.
(1784 - unknown), Randolph County
A settlers' fort. Unknown location.
Jacob Westfall's Fort
(1774 - unknown), Beverly
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse located 1/4 mile south of town on Files Creek. Used at times (after 1777) by the VA state militia. Attacked by Indians in 1782.
George Westfall's Fort
(1774 - unknown), Beverly
A settlers' fort. Most likely from the same family as Jacob (above).
Civil War Defenses of Beverly
(Rich Mountain Battlefield)
(1861 - 1865), Beverly
CSA Camp Garnett (1861) was a fortified camp on the west-side of Rich Mountain. Possibly also known as Camp Pegram. Attacked by Union forces in July 1861. Union earthworks (1861 - 1865) are located in town on Mount Iser by the water tower, on Ward's Hill, and also at Burnt Bridge near Ellamore. Captured by CSA forces in January 1865. A visitors' center is located in town.
Special thanks to Jim Geisler for information on the early settlement blockhouses and stations of old western Virginia.
NEED MORE INFO: Samuel Brady's Blockhouse (1784) at mouth of Indian Creek (probable locations include Everettville on the Monongahela River in Monongalia County; near Pinch on the Elk River in Kanahwa County; near Indian Mills on the New River in Summers County; or some other location).
Westfall's Fort (1) (1759) on Westfall Creek (location ?).
ALSO: Fort Knob near Daybrook, Monongalia County; Fort Hill at Burning Springs, Wirt County.
Towns: Fort Grand in Monongalia County
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
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