Fort Baker |
W. Baker's Station |
J. Baker's Trade Post |
Baldwin's Blockhouse |
Beech's Fort | Beech Bottom Fort | Beeler's Station | Camp Belington | Beverly Defenses
Black's Cabin | Bolling's Fort | Bowling's Fort | Brady's Blockhouse | Bridge Fort
Fort Buckhannon | Burris' Fort | Bush's Fort | Fort Bush | Butler's Fort | Camp Carlile
Cassino's Fort (1) | Fort Cassino (2) | Chapman's Fort | Clark's Fort/Station
Clarksburg Defenses | Cobun's Fort | Collier's Fort | Coon's Fort (1) | J. Coon's Fort
Court House Fort | R. Cox's Fort/Station | Cresap's Bottom Blockhouse | Fort Cresap
Cross Creek Blockhouse | Currence's Fort | Dague-Whetzel Blockhouse | Davisson's Fort
Decker's Fort | Fort Dinwiddie | Edington's Fort | Edgington's Fort | Edwards's Fort (2)
Camp Elkwater | Enlow's Station | Fort Fincastle | Flesher's Fort/Station | Friend's Fort
Fort Gaddis | Camp Garnett | Grave Creek Blockhouse | Greathouse's Blockhouse
Griffith's Stone House | Haddan's Fort | Hadden's Fort (1) | J. Hadden's Fort
Harbert's Fort | Harrison's Fort | Fort Henry | Himes' Blockhouse | Holliday's Fort
R. Jackson's Fort | Jackson's Fort (2) | Kerns' Fort | Camp Laurel Hill | Fort Liberty
Link's Fort | Camp Logan | Lowther's Fort | McGuire's Fort | McIntire's Blockhouse
Fort Marrow | C. Martin's Fort | P. Martin's Fort | Martin's Fort (2) | Meadowville Fort
Meighen Blockhouse | Metz Blockhouse | Minear's Fort | Morgan's Fort | R. Morris' Fort
Nessly's Blockhouse | Fort New Salem | Nutter's Fort | Fort Paw Paw | Camp Pegram
Pierpont's Fort | Powers' Fort | Prickett's Fort | Rail's Fort | Ramsey's Fort | Richards' Fort
Rogers' Fort | Fort Rogers | Roney's Fort | Round Bottom Blockhouse | Sappington's Fort
D. Shepherd's Fort | Sockman's Fort | Spark's Fort | Stadler's Fort | Statler's Fort | Stewart's Fort
Tomlinson's Fort | J. VanMeter's Fort | VanMeter's Fort (2) | James Warwick's Fort
Wayne's Blockhouse | R. Wells' Fort | Wells' Fort (1) | Wells' Station (2) | Westfall's Fort (1)
G. Westfall's Fort | J. Westfall's Fort | West's Fort | Fort West | West Fork Blockhouse (2)
West Fork Fort (1) | Weston Post | Wetzel's Fort | Wheeling Creek Stockade
Whortem's Station | Whorton's Station | Camp Willey | B. Wilson's Fort | Zane's Fort
Eastern West Virginia - page 2 | Southern West Virginia - page 3
VIRGINIA FRONTIER DEFENSES 1719 - 1795
WEST VIRGINIA IN THE CIVIL WAR
Daniel Greathouse's Blockhouse
(1770 ? - unknown), Newell
A settlers' blockhouse. Greathouse was among the party that killed Chief Logan's family in 1774. In 1778 Logan killed Samuel Muchmore here.
Joshua Baker's Trade Post
A settlers' trading post and tavern at "Baker's Bottom". It was probably "fortified" in some fashion. Area settlers attacked Mingo chief John Logan and his family here in April 1774, just prior to Dunmore's War. Site is now the present Mountaineer Race Track and Resort.
A Pennsylvania state militia blockhouse was supposedly located here "at the mouth of Yellow Creek" in 1791, but most likely refers to the west bank of the Ohio River at Yellow Creek, Ohio. At that time the Virginia state militia did not patrol the river north of the Holliday's Cove settlement at present Weirton.
Jacob Nessly's Blockhouse
(1785 - unknown), near Moscow
A settlers' blockhouse, gristmill, and blacksmith shop located just north of the mouth of Tomlinson Run. Nessly Chapel was built on the property in 1794, located on WV 2.
Capt. George Chapman's Fort
(1784 - unknown), New Cumberland
A settlers' blockhouse. Built by George and William, brothers. Chapman died in 1812. Marker located on Ridge Ave..
Griffith's Stone House
(1793 - unknown), Weirton
A settlers' stone house used for protection against renewed Indian attacks along the Ohio River. It was torn down in 1932, located at the site of the old Jimmy Carey football stadium (1945) at 2900 Elm Street, just below Williams Country Club on Marland Heights. A new industrial plant was built here in 2016.
John Holliday's Fort
(1776 - 1790's), Hollidays Cove
A town fort used as a Patriot supply depot during the 1777 British attack on Fort Henry. Accidently burned down in 1781 (not attacked), rebuilt in 1782. It was still in use in 1793. The main blockhouse was finally torn down in 1890, located at present 619 Cove Road, near Overbrook Drive. Holliday had built an inn in 1777 adjacent to the fort, which was located at present 611 Cove Road. Harmon's Creek, or at least this stretch of it, was also known as Croxton's Run in 1792.
(1782 - unknown), near Weirton
A settlers' fort located about two miles southeast of town, in present Brooke County, where Sappington's Run flows into Harmon's Creek. Site near present Harmon Creek Road and Worthington Lane, just south of US 22.
George Edgington's Fort
(1774 - 1790's), near Weirton Junction
A settlers' fortified brick house located just above the mouth of Harmon's Creek, at "Williams' Rock". Also spelled Edington. The family abandoned the area in the 1782 for safety in Pennsylvania after the father was kidnapped by Indians and Simon Girty. Virginia state militia were posted here in 1792, possibly building a new blockhouse on the property. Edgington obtained a land grant on Harmon's Creek in 1798. Site located at the present-day city waste water treatment plant on Freedom Way in the Half Moon Industrial Park.
Collier's Fort ?
(1771 - unknown), Colliers
A settlers' station.
Richard "Graybeard" Wells' Fort
(1773 - 1780's), near Colliers
A settlers' stockaded fort located on a ridge between Cross Creek and Harmon's Creek, along Eldersville Road. It was never attacked by Indians reportedly due to Wells' good nature towards them. Troops under Col. William Crawford rendezvoused here in 1782 on their way to Mingo Bottom. The first school for the area was held here in 1777.
John Decker's Fort
(1774 - unknown), Follansbee
A settlers' log and stone blockhouse. Decker was killed by Indians in 1795. Site marked at the public playground on Main Street, north of State Street.
Cross Creek Blockhouse
(1777 - 1790's), near Wellsburg
A settlers' blockhouse located at the mouth of Cross Creek. It was still in use in 1791.
(1770's), Brooke County
A settlers' fort located somewhere north of Wheeling. Also spelled Bolling. Garrisoned by Virginia militia in 1777.
Thomas McGuire's Fort
(1770's), near Scott Run (?)
A settlers' stockaded fort located on the north side of Cross Creek several miles upstream from its mouth. Twenty men were posted here in August 1777.
Capt. Ruben Cox's Fort (Station)
(1777 - unknown), near Wellsburg
A settlers' stockaded home located on the Ohio River bottomland about one mile north of the mouth of Buffalo Creek. Garrisoned by Patriot troops from Fort Pitt, PA in the spring of 1777. Garrisoned by local militia in the fall of 1786 who provided meat and produce to other troops then building Fort Steuben in Ohio. Ruben was the father to Gabriel, who had his own fort in western Pennsylvania. Ruben was also father to Isaac, who commanded Patriot troops at John Holliday's Fort in 1776.
Wells' Station (2)
(1790 - unknown), Wellsburg
A settlers' station at the mouth of Buffalo Creek. The town was originally called Charlestown.
Beech Bottom Fort ?
(1772 (?) - 1789), Beech Bottom
A stockaded blockhouse for area settlers, possibly about 25-feet square. Possibly also named Fort Gaddis. The 1772 date given by historical sources is probably in error (too early according to one author). Garrisoned by VA militia troops in March 1777. Patriot troops from Fort Pitt, PA were posted here in the fall of 1777. The Glass family took refuge here in March 1789 after an Indian attack. The blockhouse was said to have been destroyed by fire in 1917.
(1770's), Brooke County
A settlers' fort located somewhere on Buffalo Creek. Garrisoned by the local militia.
(1770's), near Bethany
A settlers' blockhouse located on Buffalo Creek about six miles upstream from its mouth. Virginia militia troops were posted here in 1777. The blockhouse was still in active use in late 1780.
Coon's Fort (1)
(1770's), near Bethany
A settlers' blockhouse located just east of present-day Bethany College (1818).
Capt. William Spark's Fort
(1781 - unknown), Short Creek
A settlers' fortified log cabin located at the mouth of Short Creek on the George Sparks land claim. It was built a few weeks before the fire that destroyed Holliday's Fort.
John VanMeter's Fort
(1774 - 1780's), Short Creek
A settlers' stockaded cabin (first built in 1768) located near the mouth of Short Creek. It was constantly enlarged and became the second largest fortified enclosure in West Virginia. At one time more people were taking refuge here than at Fort Henry. The British and Indians attempted to take the fort on several occasions.
(1776 - 1782), West Liberty
A settlers' blockhouse (Black's Cabin) located on North Fork Short Creek about five miles from the Ohio River. It was later used as the first courthouse of Ohio County, and was known as the Court House Fort (1777). Garrisoned by state militia troops after 1777. (NOTE: there was also another Fort Liberty in present Fayette County, PA at the same time.)
Wheeling Creek Stockade
(1771 - 1780's), Wheeling
Also known as Ebenezer Zane's Fort, the founder of the city. The stockade was dismantled when Fort Fincastle/Henry was built, but the blockhouse survived many years, and was still used to store military supplies for Fort Henry. Site located at or near 1100 Main Street.
(1774 - 1784/1791), Wheeling
A Virginia colonial militia fort originally known as Fort Fincastle until 1776. It was attacked by Shawnee Indians in 1774 and was almost destroyed. There was no garrison in 1775. The fort enclosed one-half acre, with log barracks, storehouse, cabins, and a well. Attacked in September 1777 by Indians under Simon Girty. British and Indians again unsuccessfully attacked in September 1782, which is sometimes considered the last battle of the American Revolution. It was dismantled after the Indian threat was thought to be over, although parts remained standing until 1808. Site located on the west side of Main Street between 11th and 10th Streets.
See also The Fort Henry Story from Ohio County Public Library || The West Virginia Encyclopedia
General Anthony Wayne ordered a blockhouse (Gen. Wayne's Blockhouse) built in this vicinity (1793 - 1795) to guard his rear supply line as the Army journeyed into Ohio. It was dismantled after the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
(1861 - 1864), Wheeling Island
A Union recruitment and training camp located at Zane and North Wabash Streets. Originally named Camp Logan. Later renamed Camp Willey.
(NOTE: the state marker and some other sources spell the name as "Carlisle", which is in error.)
Capt. David Shepherd's Fort
(1775 - 1777, 1781, 1786 - 1790's), Elm Grove
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse and gristmill located at the Forks of Wheeling Creek. It was attacked and destroyed by Indians in September 1777, after the attack on Fort Henry, but leaving the mill intact. The mill was "fortified" in January 1781 and garrisoned by militia troops. The main fort was rebuilt in 1786 as a palisaded complex of four blockhouses, and rebuilt again in 1790. Shepherd Hall was built by son Moses on the site in 1798.
(1780 - unknown), Triadelphia
A settlers' blockhouse located on Middle Wheeling Creek. Built by either Jonathan or Jacob Link. Attacked by Indians in 1781.
Henry Clark's Fort
(1771 - unknown), near Sherrard
A settlers' palisaded fort/station with four cabins, located on Pleasant Hill (location ?). Also known as Clark's Station. Possibly not built until as late as 1784.
John Wetzel's Fort
(1769 - 1780's), near Sand Hill
A settlers' stockaded fort located on Wheeling Creek southwest of town. John was killed in 1787 at Baker's Station. Possibly also known as VanMeter's Fort (2).
Dague - Whetzel Blockhouse ? ?
(unknown date), near Viola ?
A settlers' blockhouse located along Wheeling Creek and County Road 15.
(1785 - unknown), near Majorsville, PA
A settlers' station located just west of the state border on Whetstone Run. Also spelled Whorton. Possibly also known as Enlow's Blockhouse.
Joseph Tomlinson's Fort
(1773 - 1777), Moundsville
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse (first built in 1770 or 1771) located just north of the present-day railroad station and Grave Creek Indian Mound. After it was abandoned in 1777, after the battle at Fort Henry, it was burned down by Indians. In 1784 Tomlinson returned and rebuilt his home.
Grave Creek Blockhouse
(1777 - unknown), Moundsville
A settlers' blockhouse at Grave Creek Flats. Possibly the same as Tomlinson's Fort listed above.
Wells' Fort (1) ? ?
(unknown date), near Moundsville
A settlers' fort located somewhere on Middle Grave Creek.
Round Bottom Blockhouse
(1777 - unknown), near Moundsville
A settlers' blockhouse located in the "horseshoe" bend of the Ohio River between Moundsville and McKeffrey.
Col. Joseph Beeler's Station
(1779 - unknown), Beeler's Station
A settlers' stockaded defense. Garrisoned by the state militia in 1781. Attacked by Indians in 1782.
(NOTE: the WVA state marker says "George" Beeler.)
Blockhouse at Cresap's Bottom
(1777 - unknown, 1784 - 1787), near Cresap
A settlers' blockhouse located three miles downriver from present-day McKeffrey. Also known as Fort Cresap.
Capt. William (or John ?) Baker's Station (aka Fort Baker), a stockade with blockhouses, was built here in 1784. Attacked by Indians in 1787. William Baker was killed by Indians in 1787.
Presley Martin's Fort
A settlers' stockade located at or near the mouth of Fish(ing) Creek, built sometime before 1793.
(1784 - unknown), Cameron
A settlers' blockhouse.
Meighen Blockhouse ? ?
(unknown date), Meighen
An unnamed settlers' blockhouse was located here.
Sockman's Fort ? ?
(unknown date), Adaline
A settlers' fort.
Martin's Fort (2)
(1770's - unknown), New Martinsville
A settlers' blockhouse built before 1780.
(1770 - 1775), Blacksville
A settlers' blockhouse. Also known as Fort Baldwin.
John Statler's Fort
(1770 - 1794), near Blacksville
A settlers' stockaded fort located on Dunkard Creek. Also spelled Stadler. Attacked by Indians in June 1779. From 1794 to 1850 the former home was used as a school and church.
Richard Harrison's Fort
(1780's), near Bowlby
A settlers' stockaded two-story log home, located near the head of Crooked Run on the state line.
Col. Charles Martin's Fort
(1773 - unknown), Fort Martin
A settlers' fort located on Crooked Run about four miles northeast of Maidsville on County Route 53. It was attacked by Indians in June 1779, killing ten settlers. Martin settled here in 1768.
(1772 - 1780's), Stewartstown
A large VA colonial militia fort. Also known as Fort Rogers or Jacob (or John ?) Rogers' Fort. Still in use during the American Revolution. Site located by the Forks of Cheat Baptist Church.
John Pierpont's Fort
(1769 - unknown), Easton/Pierpont
A settlers' fort located one mile from town.
Col. Zackwell Morgan's Fort
(1772 - unknown), Morgantown
A settlers' fort located at the mouth of Decker's Creek. Zackwell is also spelled Zackquill in some documents.
Michael Kerns' Fort
(1772 - unknown), Morgantown
A settlers' stockade located on the west side of the Monongahela River, opposite the mouth of Decker's Creek. Site at 305 Dewey Street.
(1774 - unknown), Morgantown
A settlers' blockhouse. Site located at Burroughs and Windsor Streets, now Summers Masonic Lodge.
Jonathan Cobun's Fort
(1770 - unknown), near Morgantown
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse located near Dorsey's Knob on Cobun Creek.
John Stewart's Fort
(1773 - unknown), near Hagans
A settlers' blockhouse located on Stewart Run east of town, on a ridge between two ravines.
Metz Blockhouse ?
(1773 - unknown), Metz
An unnamed settlers' blockhouse. Possibly built by the Metz family who settled here.
Cassino's Fort (1)
(1759 - unknown), Marion County
A settlers' fort located on Cassino Creek.
Fort Paw Paw
A VA state miltia 90-foot square stockade located on Paw Paw Creek.
Jacob Prickett's Fort (State Park)
(1774 - 1800), Mt. Harmony
A settlers' stockaded fort with four blockhouses and several interior cabins, located at the mouth of Prickett's Creek. A 1976 conjectural reconstruction of the fort and restored brick homestead (1859). Admission fee. See also The Encyclopedia of West Virginia
Joseph Coon's Fort
(1777 - 1780's), Harrison or Marion County
A settlers' palisaded two-story blockhouse located either on the West Fork River near Enterprise, or on Coon's Run three miles from the West Fork River near Killarm. It was attacked by Indians several times.
John McIntire's Blockhouse
(1773 - unknown), Enterprise
A settlers' blockhouse.
Fort New Salem
(1792 - 1801), Salem
A reconstructed (1974) living history frontier settlement, with a stockade fort and blockhouse, consisting of 18 original period log cabins and barns relocated from other areas. Located on the Salem International University campus. Ownership transferred in 2005 to the Fort New Salem Foundation. The original settlement (1792) was probably fortified. See also Historic Campus Architecture Project from the Council of Independent Colleges
Richard Jackson's Fort
(1774 - unknown), near Sardis
A settlers' stockaded fort located on Ten Mile Creek. Indians attacked here or nearby in 1778 and 1779.
Thomas Harbert's Fort
(1775 - unknown), near Lumberport
A settlers' blockhouse located on Jones Creek (Run) about two miles from town. Attacked by Indians in 1778. Later used as a barn.
Daniel Davisson's Fort
(1773 - unknown), Clarksburg
A settlers' blockhouse located at present-day Chestnut and Pike Streets.
Civil War Defenses of Clarksburg
(1861 - 1865), Clarksburg
Union trenchworks still remain in good condition, located in Lowndes Hill Park off of Second Street. Pinnicinick Hill was also fortified. Barracks were located at the old Northwestern Virginia Academy (no longer standing) at Second Street and Hewes Avenue. The town was an important rail depot. See also Civil War Trail Markers from Clarksburg C&VB
Thomas Nutter's Fort
(1772 - 1790's), Nutter Fort
A settlers' stockaded fort located on the east side of Elk Creek. Matthew and Christopher Nutter, brothers to Thomas, also settled here. Used by the VA state militia 1776 - 1780. Marker located at the West Virginia Business College.
(1774 - 1780's), Bridgeport
A settlers' fort on Simpson Creek, with access provided by a log pontoon bridge over the creek, hence the name. Site located on Davis Street. The town was originally named Bridge Fort, but was misspelled on an early map.
John Powers' Fort (1771) was previously located here, or another site on Simpson Creek.
Edwards' Fort (2)
(1770's), near Boothsville
A settlers' fort located five miles south of town.
Arnold Richards' Fort
(1774 - 1780's), West Milford
A settlers' fort located one-half mile southeast of town, on the west bank of the West Fork River. Also known as Col. William Lowther's Fort or West Fork Fort (1) when used by the VA state militia 1776 - 1780.
Edmund West's Fort
(1770 - 1779), Jane Lew
A settlers' stockaded fort located on Hacker's Creek. Used by the VA state militia 1776 - 1779, known as Fort West. Indians burned the fort and the settlers fled. Some later returned and built Beech's Fort (1780 - 1793) one-half mile downstream.
Henry Flesher's Fort
(1776 - unknown), Weston
A settlers' blockhouse located at present-day Main and Second Streets. Also known as Flesher's Station. Attacked by Indians in 1784. The town was originally named Flesherville.
(1861 - 1864), Weston
A Union garrison post was in town. Several blockhouses were located at important crossings along the entire route of the old Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike (Old US 19), the first being the West Fork Blockhouse (2) at the bridge over the West Fork River at Ben Dale just to the south.
(1770's - 1782), near Red Rock
A settlers' defense during the American Revolution, it was attacked and destroyed by Indians under Timothy Dorman in 1782.
Jackson's Fort (2), a settlers' blockhouse, was located here or nearby on Fink Run, possibly the same fort.
John Bush's Fort
(1773 - 1782), near Buckhannon
A settlers' fort located just south of the mouth of Turkey Run on the west side of the Buckhannon River. Known as Fort Bush during the American Revolution when garrisoned by local militia. It was destroyed by Indians. Site located adjacent to Heavener Cemetery.
Camp Laurel Hill
A CSA fortified camp located east of town at the present-day Mill Creek Reservoir. Abandoned in July 1861 after Camp Garnett fell to the Union. A marker locates extant trenches. Most of the camp site is now under water. See also The Battle of Laurel Hill
A Union fortified camp located two miles west of town. A marker locates the site on County Route 11.
(1784), near Belington
A settlers' fort located a few miles north of town.
Richard Morris' Fort
(1774 - unknown), near Hazelton
A settlers' stockade with several cabins, located on Hog Run west of town, a branch of Sandy Creek. Also known as Hog Run Stockade. Monument erected 1915.
Thomas Butler's Fort
(1774 - unknown), Ruthbelle
A settlers' fort located at the mouth of Roaring Creek.
John Minear's Fort
(1776 - 1781), St. George
A settlers' fort located on the east side of the Cheat River. The VA militia may have been posted here in 1777. It came under Indian attack in 1780 and 1781.
Jonas Friend's Fort
(1772 - unknown), near Elkins
A settlers' fort located at "Maxwell's Ferry" on Leading Creek. It was attacked by Indians in 1781.
Col. Benjamin Wilson's Fort
(1774 - unknown), near Midland
A settlers' fort located about one-half mile above the mouth of Chenoweth Creek on the east side of the Tygart Valley River. It was still in use in 1782. A monument marks the site, located about two miles south of Elkins.
(1784 - unknown), Randolph County
A settlers' fort. Unknown location.
Jacob Westfall's Fort
(1774 - unknown), Beverly
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse located 1/4 mile south of town on Files Creek. Used at times (after 1777) by the VA state militia. Attacked by Indians in 1782.
George Westfall's Fort
(1774 - unknown), Beverly
A settlers' fort. Most likely from the same family as Jacob (above).
Civil War Defenses of Beverly
(Rich Mountain Battlefield)
(1861 - 1865), Beverly
CSA Camp Garnett (1861) was a fortified camp on the west side of Rich Mountain. Possibly also known as Camp Pegram. Attacked by Union forces in July 1861. Remnants still exist.
Union earthworks (1861 - 1865) are located in town on Mount Iser (became a Confederate cemetery in 1870); on Ward's Hill; and also at Burnt Bridge near Ellamore. The town was briefly captured by CSA forces in January 1865, taking prisoner most of the Union garrison.
William Currence's Fort
(1774 - unknown), Mill Creek
A settlers' fort that protected a gristmill, located one-half mile east of town. Also known as Fort Cassino (2).
James Warwick's Fort
(1770's), near Huttonsville
A settlers' fort used by the VA state militia in 1776.
John Hadden's Fort ?
(1774 ?, 1780's ?), Randolph County
A settlers' fort at the mouth of Becco's (Becky ?) Creek. Also spelled Haddan. Location undetermined, possibly near Lee Bell.
(1861 - 1862), Elkwater
A Union fortified camp on the Huntersville-Huttonsville Turnpike. Earthworks were about 300 yards across the valley, with gun batteries at each end (Fort Marrow). Remnants still exist. Site owned by the Rich Mountain Battlefield Foundation.
Hadden's Fort (1)
(1774 - unknown), near Spangler
A settlers' fort located at the mouth of Elkwater Creek. Sometimes referred to as Old Fort. Also spelled Haddan.
NEED MORE INFO: Samuel Brady's Blockhouse (1784) at mouth of Indian Creek (probable locations include Everettville on the Monongahela River in Monongalia County; near Pinch on the Elk River in Kanahwa County; near Indian Mills on the New River in Summers County; or some other location).
Westfall's Fort (1) (1759) on Westfall Creek (location ?).
ALSO: Fort Knob near Daybrook, Monongalia County; Fort Hill at Burning Springs, Wirt County.
Towns: Fort Grand in Monongalia County
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
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