Fort Ashby |
Baldwin's Fort |
Bell's Fort |
Bingaman's Fort |
Fort Blizzard |
John Brown's Fort
Fort Buttermilk | Fort Capon | Caudy's Castle | Camp Chase | Cocke's Fort | Fort Cox (1) | F. Cox's Fort
Cunningham's Fort | Dawson's Fort | Fort Defiance | Edes' Fort | J. Edwards' Fort | Enoch's Fort
Evans' Fort | Falling Waters Batteries | Forks of Capon Stockade | Forman's Fort | Foreman's Fort
Fort Fuller | Furman's Fort | J. George's Fort | Great Cacapon Fort | Harness' Fort | Harpers Ferry Arsenal
Hedges' Fort | Hinkle's Fort | Holland's Fort | Homer's Fort | Fort Hopewell | Fort Kelley (2)
Kirkendall's Fort | Kisner's Blockhouse | Kuykendall's Fort | Lewis' Fort | Logsden Fort
Camp Luther | Lynch's Fort | MacKay's Fort | McKenzie's Fort | Fort Maidstone | Fort at Mann's Mill (1)
P. Martin's Fort | Mendenhall's Fort | Mendinall's Fort | Fort Mill Ridge | Moorefield Earthworks
Fort Mulligan | Fort Neally | Neally's Fort | New Creek Blockhouse | Newkirk's Fort | New Store
North Mountain Depot | North River Stockade | Ogden's Fort | Fort Ohio | G. Parker's Fort
J. Parker's Fort | T. Parker's Fort | Patterson's Fort | Patterson Creek Fort | Camp Paw Paw | Fort Pearsall
Pearsall's Fort | Peterson's Fort | Fort Piano | Fort Pleasant | Riddle's Fort | Ruddle's Fort
Sellers' Fort | Fort Seybert | Seybert's Fort | T. Shepherd's Fort | Fort Shobe | Sleepy Creek Fort
South Branch Blockhouse | Fort Syvers | Town Fort | Trout Rock Fort | Upper Tract Fort
H. Van Meter's Fort | I. Van Meter's Fort | Waggoner's Lower Fort | Waggoner's Upper Fort
Warden's Fort | Wardon's Fort | Fort Washington | Welton's Fort | Williams' Fort | Wilson's Fort (1)
Northern West Virginia - page 1 | Southern West Virginia - page 3
VIRGINIA FRONTIER DEFENSES 1719 - 1795
WEST VIRGINIA IN THE CIVIL WAR
Trout Rock Fort
(1756 - 1760's, 1862), near Franklin
A VA colonial militia fort located four miles southwest of town. It was a 60-foot square stockade with two blockhouses. The Confederates also used this site to guard a nearby saltpeter mine.
Justinius Hinkle's Fort
(1758 - 1763), near Riverton
A settlers' blockhouse on Mill Creek in Germany Valley. Built as a refuge after attacks by the Delaware Indians. It was stockaded in 1762. Also known as John Justice Hinkle. A stone monument is located between the present-day town and Seneca Caverns, one and one-half miles northeast of the town post office.
Jacob Seybert's Fort
(1756 - 1763), Fort Seybert
A settlers' fort. Sometimes known as Fort Blizzard. It was a two-story blockhouse with a circular stockade. Destroyed by Delaware Indians in 1758, the day after the attack on Upper Tract Fort. It was then rebuilt by the VA colonial militia in 1758 as a larger stockade with four blockhouses, known as Fort Seybert (or Syvers).
Upper Tract Fort
(1756 - 1758), Upper Tract
Also known as Capt. Thomas Waggoner's Upper Fort, and also Fort at Hugh Mann's Mill (1). A VA colonial militia fort one mile south of town. Garrisoned by 50 men, it was a 90-foot square stockade with four blockhouses. Destroyed by Delaware Indians in 1758.
(1862), Seneca Rocks
A temporary Union encampment at the old Mouth of Seneca Lutheran Church.
(1756 - 1766 ?), near Pansy
A VA colonial militia stockaded fort on North Mill Creek about one mile north of town. It was 60-square feet with two bastions. Also known as Jacob Peterson's Fort.
Samuel Bingaman's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), near Pansy
A settlers' fort on the South Branch Potomac River. Within sight of Fort Defiance, located five miles southwest of Petersburg.
(1756 - 1760's), near Dorcas
A settlers' fort located near the junction of South and North Mill Creeks, about two miles north of town. Possibly aka Wilson's Fort (1) ?
Joseph George's Fort
(1754 - 1760's), Petersburg
A settlers' stockaded fort on the south-side of the South Potomac River.
(1863 - 1864), Petersburg
Union earthworks and trench lines were located around the town. Several sections are still preserved, including this work on Fort Hill.
(1755 - 1760's), near Arthur
A VA colonial militia fort located on South Fork Lunice (Looney's) Creek west of town. Possibly a settlers' fort initially, built by Job Sr. or Jacob Welton. The Looney's Creek Massacre took place near here in August 1763 in which Jonathan Welton and Micheal Harness were killed, and Job Welton Jr., among others, was wounded.
Micheal Harness' Fort
(1749 - 1760's), near Durgon
A settlers' fort used for the protection of other settlers who were unable to reach either Forts Pleasant or Buttermilk. Garrisoned by the VA colonial militia in 1756 by 50 men. Part of the garrison house may still exist. Located three miles south of Fort Buttermilk, near the present-day Valley View golf course.
(info provided by Kathe Devault)
(1756 - 1758), Taylor
A VA colonial militia stockaded fort, also known as Capt. Thomas Waggoner's Lower Fort, located on the east-side of the South Potomac River. It was three miles north of Harness' Fort, and four and one-half miles south of Fort Holland.
(1755 - 1760's), near Taylor
A settlers' fortified home located on the South Fork South Potomac River east of town, about two miles south of Moorefield.
The remnants of Confederate trenchworks are located in Olivet Cemetery on Cemetery Hill.
(1754), near Cunningham
A VA colonial militia fort located on Fort Run at the South Potomac River. Replaced by Fort Pleasant.
(1755 - 1760's), near Cunningham
A settlers' fort located on Fort Run. Later known as the Town Fort.
(1756 - 1780's), Old Fields
A VA colonial militia fort, also known as Henry Van Meter's Fort. It was a large stockade with a barracks, stable, Officers' quarters, magazine, and four two-story blockhouses. It still stood until the 1830's. Located northeast of Mudlick Run and Anderson Run. A Greek Revival mansion was built on the site in 1832.
Stephen Ruddle's Fort
(1754 - 1760's), near Baker or Lost River
A settlers' fort located on the Lost River several miles south of Warden's Fort, somewhere between Baker and Lost City. Also spelled Riddle in some sources. A battle occurred near here in 1756.
William Warden's Fort
(1754 - 1756), near Baker
A settlers' stockaded cabin (house built 1748) on the Lost River that was attacked and burned by Indians, also killing Warden. Also spelled Wardon. Site located about halfway between Arkansas and McCauley.
Isaac Van Meter's Fort
(1754 - 1763), near Pancake
A 19-foot long, 14-foot wide, and 12-foot high loopholed stone house that still exists, but in deteriorating condition. One side of the structure is open, from a long-gone log addition. The original well is still operating. Located on the east-side of the South Potomac River three miles south of Kuykendall's Fort, one mile south of the present-day The Trough General Store.
John Kuykendall's Fort
(1754 - 1763), near Johnson
A two-story log house with a stockade, located about six miles south of Romney on the east-side of the South Potomac River. Garrisoned by the VA colonial militia in 1756. Also spelled Kirkendall.
Fort Mill Ridge
(Fort Mill Ridge Wildlife Management Area)
(1863 - 1865), near Mechanicsburg
A preserved Union redoubt and trench lines. Information and exhibits are located at Taggart Hall at 91 South High Street in Romney.
(1754 - 1759, 1763, 1774), Romney
Also known as Job Pearsall's Fort, a settlers' log house with a stockade. Also spelled Pearsal, Pearscall, Piercehall. It became a VA colonial militia fort in 1756, also known as Capt. Robert McKenzie's Fort. It was also supposedly garrisoned for Dumnore's War in 1774. Site located west of town on the river crossing of the old Fort Loudoun Road, between Indian Mound Cemetery and the South Potomac River. A marker is located at Indian Mound Cemetery. The town was founded in 1762, previously known as Pearsall's Flats.
Capt. William Forman's Fort
(1755 - 1764), near Vance
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse on the east-side of the South Potomac River, located about three miles north of Romney, one mile south of the "Hanging Rocks". Also spelled Furman and Foreman. The state marker on WV 28 at (or was at ?) Buffalo Run is south of the actual site.
Capt. William Cocke's Fort
(1755 - 1760), near Headsville
A settlers' fort that was used by the VA colonial militia after 1756. It was a stockade with four blockhouses and a 50-man barracks. It was also known as George Parker's Fort. Attacked by Indians in 1756. George Washington referred to this post as Fort Washington until 1758. Located one mile south of town on the east-side of Patterson Creek.
(1750's), near Hooks Mills ?
A settlers' fort located four or five miles upstream from Fort Edwards.
Jacob Kisner's Blockhouse
(1763 - 1764), near Hanging Rock
A settlers' loopholed log cabin located on Brushy Run, off of Dillons Run, in the area of Gunbarrel Hollow, about seven miles southwest of Fort Edwards.
Thomas Parker's Fort
(1754 - 1760's), near Hanging Rock
A settlers' stockaded blockhouse on the west bank of the North River. It was also known as the North River Stockade.
Joseph Edwards' Fort
(1754 - 1760's), Capon Bridge
A settlers' fort used by the VA colonial militia fort after 1756, also known as Capt. Joshua Lewis' Fort (1757). It was a two-story log house with a stockade, located on Coldstream Road one mile north of the present-day river bridge. It was unsuccessfully attacked twice by the French and Indians (1756, 1758). No remains. The Fort Edwards Museum is on site. Admission fee.
(info provided by Charles Hall of the Fort Edwards Foundation)
(1754 - 1760's), near North River Mills
A settlers' fort on the east bank of the North River about one mile north of town.
(1755 - 1760's), near Gormania
Built by the VA colonial militia on Difficult Hill near Difficult Creek, it was a stockaded blockhouse and several cabins. Also spelled Logsdon.
New Creek Blockhouse
(1755 - unknown), near New Creek
Tradition holds that a settlers' blockhouse (not palisaded) was built on Block(house) Run about one mile west of New Creek, about two miles north of the present-day village, near Miller Airport south of Keyser. The land at the time was owned by Christopher Beeler.
(1861 - 1865), Keyser
A Union stockade located on the grounds of present-day Potomac State College (1901). Also known as Fort Kelley (2) (1864). A marker is at the site, now occupied by the college's administration building. The town, then known as New Creek, changed hands 14 times. Union Fort Piano (1864) was located east of New Creek on top of the hill.
(1750 - 1770's), Ridgeley
Located on the opposite side of the Potomac River from Fort Cumberland, Maryland. It was the first trading post erected by the Ohio Company. It was also known as New Store. There was a blockhouse with a stable, meathouse, and dairy, but the compound was not stockaded at that time. Breastworks and a magazine were later erected in 1754 by the VA colonial militia. The town was originally named St. Clairsville.
Patterson Creek Fort
(1756 - 1760's), Patterson Creek
A small stockade built by the VA colonial militia on the west-side of the mouth of the creek. Traditionally called Elias Sellers' Fort by some past historians, however the fort was built on the land of Phillip Martin.
(1755 - 1764), Fort Ashby ¤ WVA Archives Photo ¤
Built by the VA colonial militia to guard the supply route from Fort Loudoun, VA, to Fort Cumberland, MD. It was a 90-foot square log stockade with four corner blockhouses and a log barracks, located on the east-side of Patterson's Creek. Most of the VA colonial militia forts on the frontier followed this design. A single log cabin still remains (restored in 1935), the sole survivor of all the colonial Virginia military forts. It was a private residence from the 1760's to 1927. Owned and operated by the Fort Ashby Chapter DAR, tours by request. A 1995 fire destroyed many artifacts on display. The town was originally named Frankfort and then Alaska. See also Fort Ashby History by Terry Gruber
Richard Williams' Fort
(1756 - 1760's), Ridgedale
A settlers' stockaded fort located about one mile north of the "Hanging Rocks". Probably garrisoned by the militia on occasion. Attacked by Delaware Indians in 1764.
John Parker's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), near Millesons Mill
A settlers' stockaded fort, located at the eastern end of the river loop southeast of town. Garrisoned by the VA colonial militia in 1756. The log barracks still existed until the 1890's. Foundations stones are reportedly still evident.
South Branch Blockhouse
(1861 - 1864), near South Branch
A Union iron-clad blockhouse on the west-side of the South Branch Potomac River at the railroad crossing. Attacked by CSA forces in 1864.
Henry Enoch's Fort
(1756 - 1766), Forks of Cacapon
A stockade built by the VA colonial militia, located about one-half mile above the mouth of the North River. Also known by some writers as Forks of Capon Stockade or Fort Capon. The Braddock Road crossed the Cacapon River just below the North River. Militia troops were stationed at Enoch's Mill in late 1755, located on Bloomery Run on the east-side of the Cacapon River.
(1750's), near Forks of Cacapon
James Caudy took refuge from attacking Indians at Castle Rock, a natural rock formation located about two miles south of town.
Friend Cox's Fort
(1755 - 1766), Little Cacapon
A settlers' blockhouse rebuilt by the VA colonial militia in 1756, also known as Fort Cox (1). Located on the east-side of the mouth of Little Cacapon Creek. In 1755 the British army under General Braddock encamped on the west-side of the creek waiting to be ferried across the Potomac River. The ferry remained in operation until 1765.
(NOTE: not to be confused with Cocke's Fort at Headsville)
Camp Paw Paw
(1861 - 1865), Paw Paw
A Union stronghold throughout the war. Over 16,000 troops were based here. A blockhouse was by the railroad. May have also been known as Camp Chase.
Great Cacapon Fort
(1755 - unknown), Great Cacapon
An unnamed fort located near the mouth of the Cacapon River. A modern source names it Isaac Dawson's Fort. It is erroneously labeled as Fort Maidstone on a 1756 map.
(1758), near Great Cacapon
Not really a fort, but a settlers' defensive position in a cave, located at Edes Fort Hill, south of town. The settlers refused to go to the protective safety of a nearby fort during trouble. They were all captured in 1758.
Sleepy Creek Fort
(1756 - unknown), Sleepy Creek
A VA colonial militia stockade on the west-side of the creek. It may have been never actually built, but there was a fortified camp here for a short time at least.
(1750's), near Cherry Run
A settlers' fort.
(NOTE: another source locates this post on Harlan Run near Little Georgetown.)
Samuel Hedges' Fort
(1755 - unknown), near Hedgesville
A settlers' stockaded fort on the west side of Back Creek. The Mt. Zion Episcopal Church was later built on or near the site.
North Mountain Depot Blockhouse
(1864), near Hedgesville
A Union blockhouse once located on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and present-day WV 901 east of town. Captured by CSA cavalry in July 1864.
(1755 - 1760's), near Marlowe
A VA colonial militia stockaded fort at Evan Watkin's Landing and Ferry. It was often referred to as part of the Conococheague Supply Depot in Maryland, across the river in Williamsport.
Falling Waters Batteries
(1863), Falling Waters
Several CSA gun positions on the heights overlooking the Potomac River, protecting the pontoon crossing for the retreating Confederate Army after the Battle of Gettysburg. Maryland state marker located on Falling Waters Road.
John Mendinall's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), near Rosemont
A settlers' stockaded 20-by-20-foot square two-story stone house (1754) and separate stone blockhouse that was used by the VA colonial militia after 1756. Also spelled Mendenhall. Located on Tuscarora Creek about five miles north of Evan's Fort. The original house was later modified and added to in 1771, 1790, and 1900, and is known as Aspen Hall. The loopholed 16-by-16-foot square stone blockhouse still exists, as well as two other original buildings that were once included within the stockade, located northwest of downtown Martinsburg on the grounds of Aspen Hall Inn, at 405 Boyd Ave..
(thanks to Charles Connolly for providing additional info)
William Patterson's Fort
(1754 - 1760's), near Nollville
A settlers' stockaded fort that was garrisoned by the VA colonial militia in 1757. Located south of town near the head of Tuscarora Creek on the east side of North Mountain, 5.1 miles (straight-line) north of Baldwin's Fort.
John Evans' Fort
(1755 - 1766), Big Spring
A settlers' stockade located one mile south of Martinsburg on Evans Run. It was defended entirely by women against an Indian attack in 1756. It was in use by the VA colonial militia after 1756.
John Neally's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), near Vanville
A settlers' stockade on the west side of Opequon Creek about two miles south of Evans' Fort. Captured by Indians in 1756, in which all the men were killed and all the women and children were taken captive. Rebuilt and used by the VA colonial militia after 1757, known as Fort Neally.
(NOTE: another source locates this post on the east-side of Opequon Creek near Greensburg.)
William Baldwin's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), near Gerrardstown
A stockaded settlers' two-story log fort located two miles east of Mills Gap and 1.3 miles northeast of town, on the west-side of Route 24. It was garrisoned by the VA colonial militia in 1757.
Nathaniel Bell's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), Gerrardstown
A stockaded settlers' fort located 0.9 mile southeast of Mills Gap on Union Corner Road, 0.85 mile north of WV 51. It was garrisoned by the VA colonial militia in 1757.
Robert Cunningham's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), Bunker Hill
A stockaded settlers' fort on Mill Creek.
Thomas Shepherd's Fort
(1755 - 1760's), Shepherdstown
A stone house that was built in 1750, stockaded in 1755. The site is located on the grounds of Shepherd College. The town was founded in 1762 as Mecklenburg, also known as Old Pack Horse Ford.
Harpers Ferry Arsenal and Armory
(Harpers Ferry National Historical Park)
(1795 - 1862/1865), Harpers Ferry
The second Federal armory ordered built by President George Washington, and the first national arsenal. Located here because of its close proximity to the nation's capital. Weapons production started in 1801. The arsenal was built in three sections of town along the river. Major additions were undertaken in 1848. The firehouse (built 1847) was seized in October 1859 by renegade John Brown. It was nicknamed John Brown's Fort (see also History of John Brown's Fort). He was captured by U.S. Marines under the command of Army Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee. The town was devastated during the Civil War and the Arsenal was never rebuilt. The town changed hands several times during the war. Union fortifications were located on Bolivar Heights in 1864, including Battery #1 which still exists on the south-end of the heights. Batteries #2 - #6 no longer exist. Union infantry trenchworks were built on Camp Hill in 1862. A commercial campground east of town still has extant trenches. Additional fortifications were located across the Potomac River in Maryland, most of which still exist. (see WESTERN MARYLAND page) A stockaded stone signal station was built on Loudoun Heights across the Virginia border.
NEED MORE INFO: 1750's era unnamed settler forts located near Jones Springs on the Elk Branch Back Creek in Berkeley County; and on the South Fork South Potomac River north of Bass in Hardy County.
Information on French and Indian War forts of the Potomac River basin gathered from "Frontier Forts along the Potomac and its Tributaries" by William H. Ansel, 1984, Fort Pearsall Press.
Additional information gathered from "The Virginia Frontier: 1754 - 1763" by Louis K. Koontz, 1925, Johns Hopkins Press (reprint 2005 Heritage Books, Inc.)
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