Southern Missouri

Camp Adams | Alexander Barracks | Fort Bankhead | Beaver Station Fort | Beckwith's Fort
Belle Fontaine Barracks | Cantonment Belle Fontaine | Fort Belle Fontaine | Benton Barracks
Fort Benton | Bird's Point Fort | Camp Cavender | Cape Girardeau Defenses
Cape Girardot Forts | Fort Carondelet | Fort Celeste | Camp Clark | Camp Crittenden
Fort Crowder (1) | Fort Curtis (1) | Fort Curtis (2) | Fort Davidson | Camp Defiance
Fort Dette | Fort Detty | Fort Don Carlos | Camp Frémont (1) | Camp Frémont (2)
Camp Gaillard | Camp Gamble | Fort Girardeau | Camp Gratz | Camp Hadley | Fort Hamer
Hartville Fort | Fort Hovey | Fort Insley | Camp Jackson | Jefferson Barracks | Fort Lawrence
Lawrence Mill Fort | Lilbourn Site | Lorimont Post | Camp Lyon | Fort Lyon
New Madrid Forts | New Madrid Post | Camp McCulloch | Fort McKean | Camp Miller
Cantonment Miller | Old Spanish Fort | Camp Ozark | La Petite Prairie Post | Red House
Fort San Carlos | Fort San Carlos del Misuri | Fort San Carlos el Rey | Fort St. Charles
Fort San Fernando | Fort Ste. Genevieve | Fort St. Joachim | St. Louis Arsenal
St. Louis Civil War Defenses | St. Louis Mounds | St. Louis Trading Post
Fort San Luis de Ylinoa | Camp Sand Springs | Schofield Barracks
Springfield Civil War Defenses | Camp Stephens | Fort Thompson | Towosahgy Site
Camp Union (2) | Waynesville Fort | Wilson's Creek | Fort Wyman

Northern Missouri - page 1

MISSOURI FORTS IN WAR OF 1812

Last Update: 24/MAY/2013
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2013 American Forts Network

Fort Don Carlos
(1767 - 1769, 1779 - 1780), Spanish Lake
A Spanish fort built on the south side of the mouth of the Missouri River. It was officially known as Fort Don Carlos el Señor Príncipe de Asturias, and it was an 80-foot square palisade with four bastions.

Located on the north side of the river was Spanish Fort San Carlos el Rey, Don Carlos Tercero, also known as Fort San Carlos del Misuri. It was a log blockhouse 18-feet square and 7-feet high, with a five-man garrison. It was abandoned and destroyed by the Spanish in May 1780 as the British were preparing to attack St. Louis.

Fort Belle Fontaine (Historic Park)
(1805 - 1834), near Spanish Lake FORT WIKI
Located north of St. Louis about four miles from the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, on Coldwater Creek, near the site of Spanish Fort Don Carlos. This was the first American military fort and government Indian Factory west of the Mississippi River. It was also called Cantonment Belle Fontaine and Belle Fontaine Barracks. The Sac and Fox Indian Agency was relocated to Fort Osage in 1808. Originally built along the river bank, the fort was relocated to higher ground (Belle Mont) in 1810. The post transferred to newly built Jefferson Barracks in 1826, and a small garrison was left to guard the magazines until 1828, when the St. Louis Arsenal was in operation. The other buildings remained as military warehouses until 1834. The original site has long since eroded away.

St. Louis Mounds
(900 - 1450), St. Louis
Once located in the present-day downtown area along the Mississippi River (at the Second Terrace) was a Mississippian Culture palisaded temple mound complex, encompassing 23 mounds within a bastioned palisade. No remains. The site was surveyed in 1819.

St. Louis Trading Post
(1764 - 1768), St. Louis
A French settlers' palisaded complex of log cabins, located on the hill at present-day Fourth and Walnut Streets. This was the first white settlement of the city.

The French had earlier built a crude fort (1700 - 1703) at an Illini Indian village at the mouth of the River Des Peres.

Fort San Carlos
(1780 - 1805), St. Louis
A Spanish stone tower with five-guns, with defensive entrenchments, located in the vicinity of present-day Fourth and Walnut Streets. Known to the British and Americans as Fort St. Charles. Three similar towers were planned in 1780 but were not actually built until 1797. The town and its uncompleted fortifications were attacked by the British in May 1780, but were repulsed. Additional earthworks and a perimeter stockade, consisting of four demilunes and two bastions, were built around the town from present-day Lombard Street to Delmar Blvd. along 4th Street (no stockade along the river front), as the British were thought to be preparing to attack the town again later that same year (but never did). The north demilune (four guns), at the foot of Franklin Street, was built of stone, and survived until about 1820. The San Carlos tower was later enclosed within its own stockade and an eight-gun banquette was added in 1792. It was then renamed Fort San Luis de Ylinoa. Stone barracks were built in 1794. The Americans briefly occupied the fort in 1804 until Fort Belle Fontaine was constructed in 1805. The stone tower then became the American settlement's first jail from 1806 - 1819, and the Commandant's House became the first courthouse from 1806 - 1816. The stone barracks were torn down in 1836. A marker is located on Market Street next to the Marriott Pavilion Hotel.

St. Louis was governed by the Spanish from 1768 to 1804. At the transfer ceremony on March 9-10, 1804, the new French Tricolor flag was flown for 24 hours only, between the lowering of the Spanish flag on the first morning, and the raising of the American flag on the second morning, the first and only time that the French Tricolor flag was ever raised in Upper Louisiana Territory.

Old Spanish Fort
(1797 - 1805), St. Louis
One of three circular stone towers built by the Spanish, located near the river at the foot of Biddle Street. It was a notable local landmark until torn down in 1860. A second tower was located on the west side of Third Street, between St. Charles Street and Washington Ave.. The Union Enginehouse was built on the site in 1836. The third tower was located at Sycamore and Second Streets. A stone blockhouse was built on the north side of Chouteau Ave., between Third and Fourth Streets.

St. Louis Arsenal
(National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency)
(1827 - 1904/present), St. Louis FORT WIKI
A Federal brick-walled arsenal complex located at Second and Arsenal Streets. Construction of the 22 stone and slate buildings was finished in 1840. This was the main supplier of ammunition to Union forces in the west during the Civil War. In 1869 ten unused acres were transferred to the city to create Lyon Park. From 1871 to 1879 the post served as a cavalry recruitment depot, and after 1904 it became a Quartermaster clothing depot until 1923. From 1923 to 1952 it was a medical supply depot. Since 1953 it has been occupied by the Department of Defense National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and its predecessor organizations. Most of the original buildings are still in use. Public access is restricted. The NGA Museum on campus also has the history of the arsenal.

Camp Gamble
(1849), St. Louis
A temporary Federal encampment.

Civil War Defenses of St. Louis
Civil War St. Louis
(1861 - 1865), St. Louis
A system of ten Union earthen forts surrounded the city.
Fort Number One (three guns) a trilateral work about 400 feet to each side, located on Chippewa Street. The U.S. Marine Hospital was later built on the site.
Fort Number Two (four guns) a quadrilateral work about 400 feet long, located near Cherokee Street and Lemp Ave..
Fort Number Three was a cruciform-shaped redoubt about 600 feet long, located on Sydney Street near McNair Ave., north of Salena and Lynch Streets in the Benton Park area. It still existed into the 1870's.
Fort Number Four about 500 feet long, located south of Russell Ave. and east of Jefferson Ave..
Fort Number Five (four guns) a quadrilateral work about 400 feet to each side, located between Whittemore Place and Missouri Ave., west of Lafayette Park.
Fort Number Six (four guns) a square work located south of Manchester Road, near Montrose Ave..
Fort Number Seven (four guns) a square work about 400 feet to each side, located on Vandeventer Place, west of Grand Blvd..
Fort Number Eight (five guns) a pentagonal work about 450 feet to a side, located on Garrison Ave. near Thomas Street.
Fort Number Nine (five guns) a pentagonal work about 450 feet to a side, located on 19th Street near Dodier Street.
Fort Number Ten (four guns) a quadrilateral work about 400 feet to each side, located west of Bellefontaine Ave., between Bremen Ave. and Angelica Street.
A heavy batttery was also located on the hill on Olive Street, about 600 feet west of Grand Blvd..

Also located in the area were Union Benton Barracks (1861 - 1865) west of the St. Louis Fairgrounds, Camp Cavender (1861), and Schofield Barracks (1863 - 1865) (originally named Alexander Barracks until 1865).

CSA Camp Jackson (1861) was nearby in Lindell's Grove, at present-day Grand Blvd. and Pine Street, now part of the grounds of St. Louis University, Frost Campus. It was attacked by the Union in May 1861 after the Confederates failed to take the St. Louis Arsenal. Site is not marked. FORT WIKI

Camp Gaillard
(1917), St. Louis
A temporary state guard mobilzation center for engineer units. In operation only one month. Located at the Chain of Rocks Water Works.

Jefferson Barracks (Historic Park)
(Jefferson Barracks Heritage Foundation)
(Jefferson Barracks Community Council)
(1826 - 1871, 1894 - 1946/present), near Ivory FORT WIKI
Originally named Camp Adams in 1826. Camp (Cantonment) Miller was established six months later on an adjacent site. Renamed one month later. At various times this post served as a training center, supply depot, Civil War hospital, and an induction center. The post was rebuilt and enlarged in the 1890's. A Spanish-American War encampment on post was named Camp Stephens (1898), used as a mustering site for all state troops. The post was abandoned as an active post after WWII. Only the northern portion of the former military reservation (the ordnance depot of the Old Barracks) is part of the current county park (1960), with four extant original buildings. A museum is in the restored 1857 powder magazine. The rest of the reservation is still in use by the state National Guard and other Federal agencies and a V.A. Hospital. Several historic buildings still exist. The Missouri Civil War Museum is located in the 1903 Post Exchange and Gymnasium building, opened in 2013.

Fort Ste. Genevieve
(1735 - unknown, 1785 - 1804), Ste. Genevieve
A French fort. This was the first permanent settlement in the state.

Local traders also built a fort here in 1785, called Fort St. Joachim. It was rebuilt at least twice before 1804.

Cape Girardot Forts
(1733 - unknown, 1793 - 1808 ?), Cape Girardeau
A French trading post was originally here in 1733, built by Jean Girardot, the site of which is at Cape Rock Park. Next came a Spanish military post in 1793, built by French trader Louis Lorimier, called Lorimont Post or Red House, located at the site of Old St. Vincent's Church (1853). Lorimier died here in 1812. The settlement, however, continued to be known as Cape Girardeau. The Red House Interpretive Center is located at 128 South Main Street (admission fee).

Civil War Defenses of Cape Girardeau
(Fort D Historic Site)
(1861 - 1865), Cape Girardeau FORT WIKI
During the Civil War the Union built Forts A, B, C and D, along with Battery A and Battery B, collectively known as Fort Girardeau. Fort A incorporated a grist mill, and was located on Windmill Hill at the east-end of Bellevue Street (no remains, site developed). Fort B was built around the Dittlinger House (no remains) on Academic Hill, located on the grounds of present-day Southeast Missouri State University (stone monument on median at Normal and Pacific Streets). Fort C was located at the end of Ellis Street at Good Hope and Sprigg Streets (stone monument). The only surviving work is Fort D. Now a city park (1937) at Locust and Fort Streets, it was built to prevent Confederate gunboats from steaming upriver. A replica stone "powder house" was built in 1937, and was used for various civic functions until the 1980's. Park was restored in 2005. Battery A (two guns) was located north of Fort B, at Henderson and New Madrid Streets. Battery B (four guns) was located where "Longview" is now located on Thilenius Hill. Hospital Hill (present-day Southeast Missouri Hospital) had several rifle pits. Also in town was Union Camp Frémont (1) (1861), probably at the old fairgrounds south of Bloomfield Road which was the general encampment area of Union troops during the war. The April 1863 "Battle of Cape Girardeau" monument is located at Broadway and Cordelia Street near the Confederate lines.
(thanks to Scott House for providing additional information)

Bird's Point Fort
(1861 - 1865), Bird's Point
A Union earthwork protecting the terminus of the Cairo and Fulton Railroad near the old townsite of Ohio City. During the war much of the site eroded away by the Mississippi River, and the works were moved and enlarged several times. Much of the original site has since eroded away again.

Union Camp Lyon (1861) was nearby.

Towosahgy (State Historic Site)
(1000 - 1400), Dorena
A palisaded temple mound complex of the Mississippian Culture. The moated and bastioned outer palisade encompassed seven mounds, and over 70 houses. Sometime after American settlement of the area, the site was known as Beckwith's Fort.

New Madrid Forts
(1783 - unknown, 1789 - 1804, 1804 - 1808, 1862), New Madrid
A settlers' trading post was first located here. The Spanish built Fort Celeste (1789 - 1804, rebuilt 1796), an eight-gun, moated, square palisade with four blockhouses. The original work was built too close to the river, and eroded during a flood. The fort was burned in 1801, but rebuilt. The Americans briefly occupied the Spanish fort in 1804, but then built Post at New Madrid (1804 - 1808).

Confederate earthworks Fort Bankhead (seven guns) and Fort Thompson (14 guns) protected the land approach to the city, and 19 guns were located on Island Number 10. The city was captured by the Union, with the Confederates retreating across the river to Watson's Point, setting up several new shore batteries and a floating battery (see TENNESSEE page). When Island Number 10 was captured by the Union, the Rebels abandoned the other batteries. Island Number 10 no longer exists today as it did then due to erosion and shifting currents. The sites of the two Confederate forts and the Union seige lines were marked on a new driving tour in 2012. Exhibits are located in the New Madrid Historical Museum (admission fee) at 1 South Main Street. See also Civil War in New Madrid and the Battle of Island Number 10 from City of New Madrid

Lilbourn Archaeological Site
(1100 - 1350), Lilbourn
A palisaded Mississippian Culture temple mound complex, with eight mounds enclosed within earthen embankments. The site was surveyed in 1878.

La Petite Prairie Trading Post
(1794 - unknown), Caruthersville
A French settlers' trading post built by François Le Sieur. Possibly the same site as Fort San Fernando below.

Fort San Fernando
(1790's ?), near Caruthersville
A Spanish fort located in Little Prairie along the Mississippi River. The site has long been washed away. Possibly the same site as La Petite Prairie Post above.

Fort Davidson (State Historic Site)
(1863 - 1864), Pilot Knob
A Union seven-gun hexagonal earthwork fort built to protect the railroad and nearby mineral deposits. Evacuated and burned during the Confederate attack (September 1864). The earthworks are preserved, with a visitor center and museum.

Fort Hovey
(1863 - 1865), Ironton
A Union fort built on Fort Hill. Also known as Fort Curtis (1).

Fort Benton
(1861 - 1864), Patterson
A Union fort built on Fort Hill. Captured by the Confederates in April 1861, and again in September 1864, when it was finally destroyed.

Civil War Defenses of Rolla
(1861 - 1865), Rolla
Fort Wyman (1861 - 1865), one of two Union forts, in addition to a one-mile radius of earthworks and trenches that surrounded the town. The fort was 400 square feet, rectangular with a moat, composed of slanted timbers on the outer walls, located one mile south of town on a hill along US 63. Some remains on private property. Over 20,000 troops were garrisoned in the town. Marker located at 262 North Main Street at the Old Phelps County Courthouse (1860). See also History of Rolla in the Civil War
Fort Dette (1863 - 1865), a Union cross-shaped fort on the north-side of town. Also spelled Detty. Site located on the campus of the University of Missouri-Rolla. No remains.
Camp Carey Gratz (1861 - 1865), a Union camp located near town. It became the Headquarters, Army of the West.

Waynesville Fort
(1862), Waynesville
A Union fort on the hill overlooking the town square, used as a supply base on the road between Rolla and Lebanon. The Old Stagecoach Stop tavern (1850's) on 105 Lynn Street has a Civil War exhibit.

Camp Union (2)
(1861), Brumley
A Union camp located one mile east of town.

Hartville Fort
(1861 - 1863), Hartville
A Union fort attacked and burned by Confederates in 1863.

Camp Sand Springs
(1862 - 1863), Sand Springs
A temporary Union camp. Captured and burned by Confederates in 1863.

Civil War Defenses of Springfield
(1862 - 1865), Springfield
Five numbered Union forts were built to protect the town:
Fort No. 1 was located near present-day Chestnut Expressway and West Bower Street near the Kansas Expressway and North Nettleton Ave..
Fort No. 2 was located along present-day West Walnut Street near Fort Ave..
Fort No. 3 undetermined location.
Fort No. 4 was located along present-day South Street at Mt. Vernon Street.
Fort No. 5 was located at present-day St. Louis Street and Dollison Ave..
Union rifle pits are located on the grounds of Drury College. The town was attacked by Confederates in January 1863.
Camp Frémont (2) (1861), a Union camp located on the south-side of town, before the Battle of Wilson's Creek (August 1861).

Camp Ben McCulloch (1863), a temporary CSA camp located near town.

Wilson's Creek (National Battlefield Park)
(1861), Republic
Civil War batteries located near Springfield. Confederate batteries include Pulaski Arkansas Battery and Guibor's Battery. Union batteries include Totten's Battery and DuBois' Battery. Scene of battle in August 1861.

Camp Ozark
(1862 - 1863), Ozark
A Union camp and fortified town. captured by the Confederates in 1863.

Fort Lawrence
(1861 - 1863), Taney County
A Union fort located on Beaver Creek. Originally known as Beaver Station Fort and Lawrence Mill Fort. Attacked and destroyed by Confederates in January 1863.

Camp Defiance
(1862 - 1865), Cassville
Union breastworks once located on the hill where the present-day city water tower now stands.

Fort Crowder (1)
(1863 - 1865), Neosho
A Union fort built after the Confederate troops and politicians left town.

Neosho was once the Confederate capital of the state in 1861 - 1862. The 12th star on the Confederate flag was for Missouri.

NOTE: Camp (Fort) Crowder (2) (1941-58/present) was a WWII Signal Corps training facility and POW camp. A portion of the old post is still in use by the MO National Guard. Other portions are now the Fort Crowder State Conservation Area, Crowder College, and an industrial park and airport.

Fort McKean
(1865), near Oskaloosa ?
A Union fort located on West Fork Dry Wood Creek along the state line (possibly actually located in KANSAS, somewhere between Garland and Arcadia). Garrisoned by Wisconsin cavalry.

Fort Insley
(1865), near Deerfield
A Union fort probably located at the Douglas Ford on the Marmaton River, northeast of town. Garrisoned by Wisconsin cavalry.

Fort Hamer
(1865), near Deerfield
A Union fort probably located at the Lambert Ford on Dry Wood Creek, south of town on Stockade Road (County Road HH). Garrisoned by Wisconsin cavalry.

Fort Curtis (2)
(1865), near Metz
A Union fort located at the old townsite of Balltown, southeast of town. Garrisoned by Wisconsin cavalry.

Fort Carondelet
(1791 - 1804), Vernon County
A Spanish fort built by St. Louis fur traders Auguste and Pierre Choteau in Osage Nation. A fur trading post was here from 1784 - 1791, built by Pierre Choteau. The fort was sold to fur trader Manuel Lisa in 1802.

Camp Clark (State Military Reservation)
(1908 - present), near Nevada
A state National Guard annual summer training site and mobilization center during the Mexican Border Crisis (1916) and WWI. Originally known as Camp Hadley until renamed in 1921. Became a German and Italian POW camp in 1942. Located east of town on Highway K. Still in use by the state National Guard. Restricted public access. In 2012 about 60 buildings from the 1920's were demolished to make room for new construction. Some historic buildings were saved for restoration.

Fort Lyon
(1862), near Windsor
A Union fort located south of town, probably in Benton County.


NEED MORE INFO: CSA Camp Crittenden (1861) at Elliott's Mills (location ?).

Northern Missouri - page 1

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