Post at Abiquiu |
Camp Alamo Vejo |
Albuquerque Post |
Albuquerque Presidio |
Camp at Anton Chico | Camp Baird's Ranch | Barclay's Fort (1) | Barclay's Fort (2) | Fort Barclay (1)
Fort Barclay (2) | Fort Bascom | Post at Beck's Ranch | Blanco Trading Post | Cantonment Burgwin
Fort Burgwin | Fort Butler (a) | Fort Butler (b) | Camp in Cañon Largo | Camp near Casa Colorado
Post at Ceboletta | Chimayó | Camp in Chusco Valley | Cimarron Post | Cuarteles | Post at Cubero | Camp Easton
Fort El Gallo | Fort Fauntleroy | Camp at Fernando de Taos | Fort Fernando de Taos | Post at Galisteo
Camp at Hatch's Ranch | Station at Hubbel's Ranch | Post at Jemez | Camp at Johnson's Ranch
Post at Laguna | Las Golondrinas Rancho | Las Trampas | Las Vegas Post | Post at Lazuma | Camp Lewis
Camp Lincoln | Camp Loring | Camp at Los Lunas | Post of Los Lunas | Los Pinos Depot | Camp Los Poros
Camp at Los Valles | Fort Lowell | Camp Luna | Fort Lyon | Fort Marcy | Cantonment Mason (1)
Camp Mule Spring | Camp Navajo Springs | Presidio of New Mexico | Camp Niggerhead Spring | Station at Ocate
Paraje Post | Camp Peralta | Camp at Pigeon's Ranch | Camp Pleasant Springs | Camp Plummer
Camp Rabbit Ear Creek | Post at Rayado | Post at Santa Fe | Presidio of Santa Fe | San Miguel Mission
Camp Shoeneman | Star Fort | Fort Sumner | Post of Taos | Camp Tecolate | Camp Tome | Camp Tuni-Cha
Fort Union | Camp Vigilance | Fort Wingate (1) | Fort Wingate (2) | Wingate Ordnance Depot
Southern New Mexico - page 2
FORTS AND FIGHTS OF THE MOUNTAIN WEST
EXPLORE RUINS AND MISSIONS IN NEW MEXICO
FORT WIKI - NEW MEXICO
(1866 - 1869), near Tierra Amarilla
Located on the Rio Chama southwest of town. Originally named Camp Plummer until 1868. Became the Ute and Apache Indian Agency in 1872, and then consolidated with the Pueblo Indian Agency in 1878. The Agency was closed in 1881.
Camp Navajo Springs
(1864), near Canjilon
Located about five miles northeast of town.
Post at Abiquiu
(1849, 1850 - 1851), Abiquiu
Initially a post of the volunteer Santa Fe Guards, then later a temporary Dragoon garrison post using rented adobe buildings in the town.
(1696 ?), Cuarteles
A small community located between Santa Cruz and Chimayó, originally established sometime between 1695 and 1705 as a Spanish military headquarters for the local region.
This settlement is the last remaining colonial town in New Mexico with the original defensive plaza (Plaza del Cerro) still intact. The plaza chapel, Oratorio de San Buenaventura, is open by appointment.
(unknown dates), Las Trampas
The Spanish settlement was originally enclosed by a defensive adobe wall. The present San José Church was built in 1763.
(1858), near Questa ?
A Federal encampment located on the Red River.
Post of Taos
(1847 - 1852, 1860 - 1861, 1865), Taos
A Federal garrison was established here in 1848 after the Mexican-American War. Originally called Camp at Fernando de Taos in 1847 when Missouri Volunteers occupied rented adobe buildings.
(1852 - 1860), Ranchos de Taos
A reconstructed Dragoon fort originally called Cantonment Burgwin, and also known as Fort Fernando de Taos. Located 10 miles south of Taos, it was built to protect the wagon road between Santa Fe and Taos. Site now occupied by the SMU-in-Taos Fort Burgwin Research Center (1964), a summer satellite campus of Southern Methodist University.
A Dragoon post on the Santa Fe Trail.
Post at Rayado
(1850 - 1851, 1854), Rayado
A Dragoon post located about 12 miles south of Cimarron on the Santa Fe Trail. The post initially consisted of rented quarters at the mansion of Lucien Maxwell. The town was regarrisoned in 1854. Of interest in town is the Kit Carson Museum.
Station at Ocate
(1851 - 1854), Ocate
(1851 - 1894), near Watrous
Three forts were located here. The first post consisted of several log buildings (1851 - 1861), but was deemed inadequately sited for military purposes. The second was an eight-pointed star-shaped earthwork called Star Fort (1861 - 1862), located across Coyote Creek about one mile away, built to defend against a possible Confederate attack. The attack never came and it was abandoned. The third was an extensive adobe fort begun in 1863 just north of the earthwork fort and took six years to complete. It was the largest post in the Southwest. The post's ordnance depot (1863 - 1882) occupied the site of the earlier log fort. Abandoned in 1891 and left under caretakers for three more years. Nothing remains of the previous two forts. The third site lies in ruin, covering 80 acres. Located near the junction of the Mountain and Cimarron branches of the Santa Fe Trail.
(1865 - 1866), near Fort Union ?
Alexander Barclay's Fort (2)
(1849 - 1854), Watrous
A civilian two-story adobe trading post with two circular bastions, enclosed by a 64-foot square palisade, located along the Mora River. Also known as Fort Barclay (2). Barclay sold the post in 1853. The remains of the post were destroyed by a spring flood circa 1900.
Camp in Cañon Largo
A temporary NM Volunteers post located about 20 miles southeast of Fort Union, where the Mora and Canadian Rivers meet in San Miguel County. Used against the Comanche Indians.
Camp Rabbit Ear Creek
(1864), near Clayton
Located north of town near Rabbit Ear Mountain.
Fort Butler (a)
(1860 ?), near Conchas
A Federal post reportedly located about 12 miles from Fort Bascom on the Canadian River. Possibly never actually built.
An alternate site may be near Dilia on the Gallinas River at Alexander Hatch's Ranch (see below).
(info provided by Marshall Sitrin)
(1863 - 1870), near Tucumcari
Located on the south bank of the Canadian River, eight miles north of town. It was originally called Camp Easton until 1864. The Officers' quarters were built of stone, the rest of the post was adobe. The garrison was transferred to Fort Union.
(Bosque Redondo Memorial at Fort Sumner)
(Old Fort Sumner Museum)
(1862 - 1869), near Fort Sumner
A trading post was first located here in 1851. The Apache and Navajo were confined here by Col. Kit Carson beginning in 1863. However, control of the Bosque Redondo Indian Reservation was deemed a failure, as the Apaches unilaterally left in 1865, and the Navajos were allowed back to their homeland in 1868. The fort was discontinued soon after that, and was then sold to Lucien Maxwell. Billy the Kid was killed here in July 1881 and his gravesite is nearby. Maxwell abandoned the site in 1894. Most of the site has since been damaged by floodwaters of the Pecos River.
Of interest in town at 1435 East Sumner Ave. is the Billy the Kid Museum (admission fee).
Post at Beck's Ranch
(1859 - 1860), near Santa Rosa
A temporary military outpost located two miles northeast of town.
Camp at Anton Chico
(1863 - 1864), Anton Chico
A temporary post garrisoned by the CA Volunteer Cavalry.
Camp at (Alexander) Hatch's Ranch
(1859 - 1864, intermittent), near Dilia
Leased by the Army as a convenient supply stop from Fort Union. Located 12 miles northeast of town on the west bank of the Gallinas River, about 25 miles southeast of Las Vegas. The main house (115 x 288 feet) was adobe, surrounded by a 10-foot high adobe wall. This may have been known as Fort Butler (b) (?). Remains located on Park Springs Ranch (private property).
(1850 - 1860, 1870 ?), Tecolote
A foraging camp for Fort Union, located just south of Romeroville.
Las Vegas Post
(1846 - 1851), Las Vegas
Initially garrisoned by MO and IL Volunteers until 1848, then became U.S. Military Headquarters in the territory until Fort Union was established. The post consisted of rented quarters.
Alexander Barclay's Fort (1)
(1848 - 1854), Las Vegas
A civilian trading post, also known as Fort Barclay (1). Barclay sold the post in 1854.
(1904 - 1945 ?), near Las Vegas
A NM National Guard summer training area, known under several different names until 1929. Federalized in 1942 for WWII training. Post-war status undetermined.
(Pecos National Historic Park)
(1862), near Pecos
A Union (Colorado Volunteers) encampment at Martin Kozlowski's Ranch, located at the eastern end of the Glorieta Pass on the Santa Fe Trail. The Battle of Glorieta Pass (March 1862) was just west of here.
Camp at Pigeon's Ranch
(1862), near Glorieta
Colorado Volunteers encamped here prior to the Battle of Apache Canyon (March 26, 1862). The Battle of Glorieta Pass occurred here on March 28, 1862. The ranch was used as a Confederate hospital after the battle. "Pigeon" was the nickname of ranch owner Alexander Valle.
Camp at Johnson's Ranch
A Confederate encampment at Johnson's Ranch, located at the western end of the Glorieta Pass on the Santa Fe Trail, near Apache Canyon. Attacked by Colorado Volunteers under Major John Chivington as a sideline to the Battle of Glorieta Pass (March 1862), where the Confederate supply train was destroyed, forcing the Confederates to retreat back to Texas, via the Rio Grande.
Presidio of Santa Fe
(1610 - 1680, 1692 - 1846), Santa Fe
Originally named La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco. Built to protect the Mission de San Miguel (built from 1610-1625). The chapel of the mission was fortified in 1710. The fortified complex was abandoned by the Spanish and occupied by Pueblo Indians during the Pueblo Revolt in 1680. Recaptured by Spain in 1692. The presidio was then rebuilt and named Presidio de Exaltación de la Cruz del Nuevo México (aka Presidio of New Mexico). Also known as El Real Presidio de Nuestra Señora de los Remedios y la Exaltación de la Santa Cruz. The Palace of Governors is located at the heart of the old presidio complex. Fortified barracks were north of the Palace. The Plaza de Armas outside the Palace later became part of Fort Marcy (see below). The San Miguel Mission still stands.
Santa Fe was the capital of the Spanish province of New Mexico beginning in 1610. Since it continues to be the state capital, this makes the city the oldest continuous seat of civil government in the United States (ahead of Boston, MA, 1630).
Of interest just south of the city at 334 Los Pinos Road is El Rancho de las Golondrinas, a restored Spanish colonial ranch and living history museum. Admission fee. One feature is a defensive adobe tower (el torreón).
(1846 - 1867, 1875 - 1894), Santa Fe
This was the first American fort built in this state, also referred to as Post at Santa Fe. Located near the site of the Presidio, it was an earthwork with an adobe blockhouse, a dry moat, and mounted 13 guns. The troops and officers were quartered in the old presidio compound. The post was briefly abandoned when the Confederates invaded New Mexico in 1862. It was reoccupied by NM Volunteers soon after. The post was ordered abandoned in 1867 but somehow the military forgot this and when a relief garrison was sent in 1875, the commander reported that there was no post at Fort Marcy. The government then re-established the fort. The post was finally abandoned in 1894. A modern hotel now covers most of the original site.
Post at Galisteo
(1851 - 1858, intermittent), Galisteo
Initially a Dragoon horse and mule grazing camp until 1852, then used as an intermittent garrison post.
Post at Cubero
(1862), near Domingo
A small temporary garrison of NM Volunteers guarding ordnance stores, captured by the CSA in March 1862. Located five miles southwest of town, on the Rio Grande between the Santo Domingo and San Felipe Pueblos.
Algodones Quartermaster Depot
A temporary Army supply depot in rented buildings. Abandoned because of the expense.
Post at Jemez
(1849), Jemez Pueblo
A temporary Army post.
Post of Albuquerque
(1846 - 1851, 1852 - 1867), Albuquerque
Initially a Dragoon garrison post. Temporarily abandoned in 1851, it was regarrisoned and became department headquarters in 1852, supporting a quartermaster depot in rented adobe buildings. Captured by the Confederates in 1862, with a gun battery set up in the town square (plaza).
A Spanish Presidio was established here in 1706, and the Mexicans also had a military presence here after 1821.
(1852, 1853), near Albuquerque
A temporary Dragoon and infantry encampment. Exact location undetermined.
Camp Baird's Ranch
(1866), near Albuquerque ?
Los Pinos Depot
(1860/1862 - 1866), Bosque Farms
A Union quartermaster depot and remount station occupying rented quarters. Originally established in 1860 as Camp at Peralta, or Camp Peralta.
Camp at Los Lunas
(1852, 1859 - 1860, 1862), Los Lunas
A Dragoon post prior to the Civil War. Also known as Post of Los Lunas. Abandoned and reoccupied several times.
A temporary Army tent camp, a 20-man detachment from the Post of Albuquerque. Located on the east bank of the Rio Grande.
Camp near Casa Colorado
(1855), near Belen
A Federal encampment. Located about five miles southeast of town, on the east bank of the Rio Grande.
Post at Laguna
(1851 - 1852), Laguna
A temporary Dragoon post that replaced the Post at Ceboletta. Transferred to Fort Defiance, Arizona.
Post at Ceboletta
(1850 - 1851), Cebolleta
A Dragoon post established to curb the illegal gun and whiskey trade to the Indians. Spelling variations include Cebolleta, Cibolleta, Sebolleta, Seboyeta, Seyboyeta.
A Union 45-man garrison post. Attacked by the CSA (Texas Cavalry) in May 1862.
Fort Wingate (1)
(1862 - 1868), San Rafael
A Federal infantry post used in Col. Kit Carson's 1863 Navajo Campaign. Also known as Fort El Gallo. The garrison was moved from Fort Lyon (see below), but in 1868 was moved back to its original location.
Fort Wingate (2)
(U.S. Military Reservation)
(1860 - 1862, 1868 - 1918/1993/present), Fort Wingate
Originally named Fort Fauntleroy until 1861, then renamed Fort Lyon because the person it was originally named for had become a Confederate officer. In 1862 the garrison was moved 50 miles east and the new post was renamed Fort Wingate (see above). In 1868 the post was moved back to its original location at Ojo del Oso (Bear Spring), while still retaining the same name. After 1882 the post was headquarters for many archaeological and ethnological expeditions in the region. In 1914 about 4000 Mexican troops and civilians that fled Mexico during the Pancho Villa War were temporarily housed here. In 1925 a portion of the post was used as a school for Navajo Indians. The Wingate Ordnance Depot was established here in 1918. Renamed Fort Wingate Ordnance Depot in 1960, and Fort Wingate Army Depot in 1962. The Ordnance Depot was closed in 1993. About half of the reservation was transferred to the Navajo and Zuni Nations, and the remaining portion is still currently used by the military as a subpost of the White Sands Missile Range for missile testing.
Camp in Chusco Valley
(1858), near Mexican Springs
A temporary Army field camp during the Navajo Campaign. Also spelled Chuska. Located northwest of Tohatchi.
(1858), near Sheep Springs
A temporary Army infantry outpost in the Tuni-Cha Valley.
NEED MORE INFO: Blanco Trading Post (date ?) near Nageezi.
Towns: Torreon in western Sandoval County; Torreon in western Torrance County.
Undetermined locations: Camp Alamo Vejo (1885); Station at Hubbel's Ranch (1861) in "Navajo Country"; Post at Lazuma (1851); Camp Los Poros (1860); Camp at Los Valles (1863) 49 miles from Santa Fe; Cantonment Mason (1) (1855); Camp Mule Spring (1856); Camp Niggerhead Spring (1855); Camp Pleasant Springs (1855); Camp Shoeneman (1867). Some of these may be located in Arizona.
Southern New Mexico - page 2
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