Southern New Mexico

Post at Abó Pass | Abó Station | Camp at Alamosa | Aleman Station | Camp Baird
Fort Bayard | Camp Bear Spring | Camp Blake | Camp Boyd | Camp at Burro Mts.
Camp Carizallillo Spring | Camp near Carizo | Camp Carson | Cloverdale Camp
Camp Cody | Camp Cogswell | Post at Columbus | Camp Comfort | Camp Connelly
Fort Conrad | Station at the Copper Mines | Camp Cottonwood | Cottonwoods Ranch
Fort Craig | Fort Cummings | Camp at Fort Cummings | Camp Datil
Cantonment Dawson | Camp at Doña Ana | Doña Ana Post | Fort Fillmore
Fort Floyd | Camp Furlong | Camp Gallina | Camp Garland (2) | Cantonment Garland (1)
Post at Gila Copper Mines | Gila Depot | Camp near Guadalupe Mts. | Camp Hachita
Hay Camp | Camp Henley | Camp Hillsboro | Camp Johnson | Camp La Hoya
Camp La Joya | Post at La Mesilla | Camp at Las Animas | Las Cruces Post
Lincoln Torreón | Fort McLane | Fort McLean | Fort McRae | Camp Maddox
Camp Magoffin | Camp at Mangues Ranch | Mason's Fort (2) | Fort Meigs | Mesilla Depot
Camp Mimbres | Mimbres Station | Camp Mischler | Camp Ojo Caliente | Post of Ojo Caliente
Old Stone Fortifications | Camp Pinos Altos | Richmond Post | Camp on the Rio Gila
Rio Gila Depot | Camp on the Rio Mimbres | Camp Robbero | Camp Robledo
Robledo Presidio | Camp Roswell | Post at San Agustin Pass | San Isidoro Post
Camp at San Pedro | Fort Santa Rita del Cobre | Post at Santa Tomas | Camp Winfield Scott
Fort Selden | Camp Shannon | Camp Sherman | Camp Sierra | Post of Socorro
Fort Stanton | Fort Thorn | Fort Tularosa | Camp at Tularosa Valley | Camp Union
Camp Valverde | Post at Valverde | Camp Vincent | Fort Webster (1) | Fort Webster (2)
Fort Webster (3) | Fort Webster (4) | Fort Webster (5) | Fort West
Camp Wheeler | Fort Wheeler

Northern New Mexico - page 1

FORT WIKI - NEW MEXICO

Last Update: 20/JANUARY/2011
Compiled by Phil and Pete Payette - ©2011 American Forts Network

Post at Abó Pass
(1861), near Scholle
A temporary Federal cavalry tent camp, located 15 miles east of Bernardo, to protect the pass through the Manzano Mountains. Also called Abó Station.

Camp La Joya
(1846, 1862 - 1864), La Joya
Initially a Dragoon post, located in the wastelands of the "Jornada del Muerto" (Journey of Death) to protect the river crossing. Later intermittently occupied by the CA Volunteer Infantry. Also spelled La Hoya in some records.

Camp Connelly
(1862), Polvadera
A temporary encampment of NM Volunteers located on the then Territorial governor's ranch.

Post of Socorro
(1849 - 1851, 1862 - 1863, 1877 - 1881), Socorro
Initially a Dragoon post in rented quarters. The town was later occupied several times. Confederates occupied the town in 1862 as a hospital post. The CA Volunteers garrisoned the town in 1863.

Camp at San Pedro
(1863 - 1864), San Pedro
A temporary post occupied by CA Volunteer Infantry, located about 14 miles southeast of Socorro.

Fort Craig (National Historical Site)
(1854 - 1885), San Marcial
Built to protect the Santa Fe and El Paso Road from the Navajo and Apache. Only ruins remain, located in the Socorro Resource Area, Bureau of Land Management. This fort replaced Fort Conrad. See also NM Chapter, Sons of Confederate Veterans

Nearby was Camp Carson (between the fort and the river) and Camp Mischler (one mile south of the fort), temporary overflow encampments for NM militia aiding in the defense of the fort in February 1862 against the Confederates.

Of interest nearby is the El Camino Real Historic Trail Site (State Historic Site) (admission fee).

Camp near Carizo
(1858), near Carrizozo
Apparently located somewhere north of Fort Conrad. Probably located near Carizo Springs, about two miles north of town.

Camp Valverde
(1864), Val Verde
A temporary encampment of CA Volunteer Cavalry, located near the site of the February 1862 Battle of Valverde.

Fort Conrad
(1851 - 1854), Val Verde
A Dragoon post on the west bank of the Rio Grande. Possibly originally named Post at Valverde in 1851. Replaced by Fort Craig, this site, renamed Hay Camp, was then later used to raise forage for the new post.

Camp Winfield Scott
(1860), near Corona
A Federal encampment. Located west of town.

Camp Sierra
(1858, 1861), near Gallinas
A temporary Federal infantry encampment originally called Camp Gallina, apparently located in the Sierra Gallinas. The town was reportedly later briefly occupied by CSA troops in 1861.

Camp Cogswell
(1860), near Carrizozo ?
A Federal encampment located about 20 miles northwest of Fort Stanton.

Fort Stanton (State Historic Site)
(Fort Stanton - Snowy River Cave National Conservation Area)
(1855 - 1896), Fort Stanton
Originally Camp Garland (2), which consisted of two blockhouses surrounded by adobe walls. It was built to control the area's Apache tribes. Abandoned in 1861 and later briefly occupied by the Confederates, who then burned it down when they retreated from the area. The Union reoccupied it in 1862 and partially rebuilt it in 1868 with stone. Abandoned and rebuilt two miles north in 1869, and became the guardian of the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation in 1871. The fort was later abandoned and became a part of the Federal Public Health Service from 1899 to 1953. It was also used as a German and Italian POW camp in WWII. It became a state hospital until 1995, and then a state prison until 1999. It was then leased as a private drug rehab center until 2008. Several original stone buildings still remain, as well as others from later periods. A museum and visitor center is located on the grounds. The historic post of 27 acres became a NM State Monument in 2009, and the surrounding 1300 acres of undeveloped lands became part of the BLM's Snowy River Cave NCA. See also Legends of America.com || Fort Stanton Kids
PHOTOS from On-Walkabout.com

Lincoln Torreón
(Lincoln State Historic Site)
(1850's), Lincoln
A reconstructed (1937) civilian defensive stone tower (torreón), originally built by the local Hispanic settlers to protect against Apache raids. The town was originally named Las Placitas del Rio Bonito until 1869. Admission fee to historic sites. PHOTOS by Galen Frysinger

Fort Meigs
(unknown dates), San Patricio
No data. (same as below ?)

Old Stone Fortifications ? ?
(unknown dates), near San Patricio
Undetermined, possibly of Native American or Hispanic origin. Shown on an 1857 military map of New Mexico Territory, located about eight miles south-southwest of town, just north of Pajarito Spring, north of the present-day Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation boundary.

Camp Magoffin
(1854, 1863 - 1865), near Alto
A Federal infantry post located west of town in the present White Mountain Wilderness Reserve.

Camp Roswell
(1878 - 1879), Roswell
A temporary post during the "Lincoln County War", garrisoned by the Buffalo Soldiers.

Camp near Guadalupe Mountains
(1855), near Carlsbad
A Federal encampment southwest of town.

Camp Comfort
(1858 - 1859), near White Sands
A temporary Federal infantry post to watch over the Apache.

Fort McRae
(1863 - 1876), near Elephant Butte
Initially a CA Volunteer Infantry post, located about three miles east of Rattlesnake Island and the main channel of Elephant Butte Lake, on the south side of McRae Canyon. The Army continued to hold the abandoned reservation until 1884. Stone foundations of the adobe buildings still remain, now usually under the waters of Elephant Butte Reservoir (created in 1915). See also Fort McRae Emerges from US Bureau of Reclamation

Camp at Alamosa
(1861), Alamosa
A Union encampment, a subpost of Fort Craig, located on the Alamosa River at the Rio Grande, at the mouth of the Cañada Alamosa. Attacked and captured by Confederates in September 1861. The old townsite is submerged under the waters of the Elephant Butte Reservoir.

Camp Ojo Caliente
(1859 - 1861, 1877 - 1882), near Monticello
An outpost of Fort Craig, located about 15 miles northwest of town on the Alamosa River. Nine adobe buildings were built. Abandoned during the Civil War. Briefly occupied as the Warm Spring Apache Indian Agency on the Ojo Caliente Indian Reservation during the late 1860's. Regarrisoned by the Buffalo Soldiers during Apache troubles, renamed Post of Ojo Caliente. Attacked in 1879.

Camp Boyd
(1885 - 1886), Hillsboro
Originally called Camp Hillsboro, it was a Federal supply base for other nearby posts.

Camp Blake
(1856), Salem
A Dragoon grazing camp located three miles north of Fort Thorn.

Fort Thorn
(1853 - 1859, 1861 - 1863), Hatch
Originally called Cantonment Garland (1). Established by the garrison from abandoned Fort Webster (2). Abandoned in 1859 due to unhealthful conditions. The post hospital was left standing for the use of travelers. The Confederates briefly used the post in 1861 - 1862. Recaptured by the CA Volunteers in June 1862 but abandoned in 1863. No remains.

Camp Robbero
(1857), near Hatch
A Federal encampment near Fort Thorn.

Fort Selden (State Historic Site)
(1865 - 1877, 1880 - 1891), near Radium Springs
A Federal post that took over two years to construct. Abandoned after the railroad came through the area. It was reactivated in 1880 for border patrols. Became a subpost of Fort Bayard in 1890. Adobe ruins remain. Visitor center on site. Admission fee. See also GhostTowns.com
PHOTOS from Galen Frysinger
PHOTOS from On-Walkabout.com

Minor subposts of Fort Selden in the late 1860's included San Agustin Pass near Organ, and a temporary detachment at Aleman Station (location ?), a stage station located somewhere north along the "Jornada del Muerto" and the road to Fort McRae, possibly north of Point of Rocks at the "Pond of the Aleman".

Robledo Presidio
(1771 - unknown), near Radium Springs
A Spanish post was reportedly located near Mount Robledo, south of town, near the beginning of the "Jornada del Muerto" to Albuquerque and Santa Fe.

Camp Robledo
(1853, 1861 - 1863), near Radium Springs
Located near Mount Robledo, south of town. Intermittently occupied by both USA and CSA units during Indian campaigns.

Doña Ana Post
(1849, 1855 - 1856, 1861 - 1862), Doña Ana
A Federal Dragoon and infantry post to protect the river crossing (Camp at Doña Ana), and later railroad surveyors in 1855. The town had marked the eastern terminus of the international boundary line (Gila River) between the United States and Mexico, west of the Rio Grande, before the Gadsden Purchase of 1853. Confederates established a hospital here at the beginning of their New Mexico campaign in 1861.

Camp at Las Animas
(1854), near Doña Ana
A temporary Federal encampment near town.

San Isidoro Post
(1849 - 1850), San Isidoro
A temporary Federal post located two miles north of Las Cruces, established to guard the international boundary as it was before the Gadsden Purchase (1853) relocated the boundary south to present-day Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

Las Cruces Post
(1862), Las Cruces
A Union quartermaster supply depot in rented structures, established after the Confederates retreated from the area.

Mason's Fort (2)
(1860's ?), near Las Cruces
A stage station and civilian trading post.

Post at La Mesilla
(La Mesilla State Monument)
(1861 - 1864), (La) Mesilla
This town became the Confederate capital of the short-lived CSA Territory of Arizona in August 1861, after Fort Fillmore was captured. The CA Volunteers then reoccupied the town in July 1862, and in rented quarters made this the headquarters of the Military District of Arizona. Also called Mesilla Depot.
See also History of Old Mesilla

Fort Fillmore
(1851 - 1862), Mesilla Park
A stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail Route. Used for operations against the Apache. In 1860 this fort was briefly commanded by a woman when the entire garrison, except for a sergeant and ten men, went on long patrol. The Confederates captured the fort without a fight in July 1861. Abandoned by the CSA in July 1862, then reoccupied by CA Volunteers before the post was abandoned in October 1862. Site was excavated in 1966-70, and 1987. Remnants of the adobe fort remain buried under a pecan tree grove at Salopek Farms (private property), after the state refused to accept the exposed ruins as a state park in the early 1970's. The post cemetery was found and excavated in 1999, and was dedicated and marked as an historic site in November 2001, although it too is located on closed private property. The channel of the Rio Grande was once situated between the fort and the town of Mesilla, but has since changed course. See also Looking for Fort Fillmore by Jim Reed

Post at Santa Tomas de Iturbide
(1854 - 1855), Santa Tomas
A temporary Federal infantry post located just north of San Miguel.

Camp Johnson
(1854, 1862), near La Mesa
A temporary CA Volunteers tent camp located on the west side of the Rio Grande, 17 miles south of Fort Fillmore, at Johnson's Ranch. Originally known in 1854 as Camp Cottonwood or Detachment at Cottonwoods Ranch.

Camp Furlong
(National Historic Landmark)
(Pancho Villa State Park)
(1916 - 1924), Columbus
Built by the U.S. Army to patrol the Mexican border. Known as Post at Columbus until 1918 when discontinued as a border patrol post. Attacked by Pancho Villa's forces in March 1916. Adobe ruins of several structures remain adjacent to and within Pancho Villa State Park. The Post Recreation Hall was restored in the 1980's. See also History of the Columbus Raid from New Mexico State University
PHOTOS from On-Walkabout.com

Camp Carizallillo Spring
(1885), near Hachita
A Federal encampment. Located southeast of town, in present Luna County, along the state border.

Camp Hachita
(1886), Hachita
A heliograph station during the Apache Campaign. There were about 30 such stations located throughout southern New Mexico and Arizona.

Camp Shannon
(1917 - 1922), Hachita
Built by the U.S. Army for border patrols. Became a subpost of Camp Furlong in 1920.

Cloverdale Camp
(1882 - 1886), Cloverdale
A supply depot and base camp during the Apache Campaign.

Camp Henley
(1886), near Separ
A base camp and heliograph station during the Apache Campaign, located at the Soldiers Farewell Stage Station north of town.

Camp Baird
(1890's), Deming
A temporary Army post just north of town.

Camp Cody
(1917 - 1919), near Deming
A Federalized National Guard cantonment mobilization center and training area for the 34th Division, located two miles west of town. After the war became a Public Health Service Hospital for veterans until 1922, when transferred to the Sisters of the Holy Cross of Notre Dame. Burned down in 1938. Site now vacant land.

Fort Cummings
(1863 - 1873, 1880 - 1884, 1886), Cooke's Springs
Composed of several single-story adobe buildings surrounded by a 10-foot high adobe wall, it was built for the purpose of keeping New Mexico from joining the Confederacy, to control the Apache Indians, and to protect the Butterfield - Overland stage route and the road to California. The fort entered caretaker status in 1870 but was reoccupied later as Camp at Fort Cummings during Apache troubles, and was also used as a heliograph station. The Cooke's Springs Stage Station was first located here from 1858 to 1861. Adobe ruins of the fort remain partly on BLM managed land and also on adjacent private property.

Camp Mimbres
(1863 - 1864), near Dwyer
A CA Volunteer Cavalry supply depot, also called Camp on the Rio Mimbres, located about two miles southwest of town.

Fort McLane
(1860 - 1861, 1862 - 1864), near Hurley
Camp Wheeler was originally established here to protect the local copper mines, located three and one-half miles south of town. It was soon redesignated Fort Wheeler, and then renamed Fort Floyd. It was proposed to be renamed Fort Webster (3) to avoid confusion with Camp Floyd in Utah, however, it was renamed Fort McLane in early 1861 (sometimes spelled McLean). It was then abandoned in July 1861 to reinforce Fort Fillmore. It was reoccupied intermittently from 1862 to 1864 by the CA Volunteers during the Apache Campaign.

Fort Bayard
(History of Fort Bayard)
(1866 - 1900/1922), Central
Intended to safeguard the local mines. Garrisoned by the Buffalo Soldiers. In 1900 the fort became a military hospital for troops from the Cuba and Puerto Rico campaigns. In 1922 the hospital became part of the Public Health Service, later becoming a Veterans Administration Hospital. It was transferred to the state in 1966. Closed in 2010, slated for possible demolition. Guided tours of the abandoned facility are still offered by the Fort Bayard Historic Preservation Society, where 81 buildings still stand on 468 acres. See also Historic Fort Bayard from Silver City-Grant County Chamber of Commerce

Fort Santa Rita del Cobre
(1804 - 1838, 1851 - 1852), Santa Rita
A civilian Spanish/Mexican triangular adobe fort with three round towers to protect the Santa Rita copper mines. Built by Manuel Elguea. Rebuilt and garrisoned by Mexican troops in 1836. Abandoned after repeated Apache attacks. Occupied by an American Border Commission survey party in 1851 and called Cantonment Dawson. Reoccupied and renamed by the Army in January 1852 as Post at Gila Copper Mines or Fort Webster (1). Replaced by Fort Webster (2) (see below). The last remaining adobe tower succumbed in the 1950's. A down-sized replica of this fort is located in Pinos Altos. See also Historic Sites in Pinos Altos

Fort Webster (2)
(1852 - 1853, 1859 - 1860), San Lorenzo
Originally located at the Santa Rita copper mines 14 miles west of here at the site of Fort Santa Rita. The post moved in September 1852 to this location on the west bank of the Rio Mimbres, about one mile west of town. It was then abandoned in December 1853 for Fort Thorn. It was briefly reoccupied in 1859 as Station at the Copper Mines.

Fort Webster (4)
(1861), Mimbres
A Butterfield - Overland stage station originally known as Mimbres Station, it was briefly fortified by a Major (Sylvester ?) Mowry before he joined the Confederacy in 1861.

Fort Webster (5)
(1866), near Mimbres
A temporary post located at the headwaters of the Rio Mimbres, on the west bank, 15 miles north of Santa Rita. It is mentioned in Brig. General John Pope's 1866 Report, and featured on a 1877 map.

Camp Pinos Altos
(1863 - 1864), Pinos Altos
Built by the CA Volunteer Cavalry to protect the local miners.
Located here is actually a replica of Fort Santa Rita / Webster (1) (see above).

Camp at Mangues Ranch
(1863), near Pinos Altos ?

Camp at Burro Mountains
(1853, 1859), near Tyrone
A Federal encampment. Site located west of town.

Fort West
(1863 - 1864), near Gila
Built by the CA Volunteer Cavalry during the Apache Campaign. Intended to safeguard local miners. Located on the south side of the Gila River, north of town.

Gila Depot
(1857, 1863), near Cliff
A supply base during Col. Benjamin Bonneville's expedition against the Apaches, located about three miles south of town. Also called Depot on the Rio Gila, Rio Gila Depot, and Camp on the Rio Gila. In 1863 the site was occupied by CA Volunteer Cavalry prior to the establishment of Fort West five miles northwest.
(NOTE: not to be confused with Gila Depot (1867) in ARIZONA)

Located one mile away was Camp Union (1857).

Richmond Post
(1882 - 1883), Virden
A Federal infantry scouting camp. The town was known as Richmond until 1916.

Camp Vincent
(1879), near Gila Hot Springs
Located in southern Catron County, northeast of town at the juction of Beaver Creek, Taylor Creek, and the Gila River East Fork. Established to defend against Apache raids.

Camp Sherman
(1879), near Gila Hot Springs
An Army supply depot. Located in southern Catron County, northeast of town on Taylor Creek.

Camp Maddox
(1885 - 1886), Alma
A Federal cavalry encampment during Apache chief Geronimo's uprising. A heliograph station was also here in 1886.

Fort Tularosa
(1872 - 1874), near Aragon
A Federal infantry post located on the south bank of Tularosa Creek, about one-half mile from town, 15 miles northeast of Reserve, to protect the new Apache Indian Agency. Before the military post was finished, the Indian Agency moved to a new site on Horse Creek at Old Horse Springs, about 18 miles east. The military post was withdrawn when the Apaches returned to the Ojo Caliente Reservation near Monticello. No remains.

Located in the vicinity in 1863 was Camp at Tularosa Valley.

Camp Datil
(1885 - 1886), Datil
A temporary Federal cavalry and infantry post located one and one-half miles north of town on Datil Creek.

Camp Bear Spring
(1858), near Magdalena
A Federal infantry encampment apparently located about 25 miles northwest of Socorro, used in the Navajo Campaign.


Northern New Mexico - page 1

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