Canadian Forts


Aroostook Post | Fort Boishébert | Fort Carleton (1) | Fort Carleton (2) | Dipper Harbour Post
East Battery (2) | Fredericton Compound | Fredericton Junction Blockhouse
Gagetown Blockhouse | Grand Falls Blockhouse | Fort Hughes | Indian Island Post
Fort Jemseck | Fort Jemseg | Joe's Point Blockhouse | Letang Battery | Fort Madawaska
Meductic Indian Fort | Fort Nashwaak | Fort Naxouat | Fort de Nerepice
Petit Sault Blockhouse | Piskahegan Blockhouse | Pomeroy Blockhouse | Fort Presqu' Île
Rivière Saint-Jean Trade Post | St. Andrews Blockhouse | Fort St. Joseph | Fort Tipperary
Fort Vernon | "Visual Telegraph" System | West Battery | Woodstock Blockhouse
Worden's Ferry Blockhouse

Eastern New Brunswick - page 2 | Saint John Harbour - page 3


Last Update: 08/MAY/2010
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2010 American Forts Network

NOTE: New Brunswick was once a part of the French colony of Acadia until 1763 (de facto 1755) when it became part of the British colony of Nova Scotia until separated in 1784.

Fort Madawaska
(Petit Sault Blockhouse National Historic Site)
(1841 - 1847 ?), Edmundston FORT WIKI
A stockaded blockhouse constructed during the border crisis with the United States. Also known as the Petit Sault Blockhouse. It had a stone foundation with two upper floors made with cut logs. It was destroyed by lightning in August 1855. A reproduction was built on site in 2001, located at 10-14 St-Jean Avenue. Admission fee.

Fort Carleton (1)
(1790 - 1824, 1837 - 1847), Grand Falls (Grand-Sault) FORT WIKI
A British post built to secure the lines of communication between Halifax and Québec City up the Saint John River Valley. The post consisted originally of a half-dozen squared log buildings alongside the portage that crossed the narrow neck of land separating the upper and lower basins on the Saint John River. The original military reserve totaled about 158 acres.

During the Maine/New Brunswick border dispute, the post was regarrisoned. It was rebuilt in April 1839 with a blockhouse, three log barracks to accomodate 210 men, plus a cooking house and privy. It soon expanded to include buildings for commissariat and barracks stores, a guard house, gun shed, powder magazine, all enclosed in a stockade. The last troops departed in 1847 and a caretaker was left in charge of the post. In September 1848 a fire burned two of the log barracks and the storehouse was pulled down to prevent the fire from spreading to the rest of the post.

According to local tradition the old Mulherin Grocery Store, now the Sénéchal Furniture Company, at the corner of Court and Broadway Streets, incorporated the last surviving structure, most likely the third log barracks. This building burned down in December 2009. The unusually wide Broadway Street was the original parade ground. The lower terminus of the original portage around the falls remains, but is overgrown.

Aroostook Post
(1839 - 1840's), near Aroostook
A British blockhouse located at the mouth of the Aroostook River, blocking the road to Fort Fairfield, ME.

Fort Presqu' Île
(1791 - 1824, 1837 - 1840's), near Simonds
A British blockhouse located at the mouth of the Presqu' Île River. The post occupied five acres, with barracks, Officers' quarters, a guardhouse, stables and stores. During the Maine/New Brunswick border dispute the post was repaired and used as an observation post, depot and rallying point for the local militia. The only evidence remaining is the post cemetery. There is a provincial historic marker on the side of the road at the foot of the height of land upon which stood the blockhouse.

Woodstock Blockhouse
(1837 - 1840's), Woodstock
A British blockhouse constructed overlooking the Houlton Road. The exact location is not known.

Meductic Indian Fort (National Historic Site)
(1600's - 1750's), near Meductic
A Maliseet Indian stockaded stronghold located in the Meductic Flat area of the Saint John River, near the mouth of the Eel River. Early European explorers reported finding a roughly rectangular stockade, constructed of logs bound together with spruce roots and supported by earth and rocks, the whole being surrounded by a defensive trench. Within the stockade was a long house, where councils were held, and facilities for storing provisions. A short distance from the stockade was the village proper. A French Jesuit mission Saint Jean Baptiste was established here in 1717, although a mission may have been located here since the 1680's. The village was abandoned by 1760, and the mission church was closed in 1767. Archaeological excavations of the site occurred in the 1960s. A Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque is located nearby along the Trans-Canada Highway. The site, now flooded by the Mactaquac Hydro Dam (built 1968), is located north of town.

Fort Nashwaak (National Historic Site)
(1692 - 1698), Fredericton
A French palisaded four-bastioned fort located on the north bank of the Nashwaak River at its mouth. Also spelled Naxouat. Also known as Fort St. Joseph, as it was built by Acadian Governor Joseph Robinou de Villebon to replace Fort Jemseg as the military headquarters of Acadia. Repelled a British attack in October 1697. British seige works were located on the south bank of the river, near the present-day Fort Nashwaak Motel. A Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque in Carleton Park commemorates the fort. The actual site is now an Irving Oil tank farm.

Fredericton Military Compound
(Historic Garrison District)
(1785 - 1869, 1883 - 1914), Fredericton
A British garrison post occupying a two block area bounded by the river and Queen, York and Regent Streets. British troops left in 1869. Constructed mainly of wood, most of the original buildings were lost through deterioration or fire; however, a number of the key buildings were rebuilt with stone. One original wooden building and three 19th-century stone structures remain. The present-day Justice Building (1929) is on the site of the old Military Hospital (1827 - 1875). In 1965 the Military Compound was declared a National Historic Site. See also Fredericton Tour Info from New

Militia Arms Store (1832): Of the 61 original buildings in the compound, this is the only remaining wooden structure. It was used to store weapons and ammunition for the local militia. In 1882 an extension was added to the rear and renovated into a military hospital. It has seen several uses since then, a warehouse, temperance hall, a caretaker's residence, and offices for the Downtown Development Fredericton Inc.. Located on Carleton Street, it now houses the city's tourism staff.

Guard House (1828): This small building is typical of British guard houses found around the world. It consists of an orderly room, guard room and detention cells. It has been restored to the 1866 period with muskets, uniforms and equipment, when the British 15th Regiment was stationed here. Located on Carleton Street, there is a Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque on the building.

Officers' Quarters (1841): The original quarters for the British officers of the garrison was a wood and brick structure completed in 1792, which was destroyed by fire in 1815, and then was rebuilt in a similar style. The existing stone structure was added in two sections, one in 1841 and the other 1851, each separated by a brick firewall. The wooden sections of the building were removed in 1925; however, the outline of its stone foundation is still visible. Located on Officers' Square, the Officers' Quarters currently host the Fredericton Region Museum (admission fee) of the York-Sunbury Historical Society.

Soldiers' Barracks (1827): The original wooden barracks were replaced by the existing stone structure in November 1827. It was occupied by British troops from then until their departure in 1869. Then it was used as a Provincial Normal School and by other local organizations until 1883 when the newly formed Infantry School Corps, a part of the Canadian Army, returned it back to a barracks. After World War I it fell into disuse until 1927 when it became a warehouse. In 1974 one barrack room was restored to illustrate its original use and the remainder of the building became the home of the Province's Archaeology Branch and its collection. Located on Queen Street.

Fort Hughes
(Sir Douglas Hazen Park)
(1781 - 1782, 1813 - 1815), Oromocto
A reconstructed British wooden blockhouse located at Sir Douglas Hazen Park at 1 Wharf Road. Originally built to protect the local masting operations, and as a relay station between Halifax, NS and Québec City, QC. Rebuilt and regarrisoned in 1813, it was to be used as a place of refuge and defence if Saint John were to be captured. See also The Fort at Oromocto by John Wood

Fredericton Junction Blockhouse
(1813 - 1815), Fredericton Junction
A British blockhouse built at what was known as Hartt's Mills, to guard the Oromocto River portage route between the Saint John River and the Maguadavic River. A house was built on the site of the blockhouse in 1922. There are four old graves in the Gladstone Cemetery on Prides Landing Road, and are believed to be those of members of the blockhouse garrison who died there while on duty.

Gagetown Blockhouse
(1761), Gagetown
A former fur trade post where ammunition and guns were stored. A private craft business is here now on Loomcroft Lane, facing Gagetown Creek.

Fort Jemseg
(1659 - 1674, 1690 - 1692), Lower Jemseg
Originally built by British trader Thomas Temple at the mouth of the Jemseg River. Also spelled Jemseck. Described as a rectangular palisaded enclosure with walls 18 feet in height and armed with five iron guns mounted on a wooden platform. French troops occupied the post in 1670 per the 1667 Treaty of Breda. Briefly captured by Dutch privateers led by Jurriaen Aernouts in August 1674 and then abandoned. Acadian Governor Joseph Robinou de Villebon temporarily moved the French military headquarters here from Port Royal, NS in 1690. Although there is a Historic Sites and Monuments Board plaque located in Lower Jemseg, the exact location of the fort is unknown, but is believed to be near the Scovil Landing of the Gagetown Ferry.

Worden's Ferry Battery and Blockhouse
(1813 - 1815), Kars
A British two-story wooden blockhouse (with two guns) on the crest of a 200-foot high hill, and a three-gun earthwork battery and magazine 150 yards in front of the blockhouse, commanding the river, to be used as a place of refuge and defence if Saint John were to be captured. The site was also known as the "Eagle's Nest". Reported in ruin by 1825.

During the French period the location was known as "Nid d'Aigle", and local tradition holds that a French military post was located at this strategic spot. However, no evidence has yet been found to support the claim.

Rivière Saint-Jean Trade Post
(1612 - unknown), near Nerepis ?
An early French trading post, according to the "National Atlas of Canada" (1974). Undetermined location.

Fort de Nerepice (National Historic Site)
(1749 - 1755 ?), Nerepis
A French supply fort on the Nerepis River at Woodman's Point, that was built over an earlier Maliseet Indian fortified village. It was abandoned prior to the British 1755 Monckton Expedition to expell Acadian settlers. Also known as Fort Boishébert. A Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque (1930) is located near the site.

(For Saint John Harbour defences please see page 3)

Duke of Kent's "Visual Telegraph" System
(1800 - 1815), various locations
In 1794 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George III, was the Commander of Halifax, NS. An innovative officer, he recognized the value of rapid communication for an effective defence and developed an improved signalling system between the various defensive works around the harbour. In 1799, when he was appointed the Commander-in-Chief of British North America, he set about extending his communication system throughout Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The system required the building of signal stations on high ground, every seven to eight miles, manned by six signallers. In New Brunswick the system was focussed on Saint John. Stations were located at Point Lepreau (near Dipper Harbour) and Wolf (Wolf Island ?) to report on movement up the Bay of Fundy, and nine stations were built to connect with Fredericton. It is believed that stations were built at the "Eagle's Nest" near Evandale; on Bald Mountain in Queen's County; and at Telegraph Hill on the Kingston Peninsula between Milkish Creek and the Saint John River (near Lands End). The up-keep of this system was expensive, and with the departure of the Duke of Kent and the end of the Napoleonic Wars, it was abandoned.

Dipper Harbour Post
(1813 - 1815), Dipper Harbour
Colonel George Anderson established a British garrison here, building a large two-story house with a lookout tower on the roof. It was 30 feet by 40 feet, built of hewn timbers, with four rooms on each floor and each room with a fireplace. In the basement were the kitchen, a large bake oven, and the dinning room. The last visual trace of the building disappeared in 1975 with the construction of a modern restaurant on the site.

Fort Vernon
(1812 - 1815), St. George
A local militia work built in June 1812 on the property of Moses Vernon, on the south side of the tidal basin of the Magaguadavic River, on the east bank, still within the town limits. It fell into disrepair and the remains were dismantled in 1866 to construct Fort Carleton (2) during the Fenian troubles. According to local tradition, the two period cannon displayed at the St. George Royal Canadian Legion, at 4 New Street, came from the fort's armament.

Fort Carleton (2)
(1866 - 1867), St. George
A blockhouse and two-gun battery located on Fort Hill, near the present-day water tower, built in response to the American Fenian threat. No remains.

Letang Battery
(1790's), near St. George
A British shore battery built to control the passage into the harbour.

Piskahegan Blockhouse
(1813 - 1815), Piskahegan
A local militia blockhouse constructed at the end of the Pomeroy Bridge, on the east bank of the Magaguadavic River, south of the road, on a little hill with a commanding view of the surrounding area. The blockhouse still stood for several years after it was no longer needed. Also known as the Pomeroy Blockhouse.

¤¤¤ St. Andrews Harbour Defences

¤¤¤ St. Andrews Blockhouse (National Historic Site)
(1813 - 1867), St. Andrews FORT WIKI
This is the only extant original blockhouse from the War of 1812 remaining in the province. A three-gun earthwork battery, West Battery, surrounded the blockhouse. It was used until after the Fenian troubles. It was restored in 1967, and again after nearly being destroyed by fire in 1993. Located on Joe's Point Road adjacent to Centennial Park. Two of the original 24-pounder guns are now on display in Market Square. See also Canadian Register of Historic Places - entry #2

¤¤¤ Fort Tipperary
(1808 - 1815, 1866), St. Andrews FORT WIKI
A star-shaped nine-gun earthwork (about 400 by 200 feet) located on Tomkin's Hill, with a 70-man blockhouse, barracks, a stone magazine, and commissary. The earthworks for the large redoubt were never fully completed, but remain today as the most intact of any period fort in the province. The barracks were demolished in 1901 when the Shaughnessy House was built. The site was acquired by the Algonquin Hotel in 1985. The house burned down in 2004, and was rebuilt to the original plans in 2006. Located at 69 Prince of Wales Street, near the Algonquin Hotel and Resort, with four display guns (two 9-pounders and two 32-pounders). No other structural remains.

Nearby at 99 Prince of Wales Street is the Augherton House (1821), which was sometimes used as an Officers' mess, according to local tradition, when the house was first owned by Col. James Boyd.

¤¤¤ East Battery (2) and Blockhouse
(1813 - 1815), St. Andrews
A two-story blockhouse and two-gun battery on the eastern side of town adjacent to the old lighthouse, at the end of present-day Patrick Street. No remains.

¤¤¤ Joe's Point Blockhouse
(1813 - 1815, 1866), St. Andrews
A blockhouse and four-gun battery opposite Robbinston, ME to protect the ferry across the river at the Western Channel. It was later demolished for the Fairmount Algonquin Hotel's golf course. No remains.

Indian Island Post
(1866), Indian Island
In April 1866 Fenians from Eastport, ME raided Indian Island, terrorizing the local inhabitants and burning buildings. In order to provided protection, a garrison of one officer and twenty men was established on the island. On their arrival, the Island’s school house was fortified and turned into a barrack. Indian Island is located just southeast of Deer Island.

Eastern New Brunswick - page 2 | Saint John Harbour - page 3

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