A. Allison's Fort |
Fort d'Anjou |
Appleby's Fort |
Fort Armstrong (2) |
Fort Armstrong (3)
Big Beaver BH | Black Legs Creek BH | Fort le Boeuf | Buffalo Creek BH | Clark's BH
Claypoole's BH | Elder's BH | Fort Franklin (3) | Fraser's Post (1) | Freeport BH
Fort at French Creek | Gibson's Post | W. Green's BH | Fort Green | Indian Head BH
Inyard's BH | Camp Legionville | Logstown | Fort Machault | McCartney's BH
McConaughy's BH | Fort McIntosh | Mead's BH | Moorehead's Fort | Nicholson's BH
Old Garrison | Old Town Post | Peelor's BH | Fort Presque Isle | Presque Isle Point BH
R. Robinson's BH (2) | Simpson's BH | Thompson's BH | Venango | Fort Venango
Waterford Blockhouses | Camp Wayne (2) | Fort Wayne
Southeast Pennsylvania - page 1 | Northeast Pennsylvania - page 2
Central Pennsylvania - page 3 | Southern Pennsylvania I - page 4
Southern Pennsylvania II - page 5 | Southwest Pennsylvania - page 6
Greater Pittsburgh - page 8
EXPLORE PA HISTORY
Fort Presque Isle
(1753 - 1763), Erie
The French fort (also known as Fort de la Presqu' Île du Lac Erie) was located on the west bank of the mouth of Mill Creek, and was abandoned and burned in July 1759. It was a 120-foot square stockade with four log buildings forming the walls, with a stone magazine, and 12 guns. The British rebuilt the fort in 1760 at or near the same site, and it in turn was burned by Pontiac in June 1763. Actual site now located between Front and Second Street along Parade Street. Marker located at Sixth and Parade Streets.
(1795 - 1798 ?, 1814 - 1816), Erie
Originally constructed on Garrison Hill, east of Mill Creek. The current blockhouse is an 1880 reconstruction, located at the foot of Ash Street, near the site of the earlier British and French forts (see above). General Anthony Wayne died here in December 1796.
The fort was rebuilt in 1814 and renamed Fort Armstrong (3). A two-story blockhouse with five guns. The stockade was dismantled after the war, the blockhouse burned down in 1852. The actual fort site is now the Pennsylvania Soldiers' and Sailors' Home (1886).
Another blockhouse (1813 - 1814) was constructed on Presque Isle Point.
Camp Wayne (2)
A Civil War training camp.
Fort le Boeuf
(1753 - 1763, 1794 - 1814), Waterford
This French fort (also known as Fort de la Rivière aux Boeufs) was a 90-foot square log stockade with four bastions and eight guns, with barracks along the sides, and a guardhouse, chapel, infirmary, and storehouse within the bastions. George Washington was sent here in December 1753 by Virginia to demand the removal of French forces in the area. The French and Indian War was soon to follow. Abandoned and burned in July 1759. The British built a new blockhouse near the site in 1760. It was burned by Pontiac in June 1763. No remains. The Fort Le Boeuf Museum, operated by Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, is located at 103 South High Street, near the original site. The Judson House (1820) is adjacent to the museum, and also partially on the fort site. See also PA state marker
The Americans built an unnamed stockaded fort with four blockhouses here in 1794 (Fort at French Creek ?). Rebuilt in 1797, which was then used until 1814. British POW's were held here following the naval Battle of Lake Erie (Sept. 1813). Afterwards the main blockhouse was used as a private home and then as a hotel. It burned down in 1868. Its foundation is located across the street from the Fort Le Boeuf Museum.
Indian Head Blockhouse
(1794 - 1795), Indian Head
An unnamed PA state militia blockhouse was built here at the confluence of French Creek and Le Boeuf Creek.
David Mead's Blockhouse
(1788 - 1795), Meadville
A settlers' stockaded double log house, later added with a small two-story square log blockhouse in the corner of the stockade in late 1794. State militia troops were posted here at the settlement in the winter of 1792 - 93. Site located near Water Street and Steer's Alley. The blockhouse became the local schoolhouse in 1798. This area was originally the Delaware Indian town of Cussewago.
(1760 - 1763), Franklin
This British fort was built near the site of the earlier abandoned French fort. It was captured and burned down by Pontiac in June 1763. The apparently friendly Indians were playing lacrosse outside the fort when they chased an errant ball that went inside. A stone monument for the British fort is located at 8th and Elk Streets.
Previously here was French Fort Machault (1755 - 1759), originally a small redoubt, later a partially palisaded square with four bastions, enclosing log barracks. It replaced French Fort d'Anjou (1754), which was never finished. Abandoned and burned in July 1759. A stone monument for the French fort is located at 616 Elk Street.
Before the French came, this site was a Delaware Indian village called Venango and a British fortified trading post known as John Fraser's Post (1) (1741 - 1753). Located at present-day Riverfront Park. Fraser did not leave in 1749 when the French under Céloron attempted to evict him. However, he did relocate in May 1753 to Turtle Creek (see page 8).
Fort Franklin (3)
(1787 - 1799), Franklin
A Federal 100-foot square bastioned stockade and blockhouse, with outworks, located along French Creek on present-day Tenth Street, built to protect area settlers. The post was relocated and rebuilt in 1796 at the mouth of the creek. The new work then became popularly known as the Old Garrison, in reference to the old French and British fort sites. The blockhouse later became the county jail from 1805 - 1819. It still remained standing until 1824. The actual site of the "Old Garrison" has been eroded away by the river over time.
A Patriot (Continental) fort was authorized in 1779, but was never built.
Fort Armstrong (2)
A Patriot (Continental) stockaded fort. Soon abandoned after only a few months (June - November), it may have then been used by state militia ranger patrols until 1784. PA state militia troops may have earlier been posted here in 1774, and 1776 - 1777 (Appleby's Fort ?). The fort was located near, but not directly at, the old Delaware Indian village site of Kittanning (or Attiqué) (1727 - 1756), which was located just south of town on the Allegheny River at Riverfront Park. A stone monument (1926) is located at Water and Market Streets.
Pioneer Forts of Armstrong County
(1790's), various locations
James Claypoole's Blockhouse (1791 - ?), Manor Township just above Ford City, nearly across from Fort Armstrong (2).
William Green's Blockhouse (1792 - ?), Rosston, also known as Fort Green, a log stockade and blockhouse built by the PA state militia, with separate huts for the troops. Site probably on the original Lot 22 plat, above Crooked Creek. The Green family moved elsewhere before 1804.
Nicholson's Blockhouse (1791 - ?), McVille, at the mouth of Nicholson Run.
Freeport Blockhouse (1793 - 1795 ?), Freeport, a fortified gristmill and blockhouse located near Water Street below Fifth Street, above Buffalo Creek. Also known as Buffalo Creek Blockhouse. Used by the PA state militia.
William Clark's Blockhouse (1790 - ?), Plum Creek Township, at the mouth of Plum Creek near Elderton.
Pioneer Forts of Indiana County and/or
(1780's - 1790's), various locations
Andrew Allison's Fort (1792 - 1793), Two Lick
Black Legs Creek Blockhouse (1780 - 1783), near Clarksburg, at the forks of Black Legs Creek. Built and used by the PA state militia.
Robert Elder's Blockhouse (1786 - ?), Young Township, near Elder's Ridge. A hewn log house used for defense.
David Inyard's Blockhouse (1780's), West Wheatfield Township, about five miles from Fort Palmer in Westmoreland County (see page 6). The unhewn log blockhouse was 50 by 16 feet, the logs tapered outward to prevent climbing. Used by several families for common defense.
Joseph McCartney's Blockhouse (1782 - ?), Buffington Township, at "Benson Hill" (location ?).
McConaughy's Blockhouse (1790's), Center Township, near Graceton near the confluence of Two Lick Creek and Cherry Run. Built by James Simpson and John White. The name probably comes from a later owner of the property.
Fergus Moorehead's Fort (1781 - 1790's), Armstrong Township, near Watts on Curry Run (or near Watts Hill on Anthony Run ?), a small stone blockhouse now covered in concrete. Still in use in 1794. Morehead had earlier settled here in 1772 - 1776.
David Peelor's Blockhouse (1790 - 1791), Armstrong Township, located on either Curry Run or Cherry Run. Peelor was killed by Indians in 1791 while working on a nearby farm, his family holding the blockhouse against attack.
Robert Robinson's Blockhouse (2) (1781 - ?), Conemaugh Township, near Lick Run (location ?) on the north bank of the Kiskiminetas River. A two-story 24 x 28-foot log structure with no doors or windows, only entrance through a cut-out in the puncheon floor. It was still standing in 1880.
Simpson's Blockhouse (1780's), near Blairsville, built by brothers James and Andrew Simpson. James moved to McConaughy's place (see above) after Andrew was killed by Indians.
John Thompson's Blockhouse (1790 - 1801), Rayne Township, on Crooked Creek. Stockade was 80 by 30 feet, 10 feet high, removed in 1801. Original name unknown, as Thompson only acquired the already dilapidated property in 1801. Blockhouse was torn down in 1807. Those involved in the original construction were listed as Jacob Hess, Henry and Jacob Shallenberger, Ezekiel and Elisha Chambers, James McKee, John Stuchell, Timothy O’ Neil, Shoenberger, and "a few others".
Of interest in the area is Naeskahoni Town, a recreated Delaware Indian village of the 1740's - 1760's period, located at 715 Marshall Heights Road in Black Lick.
Big Beaver Blockhouse
(1788 - 1793), New Brighton
A Federal blockhouse located at present-day Main and Third Streets.
Fort McIntosh (park)
(1778 - 1791, 1813 - 1814), Beaver
A substantial 50-yard square stockade with four bastions, initially armed with only one gun in each bastion, later with six guns total by 1785. Briefly abandoned in 1783. The "Treaty of Fort McIntosh" was signed here in January 1785. This was also the site of a Federal post or supply depot in 1813. Site located on River Road near Bank, Insurance, and Market Streets. Site excavated in 1974. To the north in Darlington on Market Street is the Greersburgh Academy, which has an exhibit on the history of Fort McIntosh.
The town was originally the site of the Delaware Indian village of Sawcunk (or King Beaver's Town). A French trading post (before 1758) was also once located here.
A British trading post, also called Old Town Post. The Delaware Indian village of Logstown (or Chininqué) (1725 - 1758) was previously located here. The British had an earlier trading post here in 1749, which the French under Capt. Pierre-Joseph Céloron de Blainville tried to evict in 1749. A stone monument (1932) for Logstown is located on Duss Ave..
The French originally planned to build a fort at Logstown in 1753, but moved instead upriver to the Forks of the Ohio when news arrived that the Virginians were building their fort there (Trent's Fort) in 1754. The French did establish a trading post here in January 1754.
(1792 - 1793), Legionville
A winter encampment for General Wayne's Northwest Indian campaign. A stone monument marks the site.
NEED MORE INFO: Fort Hill Mountain near Robinson in Indiana County.
Special thanks to Jim Geisler for providing information on some early settlement forts and blockhouses.Southeast Pennsylvania - page 1 | Northeast Pennsylvania - page 2 | Central Pennsylvania - page 3
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