Adair's Fort |
Fort Adair |
Camp Adrian |
Ball Camp |
Bean's Station | Fort Bell Canton | Big Creek Fort | Battery Billingsly | Fort Buckner
Bulls Gap Earthworks | Burnt Station | Fort Byington | Carter's Station | Fort Caswell
Cavett's Station | Chiaha | Fort Comstock | D. Craig's Fort | J. Craig's Fort | Derrick's Fort
Fort Dickerson | Earnest Fort House | A. Eaton's Fort (1) | Battery Elstner | Battery Engle
Battery Fearns | Battery Galpin | Gamble's Station | Gillespie's Fort | Gillespy's Fort
Gilliam's Station | Haley's Station | Battery Harker | A. Heaton's Fort (1) | Henderson's Station
H. Henry's Station | S. Henry's Station | Fort Patrick Henry | Hickory Cove Fort | Fort Higley
Fort (John) Hill | J. Houston's Station | Ish's Fort | Johnson City Camp | Battery Karnasch
Kelly's Fort | King's Mill Fort | Post at Knoxville | Knoxville Defenses | Battery Lee | Fort Lee
Limestone Fort | Camp at Little Pigeon | Long Island Fort | D. Looney's Fort
M. Looney's Fort | Fort Loudon (2) | McGaughey's Station | McTeer's Fort
Marble Springs Station | Menefee's Station | Fort Mihalotzy (1) | Miller's Fort
Newell's Station | Battery Noble | Patterson's Fort | Camp Poland | Fort in Powell Valley
Rice's Mill Fort | Fort Robinson | Rogersville Post | Russellville Encampment
Fort San Pedro | Fort Sanders | Sawyer's Fort | J. Sevier's Station | Shelby's Fort
Fort Smith | Fort Stanley | Battery Stearman | Swaggerty's Blockhouse | Camp Taylor (2)
Taylor's Meeting House Fort | Fort Watauga | Wear's Fort | J. White's Fort (1)
Whitson's Fort | Camp Wilder | Battery Wiltsie | Womack's Fort | Wood's Fort
Yoakum's Station | Battery Zoellner
Southeastern Tennessee - page 2 | Middle Tennessee - page 3
Greater Nashville Area - page 4 | Western Tennessee - page 5
Col. Evan Shelby's Fort
(1776 - 1780's), Bristol
Originally built in 1771, it was fortified in 1776 as a local defense and settler refuge against Indians. Marker located at 7th and Shelby Streets, actual site about two blocks south on the high ground. The Patriot militia's King's Mountain Campaign (October 1780) was planned here. The city was originally named Sapling Grove. A VA state marker in this border town also relates the history of the fort and settlement.
Capt. Jacob Womack's Fort
(1774 ? - 1785), near Thomas Bridge
A settlers' fort once located northeast of Bluff City, on a hill about two miles east on Island Park Road. Womack moved further west in 1785.
Taylor's Meeting House Fort
(1776), near Silvacola
Reportedly the first church built in the state (1773), used as a settlers' fort against Indians, and later as a school.
Moses Looney's Fort
(1770's), near Rock City
A settlers' blockhouse used as the first court for Sullivan County in 1780. Brother to David. Located on Island Road, about one and one-half miles from the mouth of Boozy Creek. The log house was still standing in 1980, although altered and modernized.
Amos Eaton's Fort (1)
(1776 - 1779), near Indian Springs
A settlers' defense against Indians. Also spelled Heaton. House built in 1774, fortified and garrisoned by local militia in 1776. Site located on Island Road. The Battle of Island Flats (July 1776) was located in Kingsport. After the battle 600 men under Capt. Joseph Martin were posted here.
Fort on Long Island
(1760), Long Island
A temporary VA colonial militia fort located on Long Island during the Cherokee War. It was built by the relief force for Fort Loudoun, but they never arrived in time to help. Replaced by Fort Robinson.
King's Mill Fort
(1776 - unknown), Kingsport
A fortified stone-built gristmill at the mouth of Reedy Creek, originally built by Col. James King in 1774.
Fort Patrick Henry
(1776 - 1794), Kingsport FORT WIKI
A Virginia state militia fort built at or near the site of Fort Robinson. It was a bastioned 100-yard square work. No remains.
(1761 - 1762), Fort Robinson
A VA colonial militia fort located on the north bank of the South Fork Holston River, nearly opposite the western end of Long Island. A large bastioned work, possibly with a blockhouse. No remains.
Robert Patterson's Fort
(1775 - unknown), Church Hill
A settlers' fort and mill. Area settlers took refuge here in 1776 during a Cherokee attack.
Henry Rice's Mill Fort
(1775 - unknown), near Church Hill
A settlers' fortified mill located two miles west of town. Area settlers took refuge here in 1776 during a Cherokee attack. Attacked again by Cherokees in April 1777, defended by Capt. James Robertson.
Col. David Looney's Fort
A settlers' blockhouse on Muddy Creek, about two miles up from the South Fork Holston River. Built before 1774. Son of Robert Looney of Virginia.
(Sycamore Shoals State Historical Park)
(1772 - unknown), Elizabethton FORT WIKI
The Transylvania Treaty was signed here by the Watauga Association to buy Cherokee lands. The Cherokee lay seige to the fort in July 1776. Known also as Fort Caswell by the NC militia in 1776. This was the principal muster post of the Overmountain Men in September 1780 prior to the Battle of King's Mountain in South Carolina. The current structure is a reproduction of the first permanent white American settlement in what was to be present-day Tennessee. Located at 1651 West Elk Ave.. A stone monument (1909) marks the actual site of the fort, located about one mile away on West "G" Street at Monument Place.
Johnson City Camp
(1861), Johnson City
A CSA camp, monument (1904) located at Lamont and Tennessee Streets.
(1776), Washington County
A Virginia militia fort located on (Big or Little ?) Limestone Creek, an outpost of Fort Patrick Henry used against the Cherokee Indians. Attacked by Cherokees in July 1776.
(1770's or 1780's), near Limestone
An unnamed settlers' (?) fort (Fort Lee ?) was once here. George Gillespie built a stone house here in 1792, still exists.
Earnest Family Fort House ?
(unknown dates), Chuckey
A settlers' blockhouse located at 340 Clemmer Drive.
(1779 or 1780 ?), Afton
A settlers' fort was located here.
John Carter's Station
(1783 ? - unknown), Albany
A settlers' fort was located here at the site of a former fortified Indian village on Grassy Creek.
(1862), Hawkins County
A CSA training camp. Exact location undetermined.
Hickory Cove Fort
(1775 - unknown), near Big Creek
A settlers' or local militia fort was once located here along Big Creek. Militia under the command of Capt. Robert Kyle were posted here in 1775.
A Union garrison post was here, attacked by Confederates in November 1863 (Big Creek Skirmish), capturing several guns and other supplies.
Big Creek Fort
(1779 ? - unknown), near Petersburg
A state militia fort located on the west (south) side of the mouth of Big Creek. Capt. James Robertson lived here from 1777 to 1778. The fort was probably built later. 300 militia under the command of Col. Evan Shelby were posted here in 1779. The fort was attacked by Indians in 1780.
(1787 - unknown), Bean Station
A settlers' fort, built by brothers Robert and William (or Jesse) Bean. The actual site is under the waters of Cherokee Lake (German Creek). The Whiteside Tavern (1801) was located one-fourth mile west of site.
Bulls Gap Earthworks
(1864), Bulls Gap
Traces of Union earthworks still remain in the area, mostly in Greene County. Site of battle in November 1864.
(1863 - 1864), Russellville
A CSA winter encampment for troops under Lt. General James Longstreet, after retreating from Knoxville.
James Swaggerty's Blockhouse
(1787 - unknown), Parrottsville
A settlers' log blockhouse on a stone foundation. Structure was later covered by a large barn, which has since been removed. Original three-level structure still exists, one of only two original blockhouses still extant in the state. Located east of town on Old US 321 (private property). See also PHOTOS from Discover Cocke County.com
NOTE: Archaeological and dendrochronological research by the University of Tennessee in 2001 has shown that the logs used in this structure date to an 1860 cutting, and artifacts from the 1860's were found in the adjacent soil, which may indicate that this is not the original 1787 blockhouse, but a farm structure erected by Jacob Stephens in 1860. At the least, the original blockhouse was most likely heavily modified by Stephens after he purchased the farm in 1854.
(1783 - unknown), near Newport
A settlers' fort located near the confluence of the Pigeon and French Broad Rivers north of town.
William Whitson's (Jr.) Fort
(1783 - unknown), near Wilton Springs
A settlers' fort located on the east side of the Pigeon River, south of the mouth of Cosby Creek. This was an important ford of the river at the time.
Fort Bell Canton
(1797 - 1800), near Jefferson City
A Federal fort located on the Holston River to protect the Cherokees from white encroachment. Actual site probably inundated by Cherokee Lake.
(1788 ? - unknown), near Blaine
A settlers' fort located east of town on Richland Creek along the old Emory Road.
Col. John Sawyer's Fort
(1785 - unknown), near Zacharytown
A settlers' fort one-half mile west of the Knox - Grainger County line. The Emory Road, built in 1788, passed through here.
Fort San Pedro
(1567), near Deep Springs
A Spanish blockhouse built by the Juan Pardo Expedition on the French Broad River near the Indian village of Chiaha or Olamico on Zimmerman's Island. When Pardo arrived in October 1567, the 30 men that had been left behind at Joara (North Carolina) in January or February 1567 were found here. About 15 or so additional men were left here in October or November 1567, but they probably did not survive the winter. Hernando DeSoto visited Chiaha in June 1540. Presumably palisaded at that time. The supposed exact site now inundated by Douglas Lake. See also The Pardo Expedition by the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
Major Hugh Henry's Station
(1783 - 1790's), Beech Springs
A settlers' fort located near the mouth of Dumplin Creek at the French Broad River. The Treaty of Dumplin Creek (State of Franklin) was signed here in June 1785 wherein the Cherokees relinquished their rights and title to the land in this area. The treaty was invalidated later that year by the United States Congress upon the ratification of the Treaty of Hopewell.
Capt. Samuel Newell's Station
(1784 - 1790's), Newell Station
A settlers' fort located near the head of Boyd's Creek (at US 411 and US 441).
Samuel McGaughey's Station
(1784 - 1790's), Sevier County
A settlers' fort located on Boyd's Creek below Newell's Station.
Isaac Thomas' Fort
(1783 ? - unknown), Sevierville
A settlers' fort, also used as the first courthouse of Sevier County (1795), and as a tavern. The town was originally named Forks of Little Pigeon.
Camp at Little Pigeon
(1814), near Sevierville
A muster camp of the Company of Drafted East Tennessee Militia, under Capt. Isaac Williams, at the start of the First Creek War (January 1814).
Col. Samuel Wear's Fort
(1785 - unknown), near Pine Grove
A settlers' fort located near the mouth of Walden Creek.
Jacob Derrick's Fort
(1779 ?), Bird Crossroad
A settlers' fort and gristmill at what was known as the "Old Dutch (German) Settlement". Marker located on US 411 at Fox Cemetery Road.
Josias Gamble's Station
(1790 - 1815), near Hubbard
A settlers' fort at the bend of the Little River east of town off of the Old Walland Highway (old TN 73), below the Chilhowee Gap, near the site of the old Coulters Bridge. The fort was often used as a safe haven by the settlers in Tuckaleechee Cove. Garrisoned by 13 men in 1792. Also used as a command post by John Sevier in 1792. After 1800 the station was used as a trading post and store. A stone D.A.R. monument is at the site. The Tennessee state marker, located above the gap near Walland, is in the wrong location.
(thanks to Richard Simerly for providing correct location and additional info)
Robert McTeer's Fort
(1784 - unknown), near Prospect
A settlers' fort and mill located one mile south of Eusebia Church on US 411.
Devereaux Gilliam's Station
(1780's ?), Fork of the River
A settlers' fort located at an ancient Indian mound.
John Sevier's Station
(1780's - unknown), Sevier Home
The Marble Springs Farm is also known as the "Governor's Old Place". John was brother to Valentine. John later became the state's first governor. Originally built as a frontier station (Marble Springs Station ?). Located on Neubert Springs Road.
Capt. James White's Fort (1) (State Historic Site)
(1788 - 1793), Knoxville FORT WIKI
The restored original house dates to 1786 but the palisade was added later as a defense against Indians. Most of the current fort structure is a reproduction. The Treaty of Holston was signed here in 1791. This became the first capital of the Southwest Territory. White moved away in 1793. The house, originally located at State Street and Clinch Ave., was relocated in 1906 to Woodlawn Pike, and then relocated again in 1962 to its present site at 205 East Hill Ave.. Admission fee. See also Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
John Adair's Fort
(1788 - 1810's), Knoxville
A settlers' blockhouse used as a supply depot for the Cumberland Guard (Nashville) militia at Grassy Valley. Also known as Fort Adair. The East Tennessee Militia camped here in January 1814 at the start of the First Creek War. Marker located at Broadway and Sanders Lane. Actual site may be located near Adair Creek and First Creek, near Lynnhurst Cemetery.
Post at Knoxville
(1793 - 1807), Knoxville
A Federal garrison post was located here.
Civil War Defenses of Knoxville
(1863 - 1864), Knoxville FORT WIKI
A line of Union earthworks and batteries surrounded the city, mostly on the north side of the Tennessee river.
Fort Byington, on Cumberland Ave. at entrance to University of Tennessee (Ayres Hall).
Battery Harker, below Battery Noble.
Battery Noble, just west of Fort Byington at Melrose Hall, U. of Tenn..
Fort Sanders (previously named Fort Loudon (2) (sic) and Fort Buckner), site on campus of University of Tennessee, two blocks north of Strong Hall, at 17th Street and Laurel Ave.. Marker located at 1642 Highland Ave.. A monument to the 79th New York is located at 16th Street and Clinch Ave.. A CSA monument is located one block west on 17th Street.
Battery Elstner, adjacent to Fort Sanders.
Battery Karnasch, between Batteries Elstner and Zoellner.
Battery Zoellner, between Fort Sanders and Second Creek (Forest Ave. between 11th and 13th Streets).
Battery Galpin, across Second Creek from Battery Zoellner (Vine Ave. between Broadway and Locust Street).
Fort Comstock, on West Church Ave. on Summit Hill, now Lawson McGhee Library.
Battery Wiltsie, marker on Vine Ave. between Market and Walnut Streets.
Battery Billingsley, between Gay Street and First Creek.
Fort Huntington Smith, on Payne Ave., marker on lawn of the Green School on Temperance Hill.
Battery Clifton Lee, just east of Fort Smith.
Battery Stearman, east of Battery Lee, west of Vine Ave. and Main Street.
Battery Engle, near Battery Lee.
Fort (John) Hill, on Mabry's Hill at Surrey Street and Saxton Ave..
Battery Fearns, on Flint Hill overlooking the river.
Fort Dickerson (Park), on Fort Dickerson Hill, marker on Chapman Highway (US 441) at Woodbine Ave., and another marker on the hill itself. Partial remnants still exist. See also History of Fort Dickerson Park
Fort Stanley, at the end of Gay Street. Trace remains.
Fort Higley, on the south side of the river near the railroad. Trace remains.
Fort Mihalotzy (1), unknown location.
Sevierville Hill was also fortified by the Union.
Markers for additional Union earthworks are located on Neyland Drive west of Second Creek, and on the Tennessee River side of Riverside Drive at McCammon Ave..
A Confederate seige camp (November 1863) was located at present-day Knoxville College, and a CSA battery (November 1863) was located on Cherokee Heights against Union-held Fort Sanders. Most of the CSA seige works were located along Third Creek west of the city, across to Second Creek. Of interest is the 1858 Bleak House / Confederate Memorial Hall, located at 3148 Kingston Pike, which was used as the Confederate headquarters during the battle. Operated as a museum by the United Daughters of the Confederacy. See also The Civil War in Knoxville from the University of Tennessee - Knoxville, McClung Museum of Natural History and Culture
Camp John S. Poland
(1898 - 1899), Knoxville FORT WIKI
A Spanish-American War winter camp, originally established because of overcrowding at Camp Chickamauga, GA. The division headquarters and first brigade were camped east of the site of Camp Wilder (see below), behind the Brookside Cotton Mill. The third brigade was camped to the north at Lonsdale, northwest of the railroad shops; and the second brigade was camped just south of Lincoln Park, northwest of Broadway Street. The camp hospital was located at Turner Park, east of Broadway near Cecil Avenue. Some troops later camped at Glenwood.
Camp Bob Taylor (2)
A Spanish-American War state muster camp, located in the Fountain City section of the city, near Lake Chilhowie at Chilhowie Park on Magnolia Ave., later site of the 1910 Appalachian Exposition.
Camp Wilder was the state muster camp for Negro troops, located at what was then known as Elmwood Park, two miles east of downtown on the Park Street streetcar line. It was later relocated six miles to the Lonsdale area about one-half mile northeast of Knoxville College.
Alexander Cavett's Station
(1780's), near Knoxville
A settlers' fort. Attacked by Cherokees in September 1793, killing all but one. Exact location undetermined, near the Crestwood Hills development west of downtown.
John Menefee's Station
(1787 - unknown), Bell Bridge
A settlers' fort on Beaver Creek.
(1770's ?), Ball Camp
A hunting camp established by Nicholas Ball.
Col. David Campbell's Station
(1787 - 1810's), Village Green
A settlers' fort and trading post. The East Tennessee Militia camped here in January 1814 at the start of the First Creek War.
Nicholas Bartlett's Station
A settlers' fortified mill on the Little River, originally built in 1785. Later became a stage stop on the Federal Road.
James Gillespie's Fort
(1785 - 1788), near Rockford FORT WIKI
A settlers' fort attacked and destroyed by Cherokee Indians led by John Watts in October 1788. Afterwards it was known as Burnt Station. Located about two miles northeast of the Maryville Airport. Also spelled Gillespy.
(1780's), near Rockford
A settlers' fort. Exact location undetermined.
Capt. John Craig's Fort
(1785 - 1790's), Maryville
A small blockhouse surrounded by a two-acre stockade. This was the original settlement of the town. In 1793 over 280 settlers took refuge here for several months during an Indian seige. Sam Houston once lived here as a youth with his widowed mother and eight siblings sometime around 1807. Marker on Church Street.
David Craig's Fort
(1780's), near Maryville ?
A settlers' fort at the "Brick Mill" (?). Exact location undetermined.
James Houston's Station
(1785 - unknown), near Carpenter Campground
A settlers' fort located on Little Nine Mile Creek south of Maryville. Attacked by Cherokee Indians in 1788 after they had killed 30 men near the Cherokee town of Citico (southwest on the Little Tennessee River).
Samuel Henry's (Sr.) Station
(1792 - unknown), Blount County
A settlers' fort located on Old Niles Ferry Road about 2.5 miles east of the Blount - Loudon County line. Attacked by Cherokee Indians led by John Watts in August 1793. Henry's brick mill (1815) is still extant, located one-half mile southwest on Brick Mill Road.
(1790's), Blount County
A settlers' fort, possibly located on Ish Creek (?) to the west of Maryville. General John Sevier with 300 militia defeated about 1000 Cherokee Indians here who were on their way to attack Knoxville in September 1793.
Capt. John Miller's Fort
(1780's), Racoon Valley
A settlers' blockhouse, possibly built as early as 1777. Miller's popular nickname was "Racoon". Marker on TN 33.
(1790's), Yoakum Crossroad
A settlers' fort that was built in defiance of the 1791 Holston Treaty prohibiting white settlement on Cherokee lands in the Powell Valley. The Federal Army tried to evict the settlers in February 1797. The 1798 Treaty of Tellico resolved the controversy.
Fort in Powell Valley
(1797 - unknown), Claiborne or Campbell Counties
A Federal fort built to prevent white encroachment on Cherokee lands. Exact site undetermined.
NOTE: The "Lost State of Franklin" existed from 1785 - 1788, encompassing most of present-day Eastern Tennessee, with its capital at Greeneville. It was declared illegal by North Carolina, and was never recognized by the United States Congress. The Southwest Territory, or formally the Territory South of the Ohio River, was formed in 1790.
NEED MORE INFO: Fort Sumter Road near Copper Ridge, Knox County.
Towns: Blockhouse near Maryville; Camp Creek near Greeneville; Camp Austin in Morgan County; Kingsley Station near South Knoxville; Miser Station near Maryville; Puncheon Camp in Grainger County.
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com