Abosaya Fort |
Camp near Adams |
Alachua Prairie Trading House |
Fort Auld Lang Syne | Camp Baker | Camp Beauregard | Fort Blount (2) | Blue Springs Fort
Fort Brady | Fort Brooks | Burnsed's Blockhouse | Fort Call (2) | Fort Cass | Post at Cedar Keys
Cedar Keys Res. | Post at Charles' Ferry | Fort Clarke (1) | Clay Landing Blockhouse
Fort Clinch (2) | Fort Connor | Fort Crabbe | Fort Crane | Fort Croom | Fort Crum
Fort Defiance | Camp Dickison | Cantonment Dinkins | Fort Drane | Fort Duval | Fort Eagle
Fort Fannin | Fort Fanning (2) | Fort Fowle | Fort Gilleland | Fort Gillespie | Camp Graham
Greene's Blockhouse | Fort Harlee | Camp Hill | Fort Hogtown | Fort Holmes | Fort Hook
Fort Howard | Camp Hunt | Camp Izard | Fort Izard | Fort Jennings | Fort Kanapaha
Camp King (1) | Camp King (2) | Cantonment King | Fort King | La Chua Ranch
Fort Lancaster | Camp Lang Syne | Post at Livingstone Ferry | Fort MacKay | Fort McKay
Fort Micanopy | Camp Miller | Fort Mills | Fort Mitchell (1) | Fort Moniac | Camp Morgan (1)
Cantonment Morgan | Fort Nancy | Newnan's Fort | Fort Newnansville | Fort No. One (E)
Fort No. Two (E) | Fort No. Three (E) | Fort No. Four (E) | Fort No. Five (E) | Fort No. Six (E)
Fort No. Seven (E) | Fort No. Eight (E) | Fort No. Nine (E) | Fort No. Ten (E) | Fort No. 11 (E)
Fort No. 12 (E) | Fort No. 13 (E) | Fort No. 14 (E) | Fort No. 15 (E) | Fort No. 16 (E)
Fort No. 17 (E) | Fort No. 18 (E) | Fort No. 19 (E) | Fort No. 20 (E) | Fort No. 21 (E)
Fort Page | Fort Palmetto | Fort Russell (2) | Fort Russell (3) | Camp Sanderson
Cantonment Scott | Sea Horse Key Battery | Seminole Agency | Camp Shaw | Camp Simkins
Camp Smith (1) | Fort Stanley | Suwannee River Trading House | Fort Tarver
Fort Van Courtland | Fort Waccahootee | Fort Waccasassa (1) | Fort Waccasassa (2)
Fort Wade | Fort Walker | Fort Wallabout | Fort Ward (1) | Warner's Ferry Stockade
Fort Wekiwa | Fort Wheelock | Fort White
Northeast Coast - page 1 | St. Johns River - page 2
Middle Florida - page 4 | Central Florida - page 5
Southern Florida - page 6 | Western Florida - page 7
Pensacola Bay - page 8
FLORIDA'S COASTAL MARITIME TRAIL - FORTS
FLORIDA'S PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVES
OLD FLORIDA MAPS
SPANISH FLORIDA 1513-1763
(1864), near Hampton
A CSA cavalry camp under Capt. Dickison in October 1864, located on the Santa Fe River.
A CSA cavalry camp under Capt. Dickison.
A CSA cavalry camp under Capt. Dickison in April or May 1865, located south of town.
A CSA supply depot. Briefly captured by the Union for two weeks in February 1864, used as a base for local raids, but recaptured by the CSA after the Battle of Olustee (February 1864).
(1864), near Olustee
A CSA fortified camp with entrenchments, prior to the Battle of Olustee (February 1864), located on Ocean Pond.
Camp Blanding (State Military Reservation)
(Camp Blanding Museum and Memorial Park)
(1939 - present), near Starke
A Florida National Guard training camp centered around Kingsley Lake. Federalized in 1940 to train nine Infantry divisions, the 1st (Big Red One), 29th (Blue & Gray), 30th (Old Hickory), 31st (Dixie), 36th (Texas), 43rd (Winged Victory), 63rd (Blood and Fire), 66th (Panther) and the 79th (Cross of Lorainne). Became an Infantry Replacement Center in 1943. Also site of a German POW camp. Became a major Separation Center after the war. Reverted to state control in 1947. Still in use as the main state training ground. Museum located on site in a former WWII barracks.
* Listed here for historical interest only *
Col. Daniel Newnan's Fort
(1812), near Windsor
A GA militia log breastwork located on the east-side of Newnans Lake, built in September 1812, used against the Seminole Indians in support of the local American and British settlers' "Patriots' War" against the Spanish authorities.
Alachua Prairie Trading House
A subpost of British trader James Spalding's Lower Store near Palatka. Located at or near the Creek/Seminole village of Cuscowilla.
(1704 - 1705), near Gainesville
A palisaded wooden fort built by refugee Apalachee mission Indians from San Lorenzo de Ivitachuco. Also known as Nuestra Señora del Rosario de Abosaya (1). Located somewhere near the La Chua Ranch (see below). Attacked by Creek Indians in 1705 and abandoned. The mission Indians then relocated to St. Augustine.
La Chua Ranch
(1703 - 1706), near Gainesville
A Spanish cattle ranch established in 1630 on the north-side of Paynes Prairie, near the Alachua Sink. A blockhouse or stronghouse was built in 1703 to protect the settlers against Indian raids. Attacked by Creek Indians in 1705. The ranch was abandoned in 1706, the settlers fleeing to St. Augustine.
Fort Clarke (1)
(1836 - 1840, 1861), near Gainesville
Originally a Second Seminole War fort, located about eight miles west of town along present-day FL 26 (near West Hills ?). Site later became a Confederate post during the Civil War.
Fort Mitchell (1)
(1814), near Electra
A two-story blockhouse built in January 1814 by American settler Col. Buckner Harris (GA militia), located about 18 miles east of Ocala on Lake Bryant, used as the final headquarters of the "Patriots" during the "Patriots' War" (1811 - 1814). After Harris was killed, it was abandoned and then burned by Seminoles, afterwhich the "Patriot" movement collapsed.
(1835 - 1836), near Irvine
Originally known as Camp Lang Syne, then Fort Auld Lang Syne, built on the 3000-acre "Auld Lang Syne" Plantation of Col. Duncan Clinch, just south of town, southeast of Flemington. In November 1835 the camp was palisaded (150 yards by 80 yards) with two blockhouses. The plantation house served as the Officers' quarters. Used as the base of operations before the "Battle of the Withlacoochee" (December-January 1835/6). Abandoned in June 1836. Occupied and burned by Seminole Indians during the summer and recaptured by the Army in October 1836, but the fort itself was not rebuilt. Site located in the housing complex on the grounds of the Ocala Jockey Club and Stables.
Fort Fanning (2)
(Fanning Springs State Park)
(1838 - 1843), Fanning Springs
Originally named Fort Number Nine (E) and Fort Palmetto. Trace remains (?) of earthwork around the site of the former log stockade. See also History of Fanning Springs State Park
(NOTE: At least one contemporary source (1853) lists this as Fort Fannin, without the "g". There was both a "Fannin" and a "Fanning" listed in Army records.)
Suwannee River Trading House
(1770's), Ross Landing
A subpost of British trader James Spalding's Lower Store near Palatka. Located at or near the Creek/Seminole village of Talahasochte, on the east bank of the Suwannee River six miles upstream from Manatee Springs, below Fanning Springs.
Post at Cedar Keys
(1839 - 1843, 1861 - 1865), Cedar Key
Fort Number Four (E) (1839 - 1841) was the first post here on Cedar Key, which later became the site of a major hospital and supply depot. Cedar Key was also known as Depot Key on some period maps. The islands of Cedar Key, Way Key, North Key, Sea Horse Key, and Snake Key were reserved as the Cedar Keys Military Reservation in 1840. Camp (Cantonment) Morgan (1) (1841 - 1842) was established on one of the islands about two months after Fort No. Four (E) was abandoned. The islands were severely damaged by a November 1842 hurricane, completely destroying the post, which may have then been subsequently rebuilt on the mainland. Sea Horse Key was occupied as a hospital camp in 1841, and was also used as a Seminole Indian detention camp at one time (date ?). Of interest here is the Cedar Key State Museum (admission fee).
The island depot was occupied by the Confederates in 1861, captured by the Union Navy in February 1862. The Florida Railroad terminated here (completed in 1860), running from Fernandina via Gainesville, along present-day FL 24.
On the mainland near Lukens was Fort Howard (unknown dates). It protected either the boat landing (2nd Seminole War) or the railroad bridge approach (Civil War) to Cedar Key.
Sea Horse Key Battery
(1861 - 1862), Sea Horse Key
A Confederate battery that protected the approach to Cedar Key. It was captured by the Union in February 1862. Two of the original guns are now on display at the Cedar Key State Museum. The Sea Horse Key Lighthouse was built in 1854.
Colonial Spanish Missions of Timucua
The following Franciscan Missions were established without presidios or other military protection, and are listed here purely for historical interest. Many sites were abandoned, relocated, and/or consolidated after the 1656 Timucua Rebellion. Most sites were again abandoned after the 1702-06 raids by South Carolina militia troops and allied Indians. There may be other mission sites not listed here. The Timucua Province encompased the inland area from between the Altamaha River and the Little / Withlacoochee Rivers in Georgia, then southward between the St. Johns River and the Suwannee River, towards the Ocala area, but not including the Gulf coastal area. See also South Coastal Georgia.
San Augustín de Urica (? - 1656), in Hamilton County west or southwest of Jasper (?).
An unnamed mission (unknown dates) was possibly located in Hamilton County near Cypress Creek, east of Jasper.
Santa Cruz de Tarihica (1) (1612 ? - 1656), in Columbia County at Indian Pond near Bahia.
San Juan de Guacara (1) (1612 ? - 1656), in Suwannee County at Baptizing Spring near Luraville. Site excavated in 1977.
San Juan de Guacara (2) (1656 - 1702 ?), in Suwannee County on the Suwannee River at Charles Spring, five miles northwest of the previous site. Burned by Yamassee or Apalachicola Indians in 1691. Possibly rebuilt (?).
Santa Cruz de Tarihica (2) (1656 - 1702 ?), in Suwannee County near O'Brien (?).
Santa Catalina de Ajohica (1656 - 1702 ?), in Suwannee County near Branford (?). Burned in 1685 by Yamassee Indians and South Carolina colonials, but rebuilt.
San Martín de Ayacuto (1608 - 1656), in Suwannee County at Fig Springs near Hildreth. Site excavated in 1949-52.
Sante Fé de Teleco (1) (1612 ? - 1656), in Alachua County near Traxler (?). Site found and excavated in the 1980's.
Santa Fé de Teleco (2) (1656 - 1704), in Alachua County at Santa Fe. Garrisoned by Spanish troops in 1702. Attacked by Apalachicola Indians in 1702. Merged with San Francisco de Potano (2) in 1704.
San Francisco de Potano (1) (1606 - 1656), in Alachua County south of Hague, on the south-side of San Felasco Hammock.
San Miguel de Potano (1606 ?), in Alachua County west of downtown Gainesville, east of Moon Lake. Lasted only a few years.
San Francisco de Potano (2) (1656 - 1706), in Alachua County west of Gainesville. Palisaded and garrisoned by Spanish troops in 1702. Relocated to the St. Johns River at Salamototo (1) in 1706.
Santa Ana de Potano (1606 - 1656), in Alachua County at Gainesville.
San Buenaventura de Potano (1608 - ?), in Alachua County on the north side of Payne's Prairie near Robinson Heights (Zetrouer Archaeological Site). Lasted only a few years. Site excavated in the late 1940's.
Ivitanayo (1656 - 1702 ?), in Putnam County near Florahome (?).
Other missions in Eastern Florida outside of the Timucua Province:
Cofa (1610 ?), in Levy County on Hog Island at the mouth of the Suwannee River. Technically outside the Timucua Province, it served as a supply base for the upriver missions. Lasted only a few years.
San Luís de Eloquale (1620's - ?), in Marion County near Rolling Ranches (?). Served the Ocale Indians.
Santa Lucía de Acuera (1620's - 1650's), in Marion County near Candler (?). Served the Acuera Indians.
San Blas de Avino (1610's - 1650's), in Marion County somewhere on the Oklawaha River. Served the Acuera Indians.
Seminole Wars Forts
(includes those forts and posts not already listed above)
Tour of Florida Territory During the Seminole Wars by Chris Kimball
Fort Brooks (date 2nd SW), on the Oklawaha River (Rodman Reservoir) near Kenwood, about five miles east of Fort Russell (3). Active in 1841.
Fort Holmes (1840 - 1841), on the north bank of Deep Creek, now the Cross Florida Barge Canal, about 11 miles southwest of Palatka near Rodman. Site located on the west side of FL 19 near the top of a hill.
Fort Number Ten (E) (1839), near Mannville, on the south shore of Lake Grandin.
Fort Number 11 (E) (1839 - 1840), Keystone Heights, on Lake Geneva.
Fort Van Courtland (1835 ?), at Kingsley Lake within the present-day Camp Blanding State Military Reservation.
Fort Number 14 (E) (1839 - 1840), Kingsley. (possibly the same as Fort Van Courtland)
Fort Moniac (1838 - 1842), Hogan's Ferry, a small log defense on the west-side of the North Prong St. Mary's River, about one mile from the Georgia border. (NOTE: an 1840 map places this fort inside Georgia)
James Burnsed's Blockhouse (1837), a settlers' log blockhouse originally located 12 miles north of Glen St. Mary, near Taylor, on the North Prong St. Mary's River. It still exists, moved in 2001 to Heritage Park in Macclenny.
Fort Number 18 (E) (1839), near Sanderson.
Elisha Greene's Blockhouse (date 2nd SW), a settlers' log blockhouse located about 2.5 miles south-southeast of Sanderson, just west of the South Prong Cemetery. (possibly Fort No. 18 ?) (info courtesy of George Hill)
Fort Number 19 (E) (1839), on Olustee Creek northeast of Lulu.
Fort Alligator (1835), Lake City. Also called Fort Lancaster. Located at Madison and Marion Streets. The town was then named Alligator for Seminole Chief Alligator.
Fort Number 16 (E) (1839 - 1840), near Columbia City.
Fort Blount (2) (1835 ?), an Army post on the Suwannee River two miles south of the Georgia border. Seminole Chief John Blount had been friendly to General Jackson and the Army before his band removed west in 1834.
Fort Cass (1835), White (Mineral) Springs, also used as a troop hospital camp.
Fort Number 21 (E) (1839), southwest of Adams on the Suwannee River.
Camp near Adams (1827), near Adams Spring (?), northwest of Ellaville on the Withlacoochee River.
Warner's Ferry Stockade (1835 ?), a plantation owner's stockade, located on the east side of the Withlacoochee River between Bellville and the Georgia border.
Fort Number 20 (E) (1839), five miles west of White Springs, on the south (east) bank of the Suwannee River.
Fort Page (date 2nd SW), near Wellborn.
Fort Eagle (date 2nd SW), ten miles southeast of Live Oak.
Post at Livingstone Ferry (1837) on the Suwannee River south of Ellaville, south of the I-10 bridge.
Post at Charles' Ferry (1842), about five miles south of Dowling Park near Charles' Spring. Fort Sherrard was located across the river (see page 4).
Fort Number 17 (E) (1839), north of Mayo, on the south (west) bank of the Suwannee River.
Fort Ward (1) (1835 or 1836), near Providence, on the east side of Olustee Creek near the Santa Fe River.
Fort Mills (1836), on the Santa Fe River south of Miller, ten miles north of Newnansville. Probably the same site as Fort Call (2). (correct location provided by Richard Thomas)
Fort Call (2) (1838), on the Santa Fe River southwest of Miller, four miles northwest of Worthington Springs, five miles east of Olustee Creek.
Fort Number 15 (E) (1839 - 1840), four miles northeast of Providence on Swift Creek, near Shaw's Still.
Fort Crabbe (date 2nd SW), on the New River near (north of ?) New River.
Fort Harlee (1837 - 1838), on the north bank of the Santa Fe River just west of the US 301 bridge, south of Hampton Lake. A stockade with two blockhouses and barracks.
Cantonment Winfield Scott (1841 - 1842), a Dragoon camp located one mile east of the "Natural Bridge" on the Santa Fe River (near High Springs ?).
Fort Newnansville (1835 - unknown), Newnansville (now Alachua). A refugee settlers' fort. Probably the fortified county courthouse, along with the county jail, which was converted into a blockhouse.
Fort Gilleland (1837 - 1838), Alachua. An Army post, possibly the same as above.
Fort Gillespie (unknown dates), three miles east of Alachua.
Fort Number 12 (E) (1839 - 1840), nine miles east of Alachua on the old "Bellamy Road".
Fort Hogtown (1817), Gainesville. A local militia fort located near present-day Westside Park at NW 8th Ave. and 34th Street.
Fort Tarver (1839), south of Gainesville at Payne's Prairie, on the north side of Alachua Lake below SE 15th Street (Robinson Heights).
Fort Nancy (1856 - 1858), south-side of Gainesville at Boulware Springs. A settlers' blockhouse built by Bud Higginbotham and named for his wife. Destroyed by Union troops in August 1864.
Fort Walker (1838 - 1841), southwest of Gainesville at Kanapaha Prairie. Originally named Fort Kanapaha. Built on site of 1835 battle. Attacked in January 1841.
Fort Wallabout (1839), south of Fort Walker.
Fort Crane (1830 - 1840), near Rochelle, at the head of the Lake Pithlochoco River. Originally a settlers' fort, garrisoned by Federal troops after 1837.
Fort Crum (1835 - 1840), six miles northwest of Micanopy, at the west-end of Paynes Prairie. Often misspelled Croom. A settlers' fort, also used by the militia, attacked in May 1840 with all but one defender killed.
Fort Waccahootee (1840 - 1842), Wacahoota.
Fort Micanopy (1835 - 1843), Micanopy. A FL militia fort originally known as Fort Defiance until rebuilt and renamed in late 1836 or early 1837 by Army troops. Also designated Fort Number Seven (E) in 1839. Battles occurred here in 1835, August 1836, and December 1840.
Fort Russell (2) (1839 - 1840), near Island Grove. Originally named Fort Number Six (E). (Possibly same as Fort Russell (3) in Marion County ?)
Fort White (1838 - 1842), about four miles west of the town of Fort White, on the south bank of the Santa Fe River. Abandoned due to poor health conditions. The town was founded in 1870 at its present location in Columbia County.
Fort Number 13 (E) (1839), at Blue Springs on the Santa Fe River west of High Springs. Also known as Blue Springs Fort.
Cantonment Dinkins (1826), a temporary camp on the east side of the Suwannee River near Little Lake City.
Fort Number Eight (E) (1839 - 1840, 1850's), later renamed Fort Waccasassa (2). A 250-foot by 350-foot stockade with a barracks, blockhouse, cookhouse, and blacksmith shop. Located seven miles north of Bronson, at the head of the Waccasassa River on the north bank of Station Pond. The post was re-occupied during the Third Seminole War. Also probably reused in the Civil War.
Fort Jennings (1838 ?), on the east bank of the Waccasassa River near Newton. Site located about three or four miles southeast of Fort Number Eight (E).
Clay Landing Blockhouse (1837), a settlers' (?) blockhouse located about ten miles south of Fort Fanning (2) on the Suwannee River near Manatee Springs.
Fort Wekiwa (date 2nd SW), located on Spring Creek (location ?), one mile above its mouth, within the Gulf Hammock. Probably near Gulf Hammock on the Wekiwa River, which was once known as Wekiwa.
Fort Clinch (2) (1836 - 1842), on the north bank of the Withlacoochee River, about halfway between Yankeetown and Crackertown. Burned by the Seminoles after it was abandoned.
Fort Number Three (E) (1839 - 1840), on Waccasassa Bay near the mouth of the Waccasassa River.
Fort Waccasassa (1) (1839 - 1843), on the west side of the mouth of the Waccasassa River.
Camp Izard (1836, intermittent to 1842), near Stokes Ferry, about 25 miles upriver from the mouth of the Withlacoochee River. A 250-yard square quadrangle enclosed by log breastworks. Attacked by Seminoles in March 1836. The post was occupied intermittently thereafter until 1842. Also sometimes referred to as Fort Izard. The actual site has been preserved as the "Camp Izard Historic Battlefield Preserve", one of the very few sites still remaining from this period in its virgin state.
Camp Graham (1836), a temporary FL militia encampment and supply depot near Dunnellon on the Withlacoochee River, located at the first shoals about 20 miles from its mouth.
Fort Hook (1839), near Cotton Plant. Originally named Fort Number Two (E). Site located off Needles Drive.
Fort King (1827 - 1829, 1832 - 1842), Ocala, located on a hill near SE 39th Ave. and East Fort King Street. Marker at site. Memorial plaque at cemetery site. Originally known as Cantonment King or Camp King (1) in 1827. Built one mile from the Seminole Indian Agency (1825). A log stockade with a 14-foot square blockhouse, barracks, two Officers' quarters, kitchen, mess hall, and a magazine. Attacked in December 1835. Abandoned and burned in the summer of 1836. Designated Fort Number One (E) in 1839. A battle occurred near here in May 1840. Became the county courthouse in 1844. Camp King (2) was located east of the fort in 1840.
Fort Duval (1826), Silver Springs. A temporary stockade, 140 feet by 130 feet, with crude lumber huts. Built one-quarter mile from the Seminole Indian Agency.
Fort Fowle (1839), a blockhouse protecting a bridge at the later-named Sharpe's Ferry (FL 314), east of Ocala on the east side of the Ocklawaha River.
Fort Connor (date 2nd SW), on or near the Ocklawaha River between Conner and Grahamsville.
Fort Wheelock (1840 - 1842), near the southwest shore of Orange Lake, near Orange Lake. Site located south of the Ocala Jai-Alai facility, south of FL 318 near an old quarry site.
Camp Smith (1) (unknown dates), located near Fort Drane.
Fort McKay (1838 or 1839), Fort McCoy. A stockaded fort with two blockhouses. Also spelled MacKay. (The name of the town was later altered)
Fort Number Five (E) (1839), four miles west of Lake Delancy, within the Ocala National Forest.
Fort Russell (3) (1839 - 1842), on the south side of Orange Creek, near Orange Springs. Attacked in July 1840 and March 1841.
NOTE: In 1839 during the Second Seminole War, General Zachary Taylor implemented a plan to divide East Florida into 18 or 20 mile squares with a 20-man garrison in the center of each. East Florida was divided in half, "Middle" Florida being between the Suwannee River and the Apalachicola River, and duplicate fort numbers were used in East (E) and "Middle" (M) Florida. The highest number recorded in East Florida was "21".
NEED MORE INFO: Undetermined locations in East Florida: Camp Hill (1842); CSA Camp Hunt (1862).
Unknown locations (may be located in another part of the state): Fort Brady (1839); CSA Camp Simkins (1863 - 1864); Fort Stanley (1839); Fort Wade (date ?).
Towns: Fort Union north of Live Oak, Suwannee County
QUESTIONS ? Please send any corrections and/or additions to this list to:
"Updates" at NorthAmericanForts.com