Western Florida

Fort Alaqua | Camp at Bluff Springs | Fort Chipola | Fort Crèvecouer | Cantonment Florida
Camp at Florida Point | Camp Gonzalez (2) | Fort Hodgson | D. Holmes' Fort | Fort Kirkland
Camp Lee | Leigh's Camp | Camp Lomax | Marianna Fort | Camp Marshall | Camp Milton (2)
Moreno Point Res. | Camp on Perdido Bay | Pine Barren Camp | Fort Place | Camp Powell
Camp Pringle | St. Andrews Res. (2) | Post at St. Andrew's Bay (1) | St. Andrew's Bay Fort (2)
St. Andrew's Sound Res. | Mission de San José de Escambe | Presidio de San José
Fort St. Joseph | St. Joseph's Bay Res. | Presidio de San José | Fort San José de Vallardes
Santa Rosa Radar Station | Spanish Stocado | Camp Walton | Fort Walton

Northeast Coast - page 1 | St. Johns River - page 2
Eastern Florida - page 3 | Middle Florida - page 4
Central Florida - page 5 | Southern Florida - page 6
Pensacola Bay - page 8

FLORIDA'S COASTAL MARITIME TRAIL - FORTS
FLORIDA'S PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVES
OLD FLORIDA MAPS
COASTAL FORTIFICATIONS PHOTO ARCHIVES

SPANISH FLORIDA 1513-1763

Last Update: 15/MARCH/2011
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2011 American Forts Network

Camp at Bluff Springs
(1814, 1862), Bluff Springs
One of General Andrew Jackson's encampment sites during the First Creek War of 1814.

A Confederate observation camp was established here after the evacuation of Pensacola.

Camp Pringle
(1862), near Bluff Springs
A CSA camp (1st Florida Regiment) located above Pensacola, established after the Union occupied the city in May 1862. Union troops soon after occupied the camp after all Confederate forces were found to have left the area for Tennessee. Pringle's Creek is known as Pritchett Mill Creek on modern maps.

Camp Lomax
(1864 ?), near Bluff Springs
A CSA camp for Alabama troops located above Pensacola.

Leigh's Camp
(1864), McDavid
A CSA picket post located on Leigh's Camp Branch of Mitchell Creek.

Pine Barren Camp
(1864), Pine Barren
A CSA picket post located northwest of the US 29 crossing of Pine Barren Creek.

Mission de San José de Escambe
(1741 - 1761), Molino
A Spanish Franciscan mission for the Apalachee Indians, located 28 miles north of Pensacola on the Escambia River. A Spanish 15-man cavalry barracks and stockaded horse corral were built in 1760 to protect the mission and Pensacola's northern frontier. Attacked and burned by Creek Indians in April 1761. The Apalachee survivors relocated to "Indian Town" near Presidio de San Miguel in Pensacola. The site, shown as "Spanish Stocado" on British maps, was excavated in 2009 - 2010 by the University of West Florida. Located just south of the Fairgrounds Road boat landing. Private property, no public access.

Camp Powell
(1864), Perdido River
A temporary CSA cavalry camp. Undetermined exact location.

Camp on Perdido Bay
(1861 - 1862 ?), near Gulf Beach
A CSA camp located one-half mile from the Gulf. It was found by Union troops in 1864 already abandoned.

Camp at Florida Point
(1865), near Gulf Beach
A Union camp built on the east side of Perdido Pass.

David Holmes' Fort
(1781), unknown location
A British settlers' stockaded plantation located 15 miles from Pensacola.

Camp Gonzalez (2)
(1864), Gonzalez
A CSA cavalry camp (7th Alabama Cavalry) located on the Gonzalez Farm, 15 miles north of Pensacola along the Pensacola Railroad near "15 Mile House". The Confederates also built a log blockhouse and earthwork named Fort Hodgson to defend the camp. The Union captured and destroyed both in July 1864.

Mission de Nuestra Señora de la Soledad y San Luís
(1718 - 1741 ?), near Riverview ?
A Spanish Franciscan mission for the Apalachee Indians, located on the Escambia River five Spanish leagues north of Pensacola (between 13-17 miles). It was not known to be fortified. Undetermined location.
* This entry is listed here for historical interest only. *

Camp Milton (2)
(1864), Milton
A CSA camp.


(For Pensacola Bay Defenses please see page 9)


Santa Rosa Radar Station
(1942 - 1945), Santa Rosa Island
A WWII anti-aircraft spotting station and an SCR-270 early warning radar was located here. Exact location undetermined.

Camp Lee
(1861), Santa Rosa Island ?
A CSA camp. Undetermined location. Possibly on the mainland in Santa Rosa County near present-day Fort Walton.

Fort Walton
(1835, 1842, 1861 - 1862), Fort Walton Beach
A Seminole War fort (name ?) was supposedly located here in 1835 and 1842.

CSA Camp Walton was built in 1861 on and around the Indian burial mound to cover the "Narrows", the eastern entrance to Santa Rosa Sound. Abandoned after Pensacola was retaken by the Union in May 1862. The town was settled in 1868, originally known as Brooks' Landing, then Camp Walton in 1911. A Civil War cannon was recovered from one of the Indian mounds in 1932, now on display, which prompted the renaming of the town from Camp Walton to Fort Walton. Of interest is the Indian Temple Mound Museum at 139 Miracle Strip Parkway SE (US 98), part of the Fort Walton Beach Heritage Park and Cultural Center, which features a recreated wooden temple on the mound.

Moreno Point Military Reservation
(1842 - unknown), near Destin
A proposed gun battery location. Later became a summer campsite for Fort Benning, GA troops in the 1920's and 1930's. Site was still active in WWII.

Marianna Fort
(1864), Marianna
A CSA work defending the town, built by Union POW labor. Captured and destroyed by the Union in September 1864. See also Battle of Marianna by Dale Cox.

St. Andrew's Sound Military Reservation (1)
(1819 - 1920's ?), near Panama City
Proposed locations for gun batteries were included on Hurricane (Shell) Island, St. Andrew's Island, and Crooked Island. Still active in WWI.

St. Andrew's Bay Fort (2)
(1861 - 1863), Panama City
A Confederate post protecting a saltworks. Destroyed by the Union in 1863. The town was then known as St. Andrew's.


¤¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of PANAMA CITY

¤¤ St. Andrews Military Reservation (2)
(St. Andrews State Park)
(1943 - 1944), near Biltmore Beach
Two 155mm guns on 180-degree Panama mounts were once located here. One mount still exists, converted to an observation deck in the park. One WWII era building still exists. The park opened in 1951.
(info provided by Bill Gaines of the Coast Defense Study Group)


St. Joseph's Bay Forts
(History of St. Joseph's Bay Forts)
(1701 - 1704, 1718 - 1723), near Beacon Hill FORT WIKI
Spanish Fort San José de Vallardes (1701 - 1704) was first located near Beacon Hill on the mainland, with an outpost at the end of the spit of St. Joseph Peninsula. It was abandoned after attacks in the area by the British. A Spanish expedition in 1705 found the post deserted. The French then built Fort Crèvecouer, a stockade with four bastions, with 50 men, on the mainland near here in May 1718, but were forced to leave by the Spanish in August 1718, who then occupied the abandoned fort. The Spanish then built Presidio de San José (1719 - 1723), garrisoned by 12 men, at the end of the peninsula, after Pensacola was captured again by the French. Abandoned for good by the Spanish in 1723, who then returned to Pensacola.


¤¤¤ TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of PORT ST. JOE

¤¤¤ St. Joseph's Bay Military Reservation
(St. Joseph Peninsula State Park)
(1943 - 1944/1963 ?), near Port St. Joe
Two 155mm guns were planned for this location, but this defense was never officially activated. Panama mounts were never built. Mobile infantry units were posted here for beach defense. St. Joseph's Bay was used as a Harbor of Refuge during the early part of the war. The peninsula was later used for Army gunnery and bombing practice, and other training exercises until the mid 1960's. Became a state park in 1967. A large camp area and bulldozed roads are still evident within the Wilderness Preserve.
(info provided by Bill Gaines of the CDSG)


Seminole Wars Forts
(includes those forts and posts not already listed above)
Tour of Florida Territory During the Seminole Wars by Chris Kimball

Escambia County:
Camp Marshall (1814), Escambia River. A supply depot during the First Creek War. (May be located in Santa Rosa County)
Cantonment Florida (1814, 1821), Cantonment. Encampment site used by General Andrew Jackson during the First Creek War, and also again before the Spanish cession of West Florida.

Okaloosa County:
Fort Kirkland (1830's ?), located five miles north of Crestview. Most likely a settlers' fort.

Walton County:
Fort Alaqua (1836), a FL militia blockhouse one mile south of Portland on Alaqua Creek, used in the Second Creek War.

Bay County:
Post at St. Andrew's Bay (1) (1839), Panama City. The settlement was then known as St. Andrew's.

Calhoun County:
Fort Chipola (1841 - 1842), near Chipola, on the east side of the Chipola River.

Gulf County:
Fort Place (1830), a settlers' blockhouse within a two-acre stockade at Wewahitchka. Marker located about one mile south of town on FL 71.
Fort St. Joseph (1835 - 1841 ?), Port St. Joe. Dismantled after a yellow fever epidemic in 1841. What remained of the post was destroyed by a hurricane in 1844. A lighthouse was in operation at the tip of the spit from 1839 - 1847, and was destroyed by an 1851 hurricane.


Northeast Coast - page 1 | St. Johns River - page 2 | Eastern Florida - page 3
Middle Florida - page 4 | Central Florida - page 5 | Southern Florida - page 6
Pensacola Bay - page 8

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